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Separated isotopes: vital tools for science and medicine

Description: Deliberations and conclusions of a Workshop on Stable Isotopes and Derived Radioisotopes organized by the Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the National Research Council's Committee on Chemical Sciences at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) are summarized. The workshop was jointly supported by the National Institutes of Health and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. An overview with three recommendations resulting from the Workshop is followed by reports of the four Workshop panels. Background papers were prepared by individuals on the Steering Committee and made available to all participants prior to the Workshop. They are reproduced as Appendixes 3 to 8. Short reports on alternate separation techniques were presented at the Workshop and are reproduced in Appendixes 9 to 11.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAC calorimeters and applications

Description: The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Collaboration, MAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced oil recovery by improved waterflooding. Fourth annual report, October 1980-September 1981. [Illinois]

Description: Energy Resourcs Co. Inc., and its subcontractor Elf Aquitaine Oil and Gas Company are conducting a 100-acre pilot polymer flood in the Storms Pool Field near Carmi, in White County, Illinois. The project is a cost-sharing venture with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Preparation for the polymer flood began in September 1977, and the project is scheduled for completion in December 1983. This report reviews progress during the fourth year of performance (October 1980 through September 1981). The Storms Pool, once highly productive, has yielded over 12 million barrels of oil from the Waltersburg formation since its discovery in 1939. The field has been waterflooded for over 20 years and is now largely in stripper production with high watercuts at most producing wells. Material balance and recent electric logs indicate, however, that there is a substantial volume of movable oil still in place, presumably bypassed by the inefficient waterflood. The polymer flood is intended to improve the sweep efficiency, showing that the engineering, management, and financial resources required for such tertiary techniques can be applied to similar fields that might otherwise be abandoned for lack of investment by parties knowledgeable in enhanced oil technology. Preflush injection and polymer injection were both initiated during this period with total polymer injection now standing at 179,453 barrels (or about 6% pore volume). Laboratory testing has continued throughout the year with the emphasis being on field support (troubleshooting field problems and monitoring the field injection and production systems). No evidence of polymer break-through has been detected at the production wells. Details of the interference testing program and the radiotracer study executed during this period are also presented.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Craig, F.F. III; Passman, F.J. & Burtch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

Description: Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W. & Tobias, C.a.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Place of HgI/sub 2/ energy-dispersive x-ray detectors

Description: After a review of solid-state conduction counters, in general, and of the history of mercuric iodide, in particular, the theory of operation of solid-state energy-dispersive HgI/sub 2/ detectors is dicusssed. The main factors which limit energy resolution in solid-state compound detectors are considered, including statistical fluctuations in charge generation, the window effect, trapping, inhomogeneities in the detector material, and electronic noise. Potential applications of room-temperature HgI/sub 2/ x-ray detectors are listed, and general considerations are discussed for x-ray fluorescence analysis with HgI/sub 2/. Directions of current investigations are given. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Dabrowski, A.J.; Huth, G.C.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Kusmiss, J.H.; Barton, J.S.; Szymczyk, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-powered car. Final report

Description: The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)
Date: March 30, 1982
Creator: Plank, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references]

Description: Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Selvidge, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for Medical Technology Assessment

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the present system of identifying and testing medical technologies and of synthesizing and disseminating assessment information" (p. iii).
Date: September 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-evaluation applications for covariance matrices

Description: The possibility for application of covariance matrix techniques to a variety of common research problems other than formal data evaluation are demonstrated by means of several examples. These examples deal with such matters as fitting spectral data, deriving uncertainty estimates for results calculated from experimental data, obtaining the best values for plurally-measured quantities, and methods for analysis of cross section errors based on properties of the experiment. The examples deal with realistic situations encountered in the laboratory, and they are treated in sufficient detail to enable a careful reader to extrapolate the methods to related problems.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments with highly ionized low-energy tandem accel-decel beams

Description: The present status of the production of low-energy highly ionized beams by the 4-stage tandem accel-decel method is surveyed, and their use in three atomic physics experiments is summarized. The experiments are: the measurement of the charge state dependence of K-x-ray production in S/sup +q/-Ar collisions at 10 MeV, the impact-parameter dependence of quasimolecular x rays in S/sup +15/-Ar collisions again at 10 MeV, and the determination of charge transfer cross sections in S/sup +q/ + Ar, He collisions. The results of the three experiments give evidence that the 4-stage accel-decel ion production technique is extremely powerful and useful.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Da-Hai, W.; Thieberger, P.; Barrette, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

Description: In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cohn, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

Description: Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Chu, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

Description: A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W. & Stovall, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic systems and applications

Description: Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of a state-of-the-art model in generic designs of shallow land repositories for low-level wastes. [Code creams]

Description: A state of the art model is described for simulating hydrologic and soil erosion processes at shallow land waste disposal sites. Applications of the model in waste site selection and in the management of waste disposal sites are discussed relative to minimizing soil erosion of trench caps and percolation of soil water through trench caps into underlying buried wastes.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Nyhan, J.W. & Lane, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the FMIT accelerator

Description: The linear accelerator being designed and constructed for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility also has great utility as an R and D program that will provide operating information on large, continuous-wave, high-intensity particle accelerators now being considered for various applications, including electronuclear breeding for fuel, power, or tritium production. A 5-MeV FMIT prototype accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos, with operation to 2 MeV planned in early 1983.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Jameson, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981

Description: The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Lunis, B.C. & Toth, W.J. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microprocessors in detectors and analysis

Description: The increasing need in high energy physics experiments for computation power for both online and offline applications, coupled with the current microprocessor revolution, has led to the examination of the use of microprocessors in various aspects of HEP computing. A brief (and admittedly somewhat biased) review is given of current hardware products, the costs of developing and producing hardware systems, and the costs of providing appropriate software support tools which allow one to make effective use of physicists' time, and the applicability of certain systems to the various needs of HEP computing.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Siskind, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

Description: In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cohn, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apparatus for dynamic measurement of gases released from materials heated under programmed temperature-time control

Description: This apparatus, a prototype of one being constructed for hotcell examination of irradiated nuclear materials, measures dynamic release rates and integrated volumes of individual gases from materials heated under controlled temperature-time programs. It consists of an inductively heated vacuum furnace connected to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A computerized control system with data acquisition provides scanning rates down to 1s and on-line tabular and graphic displays. Heating rates are up to 1300/sup 0/C/min to a maximum temperature of 2000/sup 0/C. The measurement range is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ torr-liter/s for H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/, and CO and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ torr-liter/s for He, Kr, and Xe. Applications are described for measurements of Kr and Xe in mixed oxide fuel, various gases in UO/sub 2/ pellets, and He in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ power and heat sources.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Early, J.W. & Abernathey, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lasers in chemical processing

Description: The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).
Date: April 15, 1982
Creator: Davis, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-atom detection and statistical studies with resonance ionization spectroscopy

Description: To learn how to take matter apart atom-by-atom and to count each atom according to its type, regardless of its initial chemical or physical state, is presumably a worthy goal in scientific research. The advent of the laser created real hope that these aspirations will be realized. The counting of atoms is not merely an intellectual exercise set apart from real-world applications. On the contrary, even though the capability is scarcely more than five years old, practical applications have been made in many fields of chemistry, physics, the environment, and industry. In this lecture we wish to review how the laser made possible the counting of atoms and how this capability has been put to use in situations where atoms are free to react chemically as they diffuse through a medium. Fluctuation phenomena and statistical mechanics can also be examined in these situations.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Payne, M.G. & Hurst, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paraho environmental data. Part IV. Land reclamation and revegetation. Part V. Biological effects. Part VI. Occupational health and safety. Part VII. End use

Description: Characteristics of the environment and ecosystems at Anvil Points, reclamation of retorted shale, revegetation of retorted shale, and ecological effects of retorted shale are reported in the first section of this report. Methods used in screening shale oil and retort water for mutagens and carcinogens as well as toxicity studies are reported in the second section of this report. The third section contains information concerning the industrial hygiene and medical studies made at Anvil Points during Paraho research operations. The last section discusses the end uses of shale crude oil and possible health effects associated with end use. (DMC)
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Limbach, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

Description: The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Miller, M.E. & Donivan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department