56 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Separated isotopes: vital tools for science and medicine

Description: Deliberations and conclusions of a Workshop on Stable Isotopes and Derived Radioisotopes organized by the Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the National Research Council's Committee on Chemical Sciences at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) are summarized. The workshop was jointly supported by the National Institutes of Health and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. An overview with three recommendations resulting from the Workshop is followed by reports of the four Workshop panels. Background papers were prepared by individuals on the Steering Committee and made available to all participants prior to the Workshop. They are reproduced as Appendixes 3 to 8. Short reports on alternate separation techniques were presented at the Workshop and are reproduced in Appendixes 9 to 11.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAC calorimeters and applications

Description: The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Collaboration, MAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced oil recovery by improved waterflooding. Fourth annual report, October 1980-September 1981. [Illinois]

Description: Energy Resourcs Co. Inc., and its subcontractor Elf Aquitaine Oil and Gas Company are conducting a 100-acre pilot polymer flood in the Storms Pool Field near Carmi, in White County, Illinois. The project is a cost-sharing venture with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Preparation for the polymer flood began in September 1977, and the project is scheduled for completion in December 1983. This report reviews progress during the fourth year of performance (October 1980 through September 1981). The Storms Pool, once highly productive, has yielded over 12 million barrels of oil from the Waltersburg formation since its discovery in 1939. The field has been waterflooded for over 20 years and is now largely in stripper production with high watercuts at most producing wells. Material balance and recent electric logs indicate, however, that there is a substantial volume of movable oil still in place, presumably bypassed by the inefficient waterflood. The polymer flood is intended to improve the sweep efficiency, showing that the engineering, management, and financial resources required for such tertiary techniques can be applied to similar fields that might otherwise be abandoned for lack of investment by parties knowledgeable in enhanced oil technology. Preflush injection and polymer injection were both initiated during this period with total polymer injection now standing at 179,453 barrels (or about 6% pore volume). Laboratory testing has continued throughout the year with the emphasis being on field support (troubleshooting field problems and monitoring the field injection and production systems). No evidence of polymer break-through has been detected at the production wells. Details of the interference testing program and the radiotracer study executed during this period are also presented.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Craig, F.F. III; Passman, F.J. & Burtch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

Description: Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W. & Tobias, C.a.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Place of HgI/sub 2/ energy-dispersive x-ray detectors

Description: After a review of solid-state conduction counters, in general, and of the history of mercuric iodide, in particular, the theory of operation of solid-state energy-dispersive HgI/sub 2/ detectors is dicusssed. The main factors which limit energy resolution in solid-state compound detectors are considered, including statistical fluctuations in charge generation, the window effect, trapping, inhomogeneities in the detector material, and electronic noise. Potential applications of room-temperature HgI/sub 2/ x-ray detectors are listed, and general considerations are discussed for x-ray fluorescence analysis with HgI/sub 2/. Directions of current investigations are given. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Dabrowski, A.J.; Huth, G.C.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Kusmiss, J.H.; Barton, J.S.; Szymczyk, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-powered car. Final report

Description: The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)
Date: March 30, 1982
Creator: Plank, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references]

Description: Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Selvidge, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for Medical Technology Assessment

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the present system of identifying and testing medical technologies and of synthesizing and disseminating assessment information" (p. iii).
Date: September 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-evaluation applications for covariance matrices

Description: The possibility for application of covariance matrix techniques to a variety of common research problems other than formal data evaluation are demonstrated by means of several examples. These examples deal with such matters as fitting spectral data, deriving uncertainty estimates for results calculated from experimental data, obtaining the best values for plurally-measured quantities, and methods for analysis of cross section errors based on properties of the experiment. The examples deal with realistic situations encountered in the laboratory, and they are treated in sufficient detail to enable a careful reader to extrapolate the methods to related problems.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments with highly ionized low-energy tandem accel-decel beams

Description: The present status of the production of low-energy highly ionized beams by the 4-stage tandem accel-decel method is surveyed, and their use in three atomic physics experiments is summarized. The experiments are: the measurement of the charge state dependence of K-x-ray production in S/sup +q/-Ar collisions at 10 MeV, the impact-parameter dependence of quasimolecular x rays in S/sup +15/-Ar collisions again at 10 MeV, and the determination of charge transfer cross sections in S/sup +q/ + Ar, He collisions. The results of the three experiments give evidence that the 4-stage accel-decel ion production technique is extremely powerful and useful.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Da-Hai, W.; Thieberger, P.; Barrette, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

Description: In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cohn, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

Description: Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Chu, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Bromine-77 from the LAMPF facility

Description: The objective of the work is to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of bromine-77 labelled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. The synthetic goals of the project are to prepose estradiol derivatives which are labelled with bromine-77 at specific positions in the steroid nucleus. In addition, animal studies imaging studies, and cooperative studies are being conducted. (KJD)
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Mettler, F.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

Description: Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: English, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance modeling in the design process

Description: Here, in capsule form, are some lessons learned trying to integrate performance modeling into the design process. Performance modeling should play a central role in system design; ignore it at your peril. The role of performance modeling is not the same in all design projects. Clearly specify performance goals and what factors will affect performance; they try to model those factors. Obtaining the data for the models can be a major problem; ongoing measurement projects are always worthwhile. Prototypes can be valuable data gathering tools if they are instrumented for this purpose. Anticipate the effect of environment on the system you are designing, and the effects of the system on the environment. Including the performance analyst on the design team from the beginning; if he is perceived as an outsider, he is more likely to be ignored, especially if decisions have already been made.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Alexander, W. & Brice, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Green's function method to some nonlinear problems of an electron storage ring: Part 2, Checking the method by a quadrupole perturbation

Description: In the first part of this work I described a general approach to some storage ring problems. The basic concept and the main equations were developed there. The next natural step in this work should be an application of the developed technique to some particular nonlinear problem. Instead, I found it useful to apply the method to the case of a field gradient perturbation first. This happened to be plausible not only as a check of the method, but, more importantly, as a way to resolve several troublesome difficulties encountered in subsequent calculations. The present note does not contain any new results. Still, the work is felt to be necessary as a support for all the future applications of the method. I consider here the effect of a global gradient error in a weak-focusing machine and the effect of a local gradient error in a strong focusing machine. The distribution function of a particle bunch for a perturbed lattice in these cases can be written explicitly. The expansion of this distribution function as a series perturbation terms produces the first and the second order corrections to the unperturbed function. From them we calculate, then, corresponding second moments. A similar expansion of the distribution function is found by the Green's function method described of this work. The second moments are found independently with the help of this distribution function. The comparison of these two results is one way to check the method and the correctness of the calculations. This comparison is done for the first and second order perturbations. 4 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Kheifets, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of nitrogen laser for observation of space-charge effects in drift chambers

Description: A two-stage nitrogen laser has been built and is presently being used to investigate properties of drift chambers. In this paper we present the measured parameters of this laser, the results of a study of the double track separation in a drift chamber of jet design and a measurement of the saturation effects in this chamber as a function of total gain. An understanding of the saturation effects is important for drift chambers with multiple hit capability. The laser technique reported here represents a major improvement in the simplicity of investigation of the double track separation and saturation effects.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Va'vra, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotron-radiation research

Description: The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cunningham, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the 2nd European conference on computer-aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD 82)

Description: A summary is presented of the 2nd European conference on computer aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD82) held in Paris, France, September 21-23, 1982. The conference emphasized applications of CAD in industries with limited investment resources and which are forced to innovate in order to sustain competition.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Magnuson, W.G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BGO in several satellite-borne applications. [Bismuth germanate scintillator]

Description: An experiment is being prepared to be flown on a NASA/NOAA TIROS satellite. Named DOEE-1 (Department of Energy Experiment), it will carry a segmented 2.7'' x 3'' BGO (Bismuth Germanate) scintillator. Sufficient telemetry will be provided to evaluate the performance exhaustively during a long exposure in space. Another instrument including a BGO scintillator, named SEE (Spectrometer for Energetic Electrons), has been operating at synchronous altitude since 1979, providing measurements of electron fluxes at 2.5 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 9 MeV. Unfortunately, the data are not suitable for a critical evaluation of the BGO scintillator performance, since scintillator response is not directly monitored.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Klebesadel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positron-annihilation spectroscopy of defects in metals: an assessment

Description: Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has made significant contributions to our knowledge regarding lattice defects in metals in two areas: (i) the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and (ii) the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation of post-quench annealing. The application of PAS to the study of defects in metals is selectively reviewed and critically assessed within the context of other available techniques for such investigations. Possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the structure of atomic defects are discussed. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals are considered relative to other available techniques. 92 references, 20 figures.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Siegel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mini-MCA: an intelligent inspection instrument

Description: The small portable multichannel analyzer (Mini-MCA) designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an intelligent safeguards instrument developed for the IAEA under the United States Aid Program. The Mini-MCA is a basic 1-k channel MCA that features a high degree of user friendliness and portability. Its history, use, and future applications are discussed. 5 figures, 3 tables.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Halbig, J.K. & Klosterbuer, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

Description: A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W. & Stovall, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department