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Incumbent Response to Radical Technological Innovation: the Influence of Competitive Dynamics on Strategic Choice

Description: Prior research on incumbent firm response to radical technological innovation identifies firm, technology, and environmental factors associated with incumbents’ performance after a technology shift. What remains unexplored are factors affecting choice of response made before a technological shift occurs. Such ex ante choices are important intermediate outcomes affecting long-term performance outcomes. Competitive considerations may be influential inputs in choice processes because technological innovation is often related to competitive strategy. The resulting research question for this study is: What role do competitive considerations play in incumbent firms’ ex ante strategic choices in response to potentially radical technological innovations? Findings from a survey of key informants in the electronics industry whose firms face a potential technological disruption (n=120) suggest that incumbents’ response choices are affected by competitor-related orientations and by perceptions of relative strength of their strategic assets. Limited support is found for a moderating effect of perceptions of the competitive environment. The results of this study extend theory on incumbent response to radical technological change by shedding light on the influence of competitor interdependence. Findings also suggest the importance of strategic choice as an intermediate variable in understanding incumbents’ long-term performance. Research examining choice factors at varied stages of a technology’s diffusion can further advance understanding of the evolving nature of strategic response choices and the effects they have on long-term performance.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Carter, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An empirical investigation of manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance as moderated by strategic integration and organizational infrastructure.

Description: The purpose of this study is empirically investigating four research questions related to manufacturing flexibility. 1) What are the components of manufacturing flexibility? 2) Is there a relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? 3) Do integrated strategies strengthen the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? 4) Are there organizational characteristics that strengthen the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? This study used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from manufacturing organizations in multiple industries. Organizational performance was quantified using common manufacturing measures. Strategic integration and organizational infrastructure were also measured. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression were used to analyze the data. The results indicate the variables and expected relationships exist as hypothesized. This study contributes to the manufacturing flexibility body of knowledge by identifying relationships between the manufacturing flexibility component, performance, strategic integration, and organizational infrastructure. The instrument development in this study is of particular value as there are few rigorously developed and validated instruments to measure the manufacturing flexibility components and performance. Understanding these relationships will help practitioners make better decisions in manufacturing organizations as well as enable application of the concepts in this study to other contexts such as service organizations.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Rogers, Pamela Rose Patterson
Partner: UNT Libraries

The role of strategy in the innovation process: A stage approach.

Description: Organizational innovation has been of central interest in recent years because of its importance for organizational survival and competitive advantage. Researchers in the field have divided the innovation process into stages in an attempt to understand the innovation process and the factors that affect it. However, empirical studies that examine the relationship between the stages are scarce. In addition, although business strategy is emphasized as an important factor in the innovation process, little is known about its role in the innovation process and its effect on the stages. This research provides empirical support for the relationship between the stages of the innovation process and the moderating effect of organizational strategy on the relationship between the stages within the two stage model of innovation. In this study, a direct, positive relationship is proposed between the innovation generation (first stage) and innovation outcome (second stage) stages of the innovation process. Dimensions of innovation outcome that are examined include innovation type (product innovation and process innovation), innovation radicalness and innovation frequency. Low cost, differentiation and market orientation strategies are proposed to be moderators on the relationship between the stages. To test the proposed relationships, a survey was mailed to executives who are involved in the innovation process in organizations where innovation is expected to be common and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Hierarchical regression was the primary data analysis method and General Linear Model was applied as the pot-hoc data analysis method. Results of the primary data analyses provided support for the direct, positive relationship between the innovation generation and innovation outcome stages of the innovation process. Specifically, there was a direct, positive relationship between innovation generation and product innovation, process innovation, innovation frequency and innovation radicalness. Result of the primary data analysis provided support for the moderating effect of strategy ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Goktan, Ayse Banu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Explicating the Managerial Processes of Dynamic Capabilities and Investigating How the Reconceptualized Construct Influences the Alignment of Ordinary Capabilities

Description: In the last three decades, strategic management scholars have explored the organization’s need to reconfigure its capabilities to leverage opportunities in a changing environment. The first objective of this study was to identify the underlying elements of the managerial processes of dynamic capabilities, and to offer a reconceptualization of the dynamic capabilities construct. The second objective of this investigation was to determine how the reconceptualized dynamic capabilities construct could influence the alignment of ordinary capabilities. Findings from this investigation indicate that organizational processes and managerial processes are unique components of dynamic capabilities. In addition, these organizational processes were found to be significantly and positively correlated with the alignment of ordinary capabilities. Furthermore, managerial processes were found to moderate the relationship between organizational processes and one type of ordinary capability alignment (i.e. innovation-operations capability alignment). Taken together, the findings of this study support the notion that dynamic capabilities are context specific, and that understanding how they influence the organization’s ability to change is complex. The developments and findings in this study offer a reconceptualized and empirically tested framework for the capability alignment process, thereby providing a more comprehensive picture of the underlying processes.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Davis, Phillip E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Environmental Scanning Practices of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine scanning practices in a developing country by looking at the scanning behavior of executives of Nigerian manufacturing firms. Specifically, this study examined the decision maker's perception of environmental uncertainty (PEU), the frequency and degree of interest with which decision makers scan each sector of the environment, the frequency of use of various sources of information, the number of organizational adjustments made in response to actions of environmental groups, and the obstacles encountered in collecting information from the environment.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Sawyerr, Olukemi Olaitan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic Reorientation in the Computer Software and Furniture Industries: a Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Description: Insufficient literature exists in the area of incremental and revolutionary change to explain and predict the convergence and reorientation phenomena happening in organizations. The process of strategic reorientation involves the internal organizational complexities of fast-paced (within two years) changes in competitive strategy as a necessary condition coupled with changes in at least two of organization structure, power distribution, and control systems. Antecedent forces believed to influence the discontinuous change process include industry sales turbulence, structural inertia/firm size, firm past financial performance, CEO turnover, top management team turnover, management team heterogeneity, management environmental awareness, and external attributions for negative financial performance. Punctuated equilibrium was the foundational theory for this study in which a strategic reorientation model published in Strategic Management Journal was reconstructed. The research question was: What seem to be the significant time-based antecedent forces or conditions that lead to strategic reorientation? The study used two hierarchical logit regression models to analyze data gathered from COMPUSTAT PC Industrial Data Base and Compact Disclosure (CD-ROM) over the years 1987-1993 from the turbulent computer software and stable furniture industries. Qualitative data were found in 10-K reports and President's Letters in Annual Reports filed with the SEC and available on Laserdisclosure. The sample, exclusive of 3 multivariate outliers, included 74 software firms and 43 furniture firms for a pooled total of 117 firms. When separate industries were analyzed using the first of the Systat logit hierarchical regressions, results showed no statistically significant effects. By contrast, when data were pooled, the second hierarchical logit regression model, which included industry turbulence and firm size, showed these one-tailed statistically significant results: strategic reorientation is positively affected by prior industry turbulence and CEO turnover, but is negatively affected by prior top management team turnover and the interaction between industry turbulence and external attributions for negative financial performance.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Gordon, Shelley S. (Shelley Sampson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Empirical Investigation of Personal and Situational Factors That Relate to the Formation of Entrepreneurial Intentions

Description: New entrepreneurial organizations emerge as a result of careful thought and action. Therefore, entrepreneurship may be considered an example of planned behavior. Previous research suggests that intentions are the single best predictor of planned behavior. Given the significance of intentions, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur and perceived environmental factors, and entrepreneurial intentions.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Summers, David F. (David Frederic), 1948-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategy, Structure, and Performance of U.S.-Based Multinational Organizations: A Fit Theory Study

Description: The research question addressed by the study asks, "Is international integration strategic and departmental structural fit a predictor of performance in U.S.-based, single-business multinational organizations?" The study is designed to extend existing research in international integration strategy, which is often called "global strategy," "globalization," or "internationalization" in the popular press and academic research literature.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Blackwell, Rodney D. (Rodney Dean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Linkage of Business and Manufacturing Strategies as a Determinant of Enterprise Performance: an Empirical Study in the Textile Industry

Description: The main question in this study was: do business units that exhibit a "linkage" or "fit" between their business strategy and manufacturing strategy variables, outperform competitors who lack such a fit? This exploratory research focused on two business strategies: cost leadership and differentiation. Based on existing literature, twenty-four hypotheses concerning the relationship between business strategy and selected manufacturing strategy variables were developed. The manufacturing executives of eighty-eight broadwoven cotton fabric mills (SIC 2211) were surveyed using a qualitative questionnaire. Two sets of comparisons were made between the manufacturing strategy variables of the sampled firms: first, high vs. low performers pursuing cost leadership strategy; and second, high vs. low performers focusing on differentiation strategy. Within each set of comparisons, high performers reported linkage between their business strategies and selected manufacturing strategy variables. This study re-affirms the importance of linking business strategy with manufacturing strategy variables as a forceful weapon for overcoming competition.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Kassaee, Massoud
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic International Human Resource Management: an Analysis of the Relationship between International Strategic Positioning and the Degree of Integrated Strategic Human Resource Management

Description: In Strategic International Human Resource Management (SIHRM), the human resource function is actively involved in the strategic activities of the firm. While the idea holds promise as a useful response to global competition, previous research has provided limited supporting empirical evidence. Specifically, few studies have sought to equate certain outcomes with the degree of SIHRM practiced across various types of international firms. By separating firms into categories such as multidomestic, global, and hybrid, and by classifying SIHRM according to the degree of integration with strategic planning, a clearer picture could emerge as to the relationship between firm and SIHRMtype. To that end, top strategic executives, such as CEOs, and top HRM executives from eighty four U.S. based firms were surveyed regarding their firm type, the degree of SIHRM practiced, and certain outcomes such as amount of expatriate training and expatriate failure. Additionally, financial results were obtained to determine performance of various firms. Results indicated that while many companies choose a highly integrated formof SIHRM, there is no significant relationship between firm type and SIHRMtype. Additionally, there was no association detected between SIHRMtype and expatriate training and expatriate failure. Finally, there was no significant difference infinancialperformance between firms with the most integrated type of SIHRMand firms with less integrated versions. Interestingly, the HRMprofessionals were more likely to equate their firms with the most integrated types of SIHRMthan were other managers. This may mean that the relationship between HRM and strategic planning is often one of perception. A model of the relationships between SIHRM, firm type, HRM activities, and outcomes is proposed, along with suggestions for future research and limitations of the study.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Steingruber, William G. (William George)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants of Small Firm Performance: the Importance of Selected Managerial Personality Traits, Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Scanning Activities, and Managerial Goal Setting Activities

Description: Much of the previous research on organizational performance deals with the larger businesses. As such, the owner/managers of small firms and researchers interested in small businesses have had to work with planning models which were not formulated with small businesses in mind. Therefore, the general purpose of this study is to help correct this deficiency and add to the body of knowledge concerning the contributions specific factors make toward increasing the performance of small firms. Specifically, selected managerial personality traits, managerial perceived environmental uncertainty, managerial scanning habits, and managerial goal setting activities are utilized to develop three models. The three models are used to determine the relationship the factors have to each other and the contribution the variables make toward the performance of the firm. The firms included in this study are located in a South Central metropolitan area. The firms have between 2 and 100 employees, sales of less than 3 million dollars, and have been in operation 2 years or longer. This study utilizes regression analysis and path analysis to determine the effects the factors have on each other and their contribution to the firm's performance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSx) is utilized to run the regression analysis. An Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood (LISREL) is utilized for the path analysis. Using path analysis, the third model demonstrates a total coefficient of determination for structural equations of 0.09. However, only two of the four factors have a t value of 2.0 or greater. The study also indicates the personality trait of dogmatism is inversely related to managerial scanning -.349 p <.01. Perceived environmental uncertainty is negatively correlated to performance at -.215 p <.05. None of the remaining factors demonstrated significant relationship to the firm's performance.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Walker, Jim L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Trends in Strategic Planning in Private Social Service Agencies: A Test of the Ramanujam and Venkatraman Planning Model

Description: This study modified the Ramanujam and Venkatraman (1987) questionnaire that was used to develop their model of planning system dimensions and planning effectiveness, and tested the model on a sample of private social service agencies. The criterion measures were level of planning sophistication, agency size, perceived environmental uncertainty, and relative competitive position. The sample was randomly drawn from private social service agencies which were members of the Community Council of Greater Dallas. Telephone interviews with fifty executive directors were conducted by a trained, impartial interviewer. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to predict group membership between informal and formal planners. Of the nine dimensions in the model, three dimensions correctly classified 84 percent of the sample. The three dimensions were fulfillment of planning objectives, use of decision making techniques, and lack of resistance to planning. The level of perceived environmental uncertainty was another criterion set. Directors who perceived high uncertainty paid more attention to the external environment, used more decision making techniques, and relied on functional specialists when planning. Large and small agencies were classified by their annual budgets. Stepwise discriminant analysis using the planning system dimensions failed to reject the null hypothesis. Agencies reporting strong relative competitive positions placed greater emphasis on seeking information for planning from external sources. These agencies also reported less resistance for planning within their organizations, fulfillment of more planning objectives, and a flexible planning system. The discriminant analysis correctly classifed 74 percent of the sample. Finally, the study provided some baseline information on the use of planning techniques by private social service agencies. Just over half of the sample reported having written strategic plans covering at least three years.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Gilbertson, Diana L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Post-Implementation Evaluation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems

Description: The purposes of this dissertation were to define enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, assess the varying performance benefits flowing from different ERP system implementation statuses, and investigate the impact of critical success factors (CSFs) on the ERP system deployment process. A conceptual model was developed and a survey instrument constructed to gather data for testing the hypothesized model relationships. Data were collected through a cross-sectional field study of Indian production firms considered pioneers in understanding and implementing ERP systems. The sample data were drawn from a target population of 900 firms belonging to the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The production firms in the CII member directory represent a well-balanced mix of firms of different sizes, production processes, and industries. The conceptual model was tested using factor analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and univariate Anova. The results indicate that the contributions of different ERP system modules vary with different measures of changes in performance and that a holistic ERP system contributes to performance changes. The results further indicate that the contributions of CSFs vary with different measures of changes in performance and that CSFs and the holistic ERP system influences the success achieved from deployments. Also, firms that emphasize CSFs throughout the ERP implementation process achieve greater performance benefits as compared to those that focus on CSFs during the initial ERP system deployment. Overall, the results of the study support the relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Madapusi, ArunKumar
Partner: UNT Libraries