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Final Report for Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-97ER45666 ?Interface Diffusion and Deep Level Formation of SiC and Other Wide Gap Materials?

Description: This final report describes the research effort focusing on the nature of charge transfer and localized electronic structure at semiconductor interfaces, one of the most fundamental issues in the solid state. The basic charge exchange between two materials in general is directly connected with the systematic atomic bonding changes and redistribution that occurs at the nanoscale interface. Our programhas extended our understanding of the atomic-scale nature of electrostatic barrier formation, heterojunction band offsets, and the optical and electronic features of impurity confinement in a set of model materials systems, including nanometer-scale wide band gap semiconductor and insulator structures. This fundamentally new class of materials investigation utilizes a powerful and unique combination of techniques that are revealing the atomic-scale movement, chemical bonding, and resultant charge transfer across well-defined model interfaces.
Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Brillson, Leonard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on PEEM3 - An Aberration Corrected X-Ray PhotoemissionElectron Microscope at the ALS

Description: A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment of a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.
Date: May 20, 2006
Creator: MacDowell, Alastair A.; Feng, J.; DeMello, A.; Doran, A.; Duarte,R.; Forest, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemissionspectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence ofspinon and holon branches

Description: A universal high energy anomaly in the single particlespectral function is reported in three different families of hightemperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemissionspectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral functionfrom the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersionanomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersionsplits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolicdispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottomof the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by apeak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 andE_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture thatthese two energies mark the disintegration of the low energyquasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cuprates.
Date: December 19, 2006
Creator: Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem-ESQ for Accelerator-Based BNCT

Description: A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment of a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy

Description: Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.
Date: October 30, 2006
Creator: Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E. & Anderson, E.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY05 LDRD Final ReportTime-Resolved Dynamic Studies using Short Pulse X-Ray Radiation

Description: Established techniques must be extended down to the ps and sub-ps time domain to directly probe product states of materials under extreme conditions. We used short pulse ({le} 1 ps) x-ray radiation to track changes in the physical properties in tandem with measurements of the atomic and electronic structure of materials undergoing fast laser excitation and shock-related phenomena. The sources included those already available at LLNL, including the picosecond X-ray laser as well as the ALS Femtosecond Phenomena beamline and the SSRL based sub-picosecond photon source (SPPS). These allow the temporal resolution to be improved by 2 orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art, which is {approx} 100 ps. Thus, we observed the manifestations of dynamical processes with unprecedented time resolution. Time-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray scattering were used to study phase changes in materials with sub-picosecond time resolution. These experiments coupled to multiscale modeling allow us to explore the physics of materials in high laser fields and extreme non-equilibrium states of matter. The ability to characterize the physical and electronic structure of materials under extreme conditions together with state-of-the-art models and computational facilities will catapult LLNL's core competencies into the scientific world arena as well as support its missions of national security and stockpile stewardship.
Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Nelson, A; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Budil, K; Sadigh, B; Gilmer, G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Superlattices for Spin-Polarized Electron Sources

Description: Photoemission of polarized electrons from heterostructures based on InAlGaAs/GaAs superlattices with minimum conduction-band offsets is investigated. The comparison of the excitation energy dependence of the photoemission polarization degree with the calculated spectra makes it possible to determine the polarization losses at different stages of the photoemission. A maximum polarization of P = 91% and a quantum efficiency of QE = 0.5% are close to the best results obtained for photocathodes that are based on strained semiconductor superlattices.
Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Mamaev, Yu.A.; Gerchikov, L.G.; Yashin, Yu.P.; Kuz-michev, V.; Vasiliev, D.; Inst., /St. Petersburg Polytechnic et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cancellation of spin and orbital magnetic moments in (delta)-Pu: theory

Description: Density functional theory (DFT), in conjunction with the fixed-spin-moment (FSM) method, spin-orbit coupling (SO), and orbital polarization (OP), is shown to retain key features of the conventional DFT treatment of {delta}-Pu while at the same time not producing the substantial net magnetic moments commonly predicted by this theory. It is shown that when a small adjustment of the spin moment (less than 20%) is allowed, a complete spin- and orbital-moment cancellation occurs which results in a zero net magnetic moment in {delta}-Pu. This minor modification, accomplished by the FSM method, is shown to have a very small effect on the calculated total energy as well as the electron density-of-states (DOS). The photoemission spectra (PES), obtained from the DOS of the present model, compares equal or better to measured spectra, than that of two other recent non-magnetic models for {delta}-Pu.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Soderlind, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the electronic configuration in Pu: spectroscopy and theory

Description: Photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray absorption, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations within the mixed-level and magnetic models, together with canonical band theory have been used to study the electron configuration in Pu. These methods suggest a 5f{sup n} configuration for Pu of 5 {le} n < 6, with n {ne} 6, contrary to what has recently been suggested in several publications. We show that the n = 6 picture is inconsistent with the usual interpretation of photoemission and x-ray absorption spectra. Instead, these spectra support the traditional conjecture of a 5f{sup 5} configuration in Pu as is obtained by density-functional theory. We further argue, based on 5f-band filling, that an n = 6 hypothesis is incompatible with the position of Pu in the actinide series and its monoclinic ground-state phase.
Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Tobin, J G; Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Moore, K T; Schwartz, A J; Chung, B W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized Electron Emission From Strained GaAs / GaAsP Superlattice Photocathodes

Description: Spin-polarized electron photoemission has been studied for GaAs/GaAs{sub 1-x}P{sub x} strained superlattice cathodes grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The superlattice structural parameters are systematically varied to optimize the photoemission characteristics. The heavy-hole and light-hole transitions are reproducibly observed in quantum efficiency spectra, enabling direct measurement of the band energies and the energy splitting. Electron-spin polarization as high as 86% with over 1% quantum efficiency has been observed.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Maruyama, T.; Luh, D.; Brachmann, A.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Harvey, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical Considerations for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

Description: Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5 x 10{sup 7} electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution <10{sup -6} s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Armstrong, M; Boyden, K; Browning, N D; Campbell, G H; Colvin, J D; DeHope, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

Description: CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W. & /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

Description: To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.
Date: December 21, 2006
Creator: Hussain, Zahid; Meevasana, W.; Zhou, X.J.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Lee, W.S.; Yang, W.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly progress report for Q2 FY06 for Complex Transient Events in Materials Studied Using Ultrafast Electron Probes and Terascale Simulation (FWP SCW0289)

Description: In this quarter (Q2 FY06), the DTEM underwent a substantial reconfiguration of its laser systems. The cathode laser system was changed to provide greater numbers of electrons per pulse by lengthening the time duration of the pulse to 30 ns. The greater number of electrons per pulse has allowed us to acquire high quality pulsed images and diffraction patterns. The spatial resolution in the single pulsed image has been measured at better than 20 nm. The diffraction patterns are now more comparable to conventional electron microscope operation. Examples are found in the body of the report. We summarize important achievements in the following list: (1) Instrument performance and design improvements--(A) The laser system was changed for the cathode photoemission system (75 ns at 1053 nm wavelength converted to 30ns at 211 nm wavelength) to give longer electron pulses at the same current to yield more electrons per pulse. (B) New specimen drive laser constructed. (C) New computer monitored and controlled alignment systems installed for both laser systems to facilitate laser alignment through a user friendly computer interface. (2) Experimental Progress--(A) The spatial resolution of pulsed images was tested by imaging a cross-section of multilayer thin foils with 30 nm and 20 nm periods. Single pulse images were observed to have spatial resolution better than 20 nm. This combination of 20 nm spatial and 30 ns temporal resolution is thought to be highest combined spatial and temporal measurement ever made. (B) The quality of single pulse electron diffraction patterns have been improved to the point where differentiating the HCP from BCC patterns in Ti is substantially easier. The spatial coherence of the electron illumination on the specimen was improved to give much smaller diffraction spots in the pattern.
Date: March 29, 2006
Creator: Campbell, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Ring Substitution Position on the Structural Conformation of Mercaptobenzoic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

Description: Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEX-AFS) spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and contact angle measurements have been used to examine the structure and bonding of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared on Au(111) from the positional isomers of mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). The isomer of MBA and solvent chosen in SAM preparation has considerable bearing upon film morphology. Carbon K-edge NEXAFS measurements indicate that the monomers of 2-, 3- and 4-MBA have well-defined orientations within their respective SAMs. Monomers of 3- and 4-MBA assume an upright orientation on the Au substrates in monolayers prepared using an acetic acid in ethanol solvent. The aryl ring and carboxyl group of these molecules are tilted from the surface normal by a colatitudal angle of {approx} 30{sup o}. Preparation of 4-MBA SAMs using pure ethanol solvent, a more traditional means of synthesis, had no appreciable effect upon the monomer orientation. Nonetheless, S(2p) PES measurements illustrate that it results in extensive bilayer formation via carboxyl group hydrogen-bonding between 4-MBA monomers. In 2-MBA monolayers prepared using acetic acid/ethanol solvent, the monomers adopt a more prostrate orientation on the Au substrates, in which the aryl ring and carboxyl group of the molecules are tilted {approx} 50{sup o} from the surface normal. This configuration is consistent with an interaction between both the mercaptan sulfur and carboxyl group of 2-MBA with the underlying substrate. S(2p) and C(1s) PES experiments provide supporting evidence for a bidentate interaction between 2-MBA and Au(111).
Date: April 12, 2006
Creator: Lee, J; Willey, T; Nilsson, J; Terminello, L; De Yoreo, J & van Buuren, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this chapter, we examine the methodology of the technique and its recent application to a number of different problems. We first examine the photoemission process itself followed by a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements. We review studies of spin polarized surface states, interface states and quantum well states followed by studies of the technologically important oxide systems including half-metallic transition metal oxides, ferromagnet/oxide interfaces and the antiferromagnetic cuprates that exhibit high Tc Superconductivity. We also discuss the application of high-resolution photoemission with spin resolving capabilities to the study of spin dependent self energy effects.
Date: November 1, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: New developments in instrumentation have recently allowed photoemission measurements to be performed with very high energy and momentum resolution.[1] This has allowed detailed studies of the self-energy corrections to the lifetime and mass renormalization of excitations in the vicinity of the Fermi level. These developments come at an opportune time. Indeed the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and related systems is presenting a range of challenges for condensed matter physics.[2] Does the mechanism of high T{sub c} superconductivity represent new physics? Do we need to go beyond Landau's concept of the Fermi liquid?[3] What, if any, is the evidence for the presence or absence of quasiparticles in the excitation spectra of these complex oxides? The energy resolution of the new instruments is comparable to or better than the energy or temperature scale of superconductivity and the energy of many collective excitations. As such, photoemission has again become recognized as an important probe of condensed matter. Studies of the high T{sub c} superconductors and related materials are aided by the observation that they are two dimensional. To understand this, we note that the photoemission process results in both an excited photoelectron and a photohole in the final state. Thus the experimentally measured photoemission peak is broadened to a width reflecting contributions from both the finite lifetime of the photohole and the momentum broadening of the outgoing photoelectron.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: JOHNSON, P.D. & VALLA, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoinjectors R&D for future light sources & linear colliders

Description: Linac-driven light sources and proposed linear colliders require high brightness electron beams. In addition to the small emittances and high peak currents, linear colliders also require spin-polarization and possibly the generation of asymmetric beam in the two transverse degrees of freedom. Other applications (e.g., high-average-power free-electron lasers) call for high duty cycle and/or (e.g., electron cooling) angular-momentum-dominated electron beams. We review ongoing R&D programs aiming at the production of electron beams satisfying these various requirements. We especially discuss R&D on photoemission electron sources (with focus on radiofrequency guns) along with the possible use of emittance-manipulation techniques.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Piot, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revealing Charge Density Wave Formation in the LaTe2 System byAngle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

Description: We present the first direct study of charge density wave(CDW) formation in quasi-2D single layer LaTe2 using high-resolutionangle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and low energy electrondiffraction (LEED). CDW formation is driven by Fermi surface (FS)nesting, however characterized by a surprisingly smaller gap (~;50 meV)than seen in the double layer RTe3 compounds, extending over the entireFS. This establishes LaTe2 as the first reported semiconducting 2D CDWsystem where the CDW phase is FS nesting driven. In addition, the layerdependence of this phase in the tellurides and the possible transitionfrom a stripe to a checkerboard phase is discussed.
Date: November 15, 2006
Creator: Garcia, D. R.; Gweon, G.-H.; Zhou, S. Y.; Graf, J.; Jozwiak, C. M.; Jung, M. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probing the band structure of LaTe2 using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

Description: With the current interest in the rare-earth tellurides ashigh temperature charge density wave materials, a greater understandingof the physics of these systems is needed, particularly in the case ofthe ditellurides. We report a detailed study of the band structure ofLaTe_2 in the charge density wave state using high-resolution angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). From thiswork we hope toprovide insights into the successes and weaknesses of past theoreticalstudy as well as helping to clear up prior ambiguities by providing anexperimental basis for future work inthe tellurides.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Daniel R.; Zhou, Shuyun Y.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Jung, M.H.; Kwon, Y.S. & Lanzara, Alessandra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High PressureX-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure,Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model SingleCrystal

Description: Our research focuses on taking advantage of the ability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to operate at high-temperatures and high-pressures while still providing real-time atomic resolution images. We also utilize high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS) to monitor systems under identical conditions thus giving us chemical information to compare and contrast with the structural and dynamic data provided by STM.
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Montano, M. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of covalency on the p-shell photoemission of transition metals: MnO

Description: This article discusses the effects of covalency on the p-shell photoemission of transition metals. The treatment of covalency has not been included previously in ab initio theoretical studies of the 2p-shell XPS of transition-metal complexes. In this work, covalent interactions between the metal and ligands are treated on an equal footing with spin-orbit splittings.
Date: April 13, 2006
Creator: Bagus, Paul S. & Ilton, Eugene S.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences