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Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

Description: This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this ...
Date: April 18, 2000
Creator: Theiss, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Homeland Security: FY2014 Appropriations

Description: This report provides an overview of appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The first portion of this report provides an overview and historical context for reviewing DHS appropriations, highlighting various aspects including the comparative size of DHS components, the amount of non-appropriated funding the department receives, and trends in the timing and size of the department's appropriations legislation.
Date: April 18, 2014
Creator: Painter, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Infrastructure: Improved Guidance Needed for Estimating Alternatively Financed Project Liabilities

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In the event of future base closure, the Department of Defense's (DOD) potential financial liabilities from alternatively financed projects will vary by project type and the language of its legal agreements. According to GAO's analysis of data reported by DOD, it had more than 550 such projects on more than 240 U.S. installations, as of September 30, 2011. 56 percent of these projects have been put in place since the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) round. Further, according to this analysis and GAO's case study review, liabilities will likely exist for renewable energy and privatized utility projects in the event of base closure because these projects commit the government to making future payments, although the liabilities may be limited by termination for convenience clauses in agreements. In contrast, privatized housing, privatized army lodging, and enhanced use lease projects are generally not expected to create a financial liability if bases close because DOD does not expect to terminate these types of agreements."
Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Technology Development Efforts for the Uranium Processing Facility

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO has identified five additional risks since its November 2010 report ( GAO-11-103 ) associated with using new technologies in the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Uranium Processing Facility (UPF), which is to be built in three interrelated phases. These risks and the steps that NNSA is taking to address them include the following:"
Date: April 18, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Satellite Control: Long-Term Planning and Adoption of Commercial Practices Could Improve DOD's Operations

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) satellite control networks are fragmented and potentially duplicative. Over the past decade, DOD has increasingly deployed standalone satellite control operations networks, which are designed to operate a single satellite system, as opposed to shared systems that can operate multiple kinds of satellites. Dedicated networks can offer many benefits to programs, including possible lower risks and customization for a particular program's needs. However, they can also be more costly and have led to a fragmented, and potentially duplicative, approach which requires more infrastructure and personnel than shared operations. For example, one Air Force base has 10 satellite programs operated by 8 separate control centers. According to Air Force officials, DOD continues to acquire standalone networks and has not worked to move its current standalone operations towards a shared satellite control network, which could better leverage DOD investments."
Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Financial Management: Challenges in Attaining Audit Readiness and Improving Business Processes and Systems

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO’s recent work highlights the types of challenges facing the Department of Defense (DOD) as it strives to attain audit readiness and reengineer its business processes and systems. The urgency in addressing these challenges has been increased by the goals of an auditable DOD Statement of Budgetary Resources (SBR) by the end of fiscal year 2014 and a complete set of auditable financial statements by the end of fiscal year 2017. For example, GAO’s 2011 reporting highlights difficulties the DOD components experienced in attempting to achieve an auditable SBR. These include:"
Date: April 18, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Transportation: Monitoring Costs and Benefits Needed While Implementing a New Program for Moving Household Goods

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) spends more than $1.7 billion each year to move and store over 600,000 household goods shipments when relocating military personnel. It conducted and evaluated several pilot program studies aimed at fixing its problem-plagued program and, in 2002, issued a report to Congress with three recommendations. The 1997 Defense Appropriations Act Conference Report directed GAO to validate the results achieved by the pilot programs. In response, GAO examined the extent to which DOD's recommendations to Congress (1) offer solutions to long-standing problems in the current program and (2) are supported by the evaluation's findings and should be implemented. GAO also assessed the soundness of methodologies used by DOD to develop cost estimates to implement the recommendations."
Date: April 18, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Personnel: More Consistency Needed in Determining Eligibility for Top Secret Security Clearances

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Each year, the Department of Defense (DOD) makes about 200,000 decisions to grant, deny, or revoke security clearances for its civilian, military, and contractor personnel. Through a process called adjudication, DOD personnel security specialists review the results of employees' background investigations and determine whether the individual is eligible for a clearance. This report (1) assesses whether DOD's adjudicators consistently document all significant adverse security conditions when determining individuals' eligibility for top secret security clearances and (2) identifies factors that hinder the effectiveness of DOD's adjudicative process. GAO found that DOD adjudicators have not consistently documented all significant adverse security conditions present in investigative case files when determining individuals' eligibility for top secret security clearances. DOD has been unable to demonstrate that it fully considered all significant adverse conditions often not documented, including financial matters. Several factors have hindered the effectiveness of DOD's adjudicative process. The Assistant Secretary has not (1) used common explanatory guidance, such as that contained in the Adjudicative Desk Reference he developed, or issued any other clarifying guidance to promote consistency in applying the federal guidelines; (2) required adjudicators to take DOD adjudicative training or afforded them with continuing education opportunities on applying the federal guidelines; and (3) established common equality assurance mechanisms to identify any problem areas needing clarifying guidance or training. Common quality assurance procedures would facilitate DOD's oversight of the adjudicative process. Actions to provide stronger direction and oversight are needed given the challenges posed by the decentralized nature of DOD's process."
Date: April 18, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Space Activities: Organizational Changes Initiated, but Further Management Actions Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In January 2001, the congressionally chartered Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization--known as the Space Commission--reported that the Department of Defense (DOD) lacked the senior-level focus and accountability to provide guidance and oversight for national security space operations. Congress mandated that GAO provide an assessment of DOD's actions to implement the Space Commission's recommendations. Thus, GAO (1) updated its June 2002 assessment of DOD's actions to address the Space Commission's recommendations, (2) ascertained progress in addressing other long- term management concerns, and (3) assessed the extent to which DOD has developed a results-oriented management framework for space activities."
Date: April 18, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING

Description: The detonation of a 10 Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) is a serious scenario that the United States must be prepared to address. The likelihood of a single nuclear bomb exploding in a single city is greater today than at the height of the Cold War. Layered defenses against domestic nuclear terrorism indicate that our government continues to view the threat as credible. The risk of such an event is further evidenced by terrorists desire to acquire nuclear weapons. The act of nuclear terrorism, particularly an act directed against a large population center in the United States, will overwhelm the capabilities of many local and state governments to respond, and will seriously challenge existing federal response capabilities. A 10 Kiloton IND detonation would cause total infrastructure damage in a 3-mile radius and levels of radiation spanning out 3,000 square miles. In a densely populated urban area, the anticipated casualties would be in excess of several hundred thousand. Although there would be enormous loss of life, housing and infrastructure, an IND detonation is a recoverable event. We can reduce the risk of these high-consequence, nontraditional threats by enhancing our nuclear detection architecture and establishing well planned and rehearsed plans for coordinated response. It is also important for us to identify new and improved ways to foster collaboration regarding the response to the IND threat to ensure the demand and density of expertise required for such an event is postured and prepared to mobilize, integrate, and support a myriad of anticipated challenges. We must be prepared to manage the consequences of such an event in a deliberate manner and get beyond notions of total devastation by adopting planning assumptions around survivability and resiliency. Planning for such a scenario needs to be decisive in determining a response based on competencies and desired outcomes. ...
Date: April 18, 2011
Creator: Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A. & Dewes, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

Description: The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.
Date: April 18, 2008
Creator: Goodwin, B. T. & Mara, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

Description: This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.
Date: April 18, 2007
Creator: Kusse, Professor Bruce R. & Hammer, Professor David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or biotransform hazardous organic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues.. ...
Date: April 18, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department