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Hanford contaminated sediment stabilization studies

Description: The major problems with radionuclide waste sites in the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford Reservation is the high degree of toxicity or Hazard Index (HI). Transport Factors (TF) are fortunately low but can increase with time and certainly with episodic events such as explosions or earthquakes. Two major tests involving surface affixation were sponsored by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, one by Dowell using M-166 and the other by Battelle-Northwest comparing many different surface affixants. The latex emulsion, M-166, appeared to be well suited for the Hanford desert type area. Of the many surface affixants tested by Battelle-Northwest, Coherex and Aerospray appeared to be the best. As an emergency precaution, 200 barrels of M-166 were purchased for surface affixation in case of a range fire. The subsurface affixants laboratory and field tests include organic polymers, asphalt emulsions, concrete, AM-9, and sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide grouts. The applications were second containment (or leak prevention) of subsurface waste tanks and piping, grouting water wells to prevent contamination leaking to the water table, and encompassing cribs, trenches, burial grounds, and other subsurface sediment contaminations. Organic polymers added strength to the soil, but penetration of the viscous liquid was not as deep as desired; it may be good for situations requiring only a few inches penetration, such as well grouting. The asphalt emulsion looked promising as an easily injected well grouting material and it may also be good for encompassing subsurface contaminated sediment plumes. The sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide affixant appeared best for second containment of waste tanks but may require the help of asphalt emulsion to ensure good coverage.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Bruns, L.E.; Key, K.T. & Higley, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flowability of bulk solids used in shale fracturing grouts as determined by the Jenike and Johanson method

Description: Smooth operation of the shale fracturing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory requires that an even, uninterrupted flow of dry solids be delivered to a mixer at a rate of approximately 1200 lb/min. Some operational difficulties have been experienced with the dry solids system at the existing facility. Occasionally the solids flow from a bin was difficult to initiate or was irregular, particularly when the storage bin was nearly empty. A new shale fracturing facility is now being designed with a solids handling system that will eliminate the current problems. This report describes the tests made to obtain the necessary information about bulk-flow properties of the dry solids that are required for the facility modifications. Flow properties of fly ash, attapulgite, pottery clay, and a blended solids mix were determined in a Jenike and Johanson Flowfactor Tester. Tests with this unit involve the consolidation of a solid at a given pressure and the measurement of the force required to create a shear plane. The procedure is repeated several times at different consolidating pressures to determine a locus of points that can be displayed graphically. Results indicate that a bottom-hopper opening of about 4 ft will be required on the new, bulk storage bins if mass flow is to be achieved. It was also found that the existing bins are quite unsuitable for either their present function or their proposed function. Since these bins have served moderately well for 14 years, the effect of aeration is obviously major; these tests indicate only an upper limit to the size of the hopper opening that will be required. Pottery clay and attapulgite were found to have flow characteristics considerably inferior to blended solids. It is known, however, that attapulgite clay will flow from the existing bins, and modification of the bin bottoms to ...
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: McDaniel, E.W. & Weeren, H.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground stress engineering: the lifting and stabilization of underground voids

Description: The theoretical basis of how grout, i.e., concrete, pumped into rock fractures prevents the caving of underground tunnel and cavity roofs is presented, and the calculation of how much grout material must be injected to lift a dome and create a useful rubble stope in an underground cavity is described. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Browning, R.V. & Bowers, N.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

Description: Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study

Description: Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface stabilization by grouting of a simulated underground tank

Description: A moisture barrier using water, sodium silicate, formamide, calcium chloride and penechem with a gel time of one-half hour was constructed around a simulated tank 10 feet deep by 10 feet diameter in the subsurface of the 200 West Area. As a test of the moisture barrier integrity, the volume which would normally be occupied by a tank was excavated and filled with water. The barrier was unable to contain the water. The failure to achieve a water-tight barrier was attributed to a leak in the floor grout.
Date: January 27, 1977
Creator: Wiater, P.J. & Higley, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole Plugging Program. Plugging of ERDA No. 10 drill hole

Description: A requirement exists to plug exploratory drill holes located in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area of Southeastern New Mexico. Sandia Laboratories, in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Concrete Laboratory, developed pumpable and durable cement grouts. These grouts were successfully used to plug an existing drill hole in the area. Results of this project are presented, along with comments and conclusions.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Gulick, C.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole Plugging-Materials Development Program

Description: This report discusses the background and first year's results of the grouting materials development program for plugging boreholes associated with the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The grouts are to be pumpable, impermeable, and durable for many thousands of years. The work was done at the Concrete Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The workability, strength, porosity, bonding, expansion, and permeability data are summarized and discussed. The work is continuing at WES.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Gulick, C.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department