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Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

Description: This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1975
Creator: McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G. & Cutshall, N.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

Description: Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)
Date: April 15, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

Description: This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1975
Creator: McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L. & Holton, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

Description: The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1975
Creator: McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J. & Morgan , J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental critique of solar power by bioconversion methods

Description: Idealistic approaches to the resolution of the energy crisis by increased usage of bioconversion methods are discussed. It is pointed out that shortcomings of the technology make such a goal unrealistic. Lack of land, water, and nutrients make a significant contribution to world energy needs impossible. Even modest application of bioconversion processes may damage valuable biotic communities and other natural resources, especially soils. Data on minimum projected land, water, and nutrient requirements are presented; obvious generic impacts are discussed. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Calef, C E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hawaii Geothermal Project. Summary report for Phase 1

Description: The research program was divided into three areas: geophysical--exploratory surveys to define the most favorable areas for geothermal investigations; engineering--analytical models to assist in interpretation of geophysical results, and studies on energy recovery from hot brine; and, environmental-socioeconomic--legal and regulatory aspects of ownership and administration of geothermal resources, and economic planning studies on the impact of geothermal power. Summaries of results obtained to date in each of the research areas are presented; a list of reference publications where these results are reviewed in greater detail is included. (JGB)
Date: May 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hawaii Geothermal Project summary report for Phase I

Description: Results of Phase I of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) are reported. It was a multidisciplinary research effort in the following program areas: (1) geophysical--exploratory surveys to define the most favorable areas for geothermal investigations; (2) engineering-- analytical models to assist in interpretation of geophysical results, and studies on energy recovery from hot brine; and (3) socioeconomic--legal and regulatory aspects of ownership and administration of geothermal resources, and economic planning studies on the impact of geothermal resources, and economic planning studies on the impact of geothermal power. The major emphasis of Phase I was on the Geophysical Program, since the issue of if and where geothermal resources exist is crucial to the project. However, parallel studies were initiated in all supporting programs, so that progress was made in identifying and clarifying the technological, environmental, legal, regulatory, social and economic problems that could impede the development of geothermal power in Hawaii. Although the analysis and interpretation of field data are still incomplete, the consensus developed early--both on the basis of preliminary geophysical results and from complementary studies conducted on the Big Island over the past several decades--that an exploratory drilling program would be essential to check out the subsurface conditions predicted by the surveys.
Date: May 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendations for a US geothermal research plan. Volume 1

Description: A multidisciplinary study team developed a comprehensive research program. Five- and ten-year program plans emphasize critical five-year milestones. Recommended plans are presented here under constraint of three different five-year budgets: $100, $300 and $500 million, respectively. Plans are detailed in six resource subprograms: high temperature water, moderate temperature water, hot dry rock, brine, geopressured, and dry steam. Also presented are plans for five subprograms common to all geothermal resources: exploration, assessment, drilling technology, environmental-social, and institutional. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Burnham, J.B.; Bloomster, C.H.; Cohn, P.D.; Eliason, J.R.; Peterson, P.L.; Rohrmann, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

Description: The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.
Date: January 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GTF test program

Description: The goal of the GTF (Geothermal Test Facility) Test Program is to evaluate the geothermal resources in the Niland area and determine if they can be effectively converted into electric power. This program will examine the four critical areas of geothermal power development: (I) reservoir analysis, (II) energy extraction and conversion, (III) environmental effects, and (IV) operation and maintenance. These areas are discussed and a detailed test program is presented.
Date: December 31, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental impact assessment: chemical explosive fracturing project, Petroleum Technology Corporation/Sutton County, Texas

Description: A proposed two-well stimulation test to be carried out in Sutton County, Texas is described. Work will be performed in the lenticular tight sand formation of the Val Verde-Kerr Basin to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of chemical explosive fracturing as a method of increasing gas deliverability in that formation. The purpose of the project's experimental design, which calls for the testing of two separate wells using different techniques, would be to obtain the maximum amount of information relating to the most effective method of stimulating this particular reservoir. Results will permit the direct comparison of the different completion techniques. Also the testing of more than one well in a given area will allow for the collection of complementary data with regards to the characteristics of the reservoir and the experimental results from the explosive stimulation. The environmental effects of the project are assessed. (JRD)
Date: July 14, 1975
Creator: Tonnessen, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department