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International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

Description: This reporting period covers the first half of the two-year sub-task, which includes a review of recent and ongoing engineering studies concerning practical modes for the ocean discharge of CO{sub 2}, review of recent and ongoing experimental studies concerning the rates (and extent) of formation and dissolution for CO{sub 2} hydrates, review of recent and ongoing biological studies concerning organism response to reduced pH and increased CO{sub 2} concentration, and the definition of discharge scenarios. These steps have been successfully completed. Results-to-date were presented at the Annual Fall Meeting of AGU (December 2005) and will be presented at the Annual DOE Meeting on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (May, 2006). The objective during this reporting period was to begin a two-year sub-task to update an assessment of environmental impacts from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. (1997) and Caulfield et al. (1997) to assess acute impacts, but uses updated information concerning injection scenarios and bioassays.
Date: May 19, 2006
Creator: Herzog, Howard J. & Adams, E. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

Description: This project is a part of the continuing Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) to monitor Columbia Basin salmonid stocks coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC). The SMP provides timely data to the Fish Passage Managers for in season flow and spill management for fish passage and post-season analysis by the FPC for travel time, relative magnitude and timing of the smolt migration. Sampling sites were McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams under the SMP, and the Dalles Dam under the Fish Spill Memorandum of Agreement'' for 1989. All pertinent fish capture, condition and brand data, as well as dam operations and river flow data were incorporated into the FPC Fish Passage Data Information System (FPDIS). 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: February 19, 1990
Creator: Johnsen, Richard C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

Description: Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.
Date: August 19, 1997
Creator: Del Mar, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial ecology: A basis for sustainable relations and cooperation

Description: The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) seeks to address, in a cooperative manner, the environmental issues affecting the North American region and understand the linkages between environment and economy. Broadly, the goal of the CEC can be thought of as an attempt to achieve a sustainable economy concomitantly with continued economic, cultural, and technological evolution. The emerging field of industrial ecology provides a useful means for balancing the environmental and economical objectives of NAFTA. As NAFTA stimulates economic cooperation and growth, we must collectively develop mechanisms that enhance the environmental quality of the region. LLNL`s effort in industrial ecology provides the scientific basis and innovative use of technology to reconcile environmental and economic concerns. Nevertheless, these are not issues which can be resolved by a single institution. Efficient use of the linkages established by NAFTA is necessary to nurture our regional partnership which forms the basis for a sustainable environment, economy and relationship.
Date: July 19, 1996
Creator: Blades, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial ecology analysis - final report

Description: This work is intended to contribute to the foundations for formalizing industrial ecology analyses of energy systems (systems for energy generation, transfer. or transformation) and to examine how the tools for performing these analyses can also enhance the field of industrial ecology in other applications. We discuss requirements for studying materials and energy , cycling in industrial processes. with particular emphasis on energy generating systems, through explicit inclusion of entropy concepts in industrial ecology considerations. This perspective is intended to contribute to the theoretical basis for industrial ecology, to the development of tools for comparing the ecological (human and environmental health. and institutional) impacts of energy generating and other industrial processes, and to possible changes in engineering curricula with emphasis on design.
Date: October 19, 1998
Creator: Kastenberg, W.E. & Lowenthal, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Visitors Center, Golden, Colorado

Description: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient lighting, an evaporative cooling system, and other technologies to minimize energy costs and environmental impact. The Visitors Center displays a variety of interactive exhibits on energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the building includes an auditorium, a public reading room, and office space.
Date: June 19, 2001
Creator: Burgert, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement analysis for paleontological excavation at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: On December 15, 1997, contractor workers supporting the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction uncovered bones suspected to be of paleontological importance. The NIF workers were excavating a utility trench near the southwest corner of the NIF footprint area, located at the northeast corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site, and were excavating at a depth of approximately 30 feet. Upon the discovery of bone fragments, the excavation in the immediate vicinity was halted and the LLNL archaeologist was notified. The archaeologist determined that there was no indication of cultural resources. Mark Goodwin, Senior Curator for the University of California Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley, was then contacted. Mr. Goodwin visited the site on December 16th and confirmed that the bones consisted of a section of the skull, a portion of the mandible, several teeth, upper palate, and possibly the vertebrae of a mammoth, genus Mammuthus columbi. This supplement analysis evaluates the potential for adverse impacts of excavating skeletal remains, an activity that was only generally assessed by the NIF Project-Specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic Environmental impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and its Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. This supplement analysis has been prepared pursuant to the DOE regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (10 CFR 1021.314).
Date: December 19, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

Description: To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a Pb-free solder exclusively in their modules since 1993. ...
Date: October 19, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of Georgia quarterly AIP Implementation Report: October--December 1995

Description: The objective of this report is to ensure the citizens of Georgia that health, safety and the environment are being protected through existing DOE programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS), through a vigorous program of independent monitoring and oversight by Georgia officials. SRS emergency plans will be annually reviewed and updated. Environmental monitoring will be conducted of surface water and related media, ground water, air, crops, milk, drinking water, soils and vegetation.
Date: January 19, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential impacts of 316(B) regulatory controls on economics, electricity reliability, and the environment.

Description: Nearly half of the US utility-owned steam electric generating capacity is cooled by once-through cooling systems. These plants withdraw cooling water primarily from surface water bodies. Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available (BTA) for minimizing adverse environmental impacts. At present, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not yet promulgated applicable implementing regulations governing intake structures; however, the Agency is required by a Consent Decree to develop such regulations. EPA has presented a draft tiered regulatory framework approach that, depending on site-specific factors, may impose various regulatory burdens on affected utilities. Potential new requirements could range from compiling and submitting existing data to demonstrate that existing conditions at each unit represent BTA to retrofitting plants with closed-cycle cooling systems (primarily cooling towers). If the final regulations require installation of cooling towers or implementation of other costly plant modifications, utilities may elect to close some generating units rather than invest the finds necessary to upgrade them to meet the Section 316(b) requirements. Potentially, some regions of the country may then have a higher proportion of closed units than others, leading to a concern over the reliability of those regions' electricity supply. If a significant number of plants convert from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers, the environment will face secondary adverse impacts, such as additional fuel usage, air emissions, and water evaporation, and utilities will need to construct additional generating capacity. This paper describes a study that Argonne National Laboratory will conduct for the US Department of Energy to explore some of the potential outcomes of EPA's Section 316(b) regulatory process and their impact on economics, electricity supply reliability, and the environment.
Date: March 19, 1999
Creator: Veil, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Environmental impact assessment as applied to policies, plans and programs)

Description: A proposal to study the application of the principles of environmental impact assessment (EIA) to policy, plans, and programs was submitted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Senior Advisors on Environmental and Water Problems of the United Nations Economic Commission. On approval, EPA asked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support its efforts as lead participant on an international task force. ORNL is responsible for overall project management, including development of the report. At the first meeting in Geneva on June 18--19, there were representatives from Austria, Canada, Finland, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The administrative/legal setting for EIA in each country was reviewed. The objectives of the task force were defined, and issues related to the application of EIA at the policy level were discussed. At the second meeting, in addition to those countries represented at the first meeting the Commission of Economic Communities, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Remark, Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, and The Netherlands were represented. A brief review was given by the new participants of legal/administrative requirements for EIA in their countries. Case studies were presented by Canada, Finland, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United States.
Date: October 19, 1990
Creator: Sigal, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sedimentation plan to assess the impact of geothermal activities to the aquatic ecosystem in the Geyers Calistoga KGRA

Description: The prevention of sedimentation or siltation in aquatic ecosystems is always a key environmental issue in the development and operation of power plant units. This report describes a field program which will assess the amount of sedimentation in the streams and tributaties of the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) due to development-related or other site-specific activities. This sediment plan is one part of a four part venture - the others are water quality, benthic invertebrates and fisheries studies - initiated by the California Energy Commission and involving numerous California organizations. Included in this report are the cost breakdowns for each phase, maps and rationale of the sampling sites, the methodology for the laboratory sample processing, and examples of the type of graphic and tabular output expected.
Date: May 19, 1981
Creator: Ireland, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

Description: The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.
Date: August 19, 1992
Creator: Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K. & Wooten, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department