472 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

Description: The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N. & Warner, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Evaluation, interpretation, and data summary

Description: The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of radiological dose pathways for tank farm accidents

Description: This calculation note documents an evaluation of the doses from submersion and ground shine due to a release of tank farm radioactive materials, and a comparison of these doses to the doses from inhalation of the materials. The submersion and ground shine doses are insignificant compared to the inhalation doses. The doses from resuspension are also shown to be negligible for the tank farm analysis conditions.
Date: October 30, 1996
Creator: Van Keuren, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

Description: The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.
Date: April 16, 1998
Creator: Rittmann, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FRMAC Assessment Manual

Description: The ingestion pathway assessment procedures cited in the current version of the ``RMAC Assessment Manual'', DOE/NV/11718-061 (September 1996) have been superseded by new US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. This addendum replaces the obsolete procedures with a revised set based on the new guidance released by the FDA in August 1998. This addendum provides an overview of the new guidance, revised assessment methods, and assessment aids. It does not provide a general method of ingestion pathway analysis. The scope is limited to that covered by the new guidance titled, ``Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies,'' issued by the FDA in August 1998.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Clark, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2 -- Appendix A: Characterization methods and data summary

Description: This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5. This appendix presents background regulatory and technical information regarding the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at WAG 5 to address requirements established by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The US Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to conduct remedial investigations (RIs) under the FFA at various sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including SWMUs and other areas of concern on WAG 5. The appendix gives an overview of the regulatory background to provide the context in which the WAG 5 RI was planned and implemented and documents how historical sources of data, many of which are SWMU-specific, were evaluated and used.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

Description: A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential waste-clearance strategy for U.S. Department of Energy waste processed at treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

Description: Past practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities may have resulted in the presence of minute amounts of radioactive contamination in some hazardous wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping potentially mixed waste from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. A potential waste-clearance strategy was developed to address the DOE mixed-waste moratorium issues, which had resulted from a lack of existing regulations regarding volume contamination. A radiological assessment model was developed on the basis of the detailed radiological assessment performed for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model incorporates waste- and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The described waste-clearance strategy would provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing potential human exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides. This strategy also has important potential applications for establishing site clearance limits to ensure that worker and public risks would remain well below regulatory limits. The clearance strategy issues pertaining to current free-release practice, dose limits, data requirements, and conservatism are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Stevens, L.; Chen, S.Y. & Pfingston, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report of fugitive and diffuse emissions evaluations at the Hanford Site, CY 1994

Description: The objective of this study was to evaluate several of Hanford`s major diffuse emission sources and evaluate the effectiveness of monitoring these sources individually versus collectively. The results from this evaluation may also be utilized to demonstrate Westinghouse`s compliance status with the applicable air emissions regulations and determine if additional studies and/or evaluations are necessary. Air sampling results from four waste handling and storage facilities were collected for a one week period and analyzed. The following is a list of the selected sampling sites: Plutonium Finishing Plant; 241-BY Tank Farm; 1301-N Trench; 300 Area Trenches and North Ponds. These sites were chosen as being representative of most of the Hanford waste sites, which are known to be diffuse emission sites. The sites were evaluated on the following criteria: physical size, surface contamination levels, geology, vegetation density, surface cover, potential for occupational exposure, and potential for public exposure. The selected sites vary greatly with the selection criteria parameters, and as a result should provide representative data for most of Hanford`s waste sites.
Date: February 17, 1995
Creator: Gleckler, B.P. & Schmidt, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

7Q10 flows for SRS streams

Description: The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Chen, K. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field characterization report on Phase 1 of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: A treatability study is being performed to investigate the practicability of using passive, in situ treatment systems to remove contaminants from the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). This draft document is a report of the site characterization results and is part of Phase 1 of this study. Field activities performed are outlined in Bear Creek Valley Passive Surface Water Treatment Technology Demonstrations, Phase 1, Site Characterization. The focus of the characterization was to obtain sufficient site-specific data on hydrogeology of NT-1, NT-2, and upper Bear Creek (above its confluence with NT-1) to support selection of groundwater capture and treatment systems in Phases 2 and 3. Groundwater samples from the S-3 Site and NT-1 area were also collected for the principal investigators to test during Phase 1 laboratory work. Three contaminant migration pathways were delineated in the S-3 Area. Each is described and briefly characterized by field observations and analysis of surface and groundwater collected within each pathway.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Appendix C

Description: The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions. The industrial and recreational exposure scenarios are used to provide a risk assessment reference context to evaluate levels of contamination in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment within each subbasin of the Melton Valley watershed. All available analytical results for the media of interest that could be qualified for use in the risk assessment were screened to determine carcinogenic risk values and noncarcinogenic hazard indexes and to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) for each evaluated media in each subbasin.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the American peregrine falcon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (version 1)

Description: The Endangered Species Act and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require protection of the American peregrine falcon. A preliminary risk assessment of the peregrine was performed using a custom FORTRAN model and a geographical information system. Estimated doses to the falcon were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices. Hazard index results indicated no unacceptable risk to the falcon from the soil ingestion pathway, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. Scaling home ranges on the basis of maximizing falcon height for viewing prey decreased estimated risk by 69% in a canyons-based home range and increased estimated risk by 40% in a river-based home range. Improving model realism by weighting simulated falcon foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased risk by 93% in one exposure unit and by 82% in a second exposure unit. It was demonstrated that choice of toxicity reference values can have a substantial impact on risk estimates. Adding bioaccumulation factors for several organics increased partial hazard quotients by a factor of 110, but increased the mean hazard index by only 0.02 units. Adding a food consumption exposure pathway in the form of biomagnification factors for 15 contaminants of potential ecological concern increased the mean hazard index to 1.16 ({+-} 1.0), which is above the level of acceptability (1.0). Aroclor-1254, dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethelyne (DDE) accounted for 81% of the estimated risk that includes soil ingestion and food consumption Contaminant pathways and a biomagnification component. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, falcon habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations. 123 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J. & Bennett, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report

Description: The Fernald site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This 1995 Site Environmental Report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA.
Date: June 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes A and B

Description: The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions. The industrial and recreational exposure scenarios are used to provide a risk assessment reference context to evaluate levels of contamination in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment within each subbasin of the Melton Valley watershed. All available analytical results for the media of interest that could be qualified for use in the risk assessment were screened to determine carcinogenic risk values and noncarcinogenic hazard indexes and to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) for each evaluated media in each subbasin.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

Description: Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Aaberg, R.L. & Baker, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

Description: CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. & Young, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extension of UCRL-50936 (13 case studies) as requested by PNE, USAEC

Description: This report contains a reassessment of the Kra Canal Project. This latest assessment differs from the original study in that: Thirty- four salvos with a total yield of about 170 MT were assumed; `Acceptable` firing days were selected from actual meteorological data when the winds at all levels up to the expected debris cloud top blew toward the west, +/- 30 degrees; and the lead in the devices was assumed to be from monazite sand. The doses are considerably less than those estimated in the earlier report. The reasons for this are: A longer trajectory to Sumatra was assumed such that the debris clouds traveled 1600 Km before crossing the west coast of Sumatra; Residents of the Nicobar Islands and Sumatra to our knowledge do not consume milk, hence the forage-cow-milk pathway is not included; The use of lead from monazite sands reduced the total dose; Some of the latest dose conversion constants used are smaller than those in the earlier report; and the effects of precipitation scavenging were based on an improved assessment.
Date: January 29, 1973
Creator: Batzel, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Description: The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Ebinger, M.H. & Hansen, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose calculations for the concrete water tunnels at 190-C Area, Hanford Site

Description: The RESRAD-BUILD code was used to calculate the radiological dose from the contaminated concrete water tunnels at the 190-C Area at the Hanford Site. Two exposure scenarios, recreationist and maintenance worker, were considered. A residential scenario was not considered because the material was assumed to be left intact (i.e., the concrete would not be rubbleized because the location would not be suitable for construction of a house). The recreationist was assumed to use the tunnel for 8 hours per day for 1 week as an overnight shelter. The maintenance worker was assumed to spend 20 hours per year working in the tunnel. Six exposure pathways were considered in calculating the dose. Three external exposure pathways involved penetrating radiation emitted directly from the contaminated tunnel floor, emitted from radioactive particulates deposited on the tunnel floor, and resulting from submersion in airborne radioactive particulates. Three internal exposure pathways involved inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; inadvertent direct ingestion of removable, contaminated material on the tunnel floor; and inadvertent indirect ingestion of airborne particulates deposited on the tunnel floor. The gradual removal of surface contamination over time and the ingrowth of decay products were considered in calculating the dose at different times. The maximum doses were estimated to be 1.5 mrem/yr for the recreationist and 0.34 mrem/yr for the maintenance worker.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Kamboj, S. & Yu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

Description: Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Baker, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

Description: As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P. & Kennedy, W.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report summary

Description: This report summarizes the 1995 Site Environmental Report for the Fernald site. It describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. An overview is presented of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment.
Date: June 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department