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Dimensional stability and tensile strength of irradiated Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers

Description: Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon fibers were characterized by measuring their length, density, and tensile strength in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to a dose of 43 dpa-SiC at a nominal irradiation temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. The results indicate the fibers that perform best in an irradiation environment are those that approach stoichiometric and crystalline SiC. Hi-Nicalon exhibited negligible densification, accompanied by an increase in tensile strength after irradiation. Nicalon-CG possessed a higher tensile strength than hi-Nicalon in the unirradiated condition, but was significantly weakened in the annealed and irradiated conditions. In addition, Nicalon-CG exhibited unacceptable irradiation-induced shrinkage. Loss o fiber tensile strength after irradiation is shown to reduce the flexural strength of irradiated composites and Nicalon-CG fiber shrinkage observed in irradiated composites.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Senor, D.J.; Newsome, G.A. & Woods, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Porous HMX initiation studies -- Sugar as an inert simulant

Description: For several years the authors have been using magnetic particle velocity gauges to study the shock loading of porous HMX (65 and 73% TMD) of different particle sizes to determine their compaction and initiation characteristics. Because it has been difficult to separate the effects of compaction and reaction, an inert simulant was needed with properties similar to HMX. Sugar was selected as the simulant for several reasons: (1) the particle size distribution of C and H granulated sugar is similar to the coarse HMX the authors have been using (120 {micro}m average size), (2) the particle size of C and H confectioners (powdered) sugar is similar to the fine HMX in the studies (10 {micro}m average size), (3) it is an organic material, and (4) sugar was readily available. Because the densities of HMX and sugar are somewhat different, the authors chose to do the experiments on sugar compacts at 65 and 73% TMD. As expected, no reaction was observed in the sugar experiments. Compaction wave profiles were similar to those measured earlier for the HMX, i.e., the compaction waves in the coarse sugar were quite disperse while those in the fine sugar were much sharper. This indicates that the compaction wave profiles are controlled by particle size and not reaction. Also, the coarse sugar gauge signals exhibited a great deal of noise, thought to the be result of fracto-emission.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L. & Alcon, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-dimensional hydrological and thermal property models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: This report describes the creation of three-dimensional numerical models of selected rock-matrix properties for the region of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, which is located in southern Nevada. The models have been generated for a majority of the unsaturated and shallow saturated zone within an area referred to within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project as the site area. They comprise a number of material properties of importance both to detailed process-level modeling activities and to more summary-style performance assessment modeling. The material properties within these models are both spatially variable (heterogeneous) and spatially correlated, as the rocks are understood from data obtained from site-characterization drill holes widely scattered across the site area.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Rautman, C.A. & McKenna, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

Description: One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D. & Carey, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques

Description: The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Dorsch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

Description: This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Weidner, J.R. & Shaw, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural characterization of the thermal evolution of tetrahedrally coordinated amorphous carbon films

Description: The authors present the results of a post-deposition annealing structural study on amorphous tetrahedrally-coordinated carbon (a-tC) films on Si(100) prepared by pulsed-laser deposition. Films as-deposited and post-annealed at 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 C, respectively, are studied using combined X-ray reflectivity and low-angle scattering measurements. The scans are fit to the Fresnel equations to obtain values for average film density, film and interface thickness, and film and interface roughness. They observe a correlation between the evolution of film density, roughness and the spacing of quasi-periodic structures in the films as a function of annealing temperature. They relate the evolution of these structural features with previous measurements of the resistivity and the observed stress release in these films.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Siegal, M.P. & DiNardo, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department