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Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

Description: Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references. (MCW)
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Garrett, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Waste Heat From Nuclear Power Plants

Description: The paper details the Department of Energy (DOE) program concerning utilization of power plant reject heat conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A brief description of the historical development of the program is given and results of recent studies are outlined to indicate the scope of present efforts. A description of a DOE-sponsored project assessing uses for reject heat from the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station is also given.
Date: 1978
Creator: Olszewski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of environmental and utility siting laws on community energy systems

Description: Community Energy Systems provide an interesting energy conservative alternative to the traditional trend of large, central, grid-connected power plant design. The small community energy system (generally smaller than 100 MW), provides for waste heat utilization and utility cogeneration significantly reducing a community's total energy demand. Developers of Community Energy Systems, unfortunately, are faced with a complex of environmental and siting regulations, most of which are aimed at regulating the development and design of large power-generating facilities. Aside from discouraging development of a potentially more economic and environmentally sound approach to power generation, air-pollution regulations discriminate against these smaller systems. Compliance with the many Federal, state and local regulations often make small energy systems uneconomical. This project studies the emissions associated with Community Energy Systems and reviews the Federal, state, and local laws that regulate their design.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Senew, M J; Shimamoto, G T; Seymour, D A & Santini, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beneficial use of rejected heat in municipal water supplies

Description: The relatively low temperature of thermal discharges from steam-electric power plants makes waste-heat utilization difficult without modification of the power cycle and attendant reduction in electrical-energy generating efficiency. The in-situ beneficial use of waste heat by direct once-through condenser discharge into a municipal water supply is discussed. Computations are presented regarding the matching of flow rates, heat losses in distribution and energy savings. A number of benefits and penalties are also assessed qualitatively including legal and operational aspects and reliability. Especially attractive are improvements in generating efficiency, alleviation of water-pipe freeze up, savings in water-heater energy, and improvement in wastewater treatment effectivness. Disadvantages include the need for careful control of condenser water quality and the question of public acceptance of water heated by about 13/sup 0/C. Two cases with operating experience are briefly discussed, although the installations were not developed for energy conservation purposes.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Wynn, Jr., R. A. & Porter, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department