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Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

Description: The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

Description: Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Hayes, A. & Johnson, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic power systems. Final report. Volume III(2). Technology

Description: Conceptual designs were made and analyses were performed on three types of solar photovoltaic power systems. Included were Residential (1 to 10 kW), Intermediate (0.1 to 10 MW), and Central (50 to 1000 MW) Power Systems to be installed in the 1985 to 2000 time period. The following analyses and simulations are covered: residential power system computer simulations, intermediate power systems computer simulation, central power systems computer simulation, array comparative performance, utility economic and margin analyses, and financial analysis methodology.
Date: May 1, 1977
Creator: Pittman, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fossil energy program. Progress report, March 1979

Description: This report - the fifty-sixth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, and chemical research and development.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: McNeese, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary energy balance and economics of a farm-scale ethanol plant

Description: The energy balance and economics of grain to ethanol plants are matters of current national interest, as we strive to deal with our liquid fuel supply problems. This report prepared at the request of the Department of Energy, examines the energy balance and economic questions for a particular farm-scale plant in Campo, Colo. It shows that such plants may have a place in our national liquid fuel supply system.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Jantzen, D. & McKinnon, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers

Description: In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other process liquors are recovered and recycled. Because the black liquor fuel contains high alkali concentrations, 18.3% sodium, 3.6% sulfur, an amount typical of midwestern bituminous coal, and measurable amounts of silica, iron oxides and other species, the black liquor boiler experience was reviewed for application to MHD boiler technology.
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The aquifer chill storage project at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa: Progress report for 1985 and 1986

Description: Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is predicted to be the most cost-effective technology for seasonal storage of low-grade thermal energy. Approximately 60% of the US is underlain with aquifers potentially suitable for underground energy storage. Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, has managed numerical modeling, laboratory studies, evaluation of environmental and institutional issues, and field testing of ATES at several sites. This report describes the monitoring and evaluation (under the auspices of PNL) of an ATES chill system constructed and operated by the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The system is the first such system to be monitored in a comprehensive manner. Results support both the promise and problems likely to be encountered in such systems. Chill ATES has the potential to substantially reduce energy consumption and, especially, summer peak cooling electrical demand. However, the geohydrologic environment that the system will use must be a major element in system design and operation. 9 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Schaetzle, W.J. & Brett, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary study of adiabatic compressed-air energy storage in aquifers. [Performance analysis using CYCLOPS computer code]

Description: The use of petroleum fuel in compressed air energy storage (CAES) can be eliminated by using an adiabatic cycle where the heat of compression generated during the charge cycle is stored for use during the discharge cycle. The adiabatic cycle can be combined with aquifer compressed air storage. This combination has the unique feature of allowing the aquifer to act as a thermal energy storage (TES) unit reducing the size of the required man-made TES. In this study TES types and cycle arrangements suitable for use with aquifer compressed air energy storage were investigated and six cycle arrangements were chosen for comparison with a reference conventional aquifer CAES facility. Concept performance was modeled using the CYCLOPS computer code and the results were used as the basis of an economic evaluation. In the economic evaluation, the levelized busbar energy cost was calculated for all concepts using a consistent set of ground rules and assumptions. The results of the economic evaluation indicate the adiabatic aquifer CAES demonstrates a lower cost of energy when compared to a conventional aquifer CAES facility.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Drost, M.K.; Zaloudek, F.R. & Loscutoff, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

Description: The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure bonding molybdenum alloy (TZM) to reaction-bonded silicon nitride

Description: Topping cycles could boost the energy efficiencies of a variety of systems by using what is now waste heat. One such topping cycle uses a ceramic helical expander and would require that a reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) rotor be bonded to a shaft of TZM (Mo-0.5 wt % Ti-0.08 wt % Zr). Coupon studies show that TZM can be bonded to RBSN at 1300/sup 0/C and 69 MPa if there is an interlayer of MoSi/sub 2/. A layer of finely ground (10 ..mu..m) MoSi/sub 2/ facilitates bond formation and provides a thicker bond interface. The hardness and grain structure of the TZM and RBSN were not affected by the temperature and pressure required to bond the coupons.
Date: May 20, 1978
Creator: Huffsmith, S.A. & Landingham, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

Description: The studies reported here confirmed our preliminary observations that Botryococcus braunii can tolerate and grow well in flue gas CO{sub 2} concentrations of 10 to 15%, and produce oil. The highest extracted oil was observed in 10% CO{sub 2} enriched air. Initial pH of the medium at or near 10 pH is favorable to cell growth probably by stimulating the CO{sub 2} solubilization in the medium. This is also indicated in Botryococcus braunii growth and oil formation in NaHCO{sub 3} added medium. The lack of growth in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} containing media was probably due to high pH. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation from the CA{sup ++} gelled alginate beads indicate the need for alternative immobilization systems. But the attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors may eliminate the need for gel entrapment systems as the immobilization matrices. Attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors, rather than remaining in the suspension, reduces the significance of self shadowing and related liquid height (thickness) effect. The capability of Botryococcus braunii to grow in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions is very encouraging toward development of an alkaline scrubbing system for the flue gas followed by removal of the CO{sub 2} from the alkaline solution. In such a system the pH 10 is the currently observed upper limit.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Pradhan, S. & Banerjee, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of Illinois slags for the production of ultra-lightweight aggregates. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

Description: The objective of this program is to demonstrate that solid residues (slag) from the gasification of Illinois coals can be utilized to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are made by pyroprocessing perlite ores and have unit weights in the range of 3--15 lb/ft{sup 3}. In a previous project, Praxis Engineers demonstrated at the pilot scale that lightweight aggregates with unit weights of 40--55 lb/ ft{sup 3} can be produced from Illinois coal slags, which is suitable for making lightweight cement concrete and precast blocks. These tests also indicated that a product with a unit weight of less than 25 lb/ft{sup 3} could be produced from slag. This project is aimed at testing the potential for producing ULWA from Illinois coal slags. Target applications include loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products such as concrete blocks and rooftiles, and filtration media. Laboratory- and pilot-scale testing is being conducted in Phase I to identify operating conditions for the expansion of Illinois slags to produce ULWA. Following this, a large batch of expanded slag will be produced, for evaluation in various applications in Phase II.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Choudhry, V.; Zimmerle, T. & Banerjee, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

Description: Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project is investigating methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Work done in the previous quarter concentrated on developing a dependable technique for analysis of scrubber sludge, so that it would be possible to determine exactly how well a particular purification process was working. This technique was then used to characterize the sludge from a particular Illinois power station. In the current quarter, studies were carried out using froth flotation to produce a product that could be oxidized to high-purity gypsum. These experiments have been quite successful, due to certain properties of the limestone impurity that makes it easier to remove by this method than was expected.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Kawatra, S. K.; Eisele, T. C. & Banerjee, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The potential for use of waste-to-energy facility ash: Executive summary. Final report

Description: This executive summary presents an overview of the investigations, findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Long Island Regional Planning Board (LIRPB) study of the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste-to-Energy Facility Ash. The full report consists of the following volumes: Executive Summary; Volume 1: Long Island Ash Management Status; Volume 2: Sampling and Testing Procedures; Volume 3: Environmental Properties; Volume 4: Engineering Properties; Volume 5: Environmental Assessment; Volume 6: Engineering and Economic Evaluation; and Volume 7: Legal and Institutional Issues. Volumes one through seven are briefly summarized in this executive summary with the exception of Volume 2 of the report, which serves as the documentation of the sampling conditions and testing methods used in measuring chemical and physical properties of the ash tested. The study investigated the feasibility of the use of incinerator ash as a substitute for natural aggregate in construction applications.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Koppelman, L. E. & Tanenbaum, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

Description: Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: McKay, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

Description: The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions are being investigated. This is being done for two primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form, to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this proposed study is that, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it may be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties.Formation of four classes of compounds which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, have been selected for study. These are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium silicosulfates, calcium aluminosulfates, and alkali aluminosflicates. The specific compounds fabricated will be determined and their stability regions assessed. As a part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered will be determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds will be established.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Brown, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seasonal thermal energy storage program. Progress report, January 1980-December 1980

Description: The objectives of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. Aquifers, ponds, earth, and lakes have potential for seasonal storage. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. Program plans for meeting these objectives, the development of demonstration programs, and progress in assessing the technical, economic, legal, and environmental impacts of thermal energy storage are described. (LCL)
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Minor, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

Description: Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: McKay, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation and utilization of Illinois FBC residues for construction materials. Technical report, December 1--February 28, 1993

Description: The overall objective of this program is to investigate the extent to which fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-products can be properly utilized as viable construction materials. This investigation focuses primarily on the properties of residues derived from fluidized combustion burning of Illinois high-sulfur coal. The research plan calls for evaluation of physics-chemical and engineering characteristics of the FBC-based cement and non-cement mixes. The results of this study will be used to compare the physical and mechanical properties of the FBC-based mixtures with those of conventional mixes. The results of this study will be used to compare the physical and mechanical properties of the FBC-based mixtures with those of conventional mixes. The suitability of using FBC residues as filler or binder aggregates for Portland cement-based mixtures and non-Portland cement mixes in the form of conventional and roller compacted materials will be evaluated. Laboratory specimens relevant to the final phase of this research program; engineering characteristics of the optimized FBC spent bed and fly ash concretes and engineering properties of the optimized roller compacted non-cement FBC mixes were fabricated.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Ghafoori, N.; Sami, S. & Banerjee, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

Description: Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and remixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back- filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated with the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A. & Maurer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

Description: The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential ...
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L. & Mishulovich, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Condensing economizers for small coal-fired equipment

Description: Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This study focuses on evaluating indirect contact economizers as applied to heating equipment burning coal-water mixtures although the results can be extended to other fuels. In addition to dry gas sensible heat, latent heat is recovered from flue gas water vapor, improving system efficiency markedly. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also capture particulates. In tests to date up to 89% removal has been measured. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the most important mechanisms involved in particle capture and to enhance capture in practical systems. The intent of the work is to contribute to the ongoing program at the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center in the development of coal-fired combustion equipment. These results are expected to be most applicable to smaller scale equipment, where the low temperature heat from the economizer can be used. The approach involves determining thermal efficiency improvement and particulate removal efficiency (experimental), and developing models capable of predicting system performance under varied operating conditions (theoretical). Gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance are consistent with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed in this paper and predicted removal efficiencies as a function of particle diameter are presented. 4 refs.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Litzke, Wai Lin; Butcher, T.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & Park, N.A. (Stony Brook Scientific, Ltd., Morristown, PA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department