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Grain orientation measurement of passivated aluminum interconnectsby x-ray micro diffraction

Description: The crystallographic orientations of individual grains in apassivated aluminum interconnect line of 0.7-mu m width were investigatedby using an incidentwhite x-ray microbeam at the Advanced Light Source,Berkeley National Laboratory. Intergrain orientation mapping was obtainedwith about 0.05o sensitivity by the micro Laue diffractiontechnique.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Chang, Chang-Hwan; Valek, B.C.; Padmore,H.A.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.; Marieb, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic studies of atomic dynamics. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

Description: Progress achieved was in the area of applications of an atomic approach to solid state problems, not only to impurity states, but unexpectedly to general band theory. The development of a postadiabatic procedure was successful in initial tests. Studies of the interaction of electrons with polar molecules and especially of the orientation of atoms by collision are opening new and promising vistas.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Fano, U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectromicroscopy study of interfacial Co/NiO(001)

Description: Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) with linearly polarized x-rays is used to determine the orientation of antiferromagnetic domains by monitoring the relative peak intensities at the 3d transition metal L{sub 2} absorption edge. In such an analysis the orientations of the x-ray polarization E and magnetization H with respect to the crystalline axes has to be taken into account. We address this problem by presenting a general expression of the angular dependence for both x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) for arbitrary direction of E and H in the (001) cubic plane. In cubic symmetry the angular dependent XMLD is a linear combination of two spectra with different photon energy dependence, which reduces to one spectrum when E or H is along a high-symmetry axis. The angular dependent XMLD can be separated into an isotropic term, which is symmetric along H, and an anisotropic term, which depends on the orientation of the crystal axes. The anisotropic term has maximal intensity when E and H have equal but opposite angles with respect to the [100] direction. The Ni{sup 2+} L{sub 2} edge has the peculiarity that the isotropic term vanishes, which means that the maximum in the XMLD intensity is observed not only for E {parallel} H {parallel} [100] but also for (E {parallel} [110], H {parallel} [110]). We apply the angular dependent theory to determine the spin orientation near the Co/NiO(100) interface. The PEEM images show that the ferromagnetic Co moments and antiferromagnetic NiO moments are aligned perpendicular to each other. By rotating the sample with respect to the linear x-ray polarization we furthermore find that the perpendicular coupling with the ferromagnetic Co layer at the interface causes a canting of the antiferromagnetic Ni moments. This shows that taking into account the angular dependence of the XMLD in ...
Date: September 26, 2010
Creator: van der Laan, Gerrit; Telling, Neil; Potenza, Alberto; Dhesi, Sarnjeet & Arenholz, Elke
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of length scale on the deformation behavior of metallic multilayers-Part II : modeling /.

Description: The experimental observations described in a companion presentation of the same title by Misra et al. highlight that unique, non-bulk rolling textures are achieved in nanoscale multilayered thin films. Specifically, Cu/Nb multilayers deposited with an initial Kudjumov-Sachs orientation relation between Cu and Nb grains and with an initial individual layer thickness of 75nm preserve that relation during rolling. In contrast, samples with micron-scale individual layer thickness do not. To help understand this layer-dependent response, a crystal plasticity model is presented in which the Cu and Nb phases respond by slip on {l_brace}111{r_brace}/<110> systems in the fcc Cu case, and {l_brace}110{r_brace} / <111 > systems in the bcc Nb phase. Grains within each layered phase are required to plastically deform by a reduction in thickness and corresponding elongation in the rolling direction, with zero plastic strain along the transverse axis. The model also adopts the observation for nano-scale multilayers that the Kudjumov-Sachs orientation relation is preserved; in particular, the e 1 11> Cu and e1 10> Nb directions remain parallel to the interface normal during rolling. The crystal plasticity model then furnishes the minimum plastic work to deform a grain, as a function of grain orientation. For Cu grains, the plastic work is invariant of grain orientation, provided the critical resolved shear stress is uniform on all fcc slip systems. However, the corresponding plastic work in Nb grains is very dependent on grain orientation and has a strong minimum. This large anisotropy serves as a driving force for Nb grains to rotate around their <110> interface normal, toward the minimum. The resulting prediction for rolling texture in Nb layers agrees well with experimental observations in nanoscale Cu/Nb multilayers.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Misra, A. (Amit); Hirth, John Price, & Anderson, P. M. (Peter M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

Description: Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lutterotti, Luca et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Repetitive Stern-Gerlach Effect

Description: I show that two spin rotators 180{degree} apart may be desirable for the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. I also calculate the effect of depolarization resonance on the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. It is shown that to first order in resonance strength, we can avoid the imperfection resonance if the energy of the beam is at G{gamma} = n + 1/2. The time available for accumulating the Stern-Gerlach kick is then limited by the intrinsic resonance. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Date: March 13, 1990
Creator: Hsueh, S.-Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

Description: The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.
Date: September 12, 1980
Creator: Courant, E.D. & Ruth, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depolarization due to the resonance tail during a fast resonance jump

Description: The mechanism of depolarization due to a fast resonance jump is studied. The dominant effect for cases of interest is not dependent on the rate of passage through resonance, but rather on the size of the resonance jump as compared to the width, epsilon, of the resonance. The results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ruth, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin matching conditions in large electron storage rings with purely horizontal beam polarization

Description: In a storage ring with a purely horizontal spin and a Siberian Snake, the spin matching conditions are similar to the spin matching conditions for vertical polarization; a combination of beam bumps has to be found which compensate the depolarizing effects. These bumps compensate the random emission of synchrotron emission on the spin. The aim of this paper is to define spin matching conditions that compensate this effect.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Rossmanith, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of the Job Performance of Restaurant Workers Using a Service Orientation Measure

Description: Service orientation has been suggested to be a work-related behavioral trait that contributes toward overall job performance in certain occupations. Therefore, the Batrus Hollweg Service Questionnaire (SQ), a personality inventory, was hypothesized to predict performance in a sample (N=55) of fast-food restaurant workers whose jobs were primarily composed of service-related elements. A performance evaluation form was created for use as the criterion measure. An alternative scoring system for the SQ was developed, and showed it to be significantly correlated with the criterion. The potential for use of the alternative scoring procedure is discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Blansett, Karen D. (Karen Day)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Connective Technology Adoption in the Supply Chain: The Role of Organizational, Interorganizational and Technology-Related Factors.

Description: Supply chain management (SCM) is an area that offers organizations significant opportunities for both cost reductions and revenue enhancement. In their article, "Supply Chain Management: Implementation Issues and Research Opportunities," Lambert, Cooper and Pagh defined SCM as the "integration of key business processes from end user through original suppliers that provides products, services, and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders." Adopting and implementing appropriate technology has emerged as a source of competitive advantage for supply chain member firms through the integration of business processes with suppliers and customers. It is important to understand the factors influencing an organization's decision to acquire such technology. In the context of this study, connective technologies are defined as wireless communication devices and their accompanying infrastructure and software which may enhance coordination among supply chain partners. Building on previous literature in the areas of supply chain management, marketing strategy, and organizational innovation, a model was developed to test the relationships between organizational, interorganizational, and technology-related factors and the adoption of advanced connective technology, using radio frequency identification (RFID) as the test case, in the supply chain. A Web-based survey of supply chain professionals was conducted resulting in 224 usable responses. The overall model was statistically significant with four of the predictors significantly influencing the adoption of RFID in the supply chain. Size, centralization, new product advantage and time to achieve targeted ROI were significantly related to adoption of connective technology (RFID). Interorganizational related factors were not significant predictors of connective technology adoption. The study contributes to theory by testing scales from marketing and management in a supply chain context in order to better understand behavioral dimensions of supply chain management and logistics. The conceptualization and measurement of market orientation at the interfirm level advances the market orientation literature. Finally, the study contributes ...
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Date: May 2006
Creator: Neeley, Concha Kaye Ramsey
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell:" The Law and Military Policy on Same-Sex Behavior

Description: This report describes the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" military policy. Under this policy, but not the law, service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their "same-sex orientation." This report also describes recent efforts by certain Members of Congress to amending this policy.
Date: March 25, 2010
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Job Performance from Factorially Determined Dimensions of Biographical Data

Description: Twenty factors identified through a factor analysis of a 102-item biographical inventory were used as predictors in a multiple regression equation to predict on-the-job performance (supervisory ratings) of oil field employees. This yielded a multiple R of .41. A total of 295 subjects participated in the study. Cross-validation yielded a correlation coefficient of .06. The t-test analyses of the factor means of equipment operators and field mechanics proved that two factors could discriminate between the groups, Mechanical Experience (p<.01) and Social Orientation (p<.05). The results of this study indicate that conducting a factor analysis of unvalidated biographical items and attempting to predict performance would be less appropriate than factor analyzing predictive items to gain an understanding of their underlying dimensions.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Germany, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Turnover in a Financial Services Organization

Description: Realistic Job Previews have been shown to impact newcomers to jobs through ircreased self-selection, reduced turnover, eased adjustment, improved performance and increased job satisfaction. To address a turnover problem, Realistic Job Previews were implemented in hiring for two entry level positions in half of 539 branch offices of a large financial services organization. Subjects consisted of 122 Service Representatives and 98 Financial Representatives. Eight months after implementation, turnover rates were compared for control and experimental groups. There was no significant difference between turnover among Service Representatives. Financial Representatives in the experimental group had lower turnover rates (p < .10), with the difference increasing over time. Comparing the turnover rates between three and six months tenure resulted in a statistically significant difference (p < .05).
Date: August 1987
Creator: Goerz, Marilyn J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The role of strategy in the innovation process: A stage approach.

Description: Organizational innovation has been of central interest in recent years because of its importance for organizational survival and competitive advantage. Researchers in the field have divided the innovation process into stages in an attempt to understand the innovation process and the factors that affect it. However, empirical studies that examine the relationship between the stages are scarce. In addition, although business strategy is emphasized as an important factor in the innovation process, little is known about its role in the innovation process and its effect on the stages. This research provides empirical support for the relationship between the stages of the innovation process and the moderating effect of organizational strategy on the relationship between the stages within the two stage model of innovation. In this study, a direct, positive relationship is proposed between the innovation generation (first stage) and innovation outcome (second stage) stages of the innovation process. Dimensions of innovation outcome that are examined include innovation type (product innovation and process innovation), innovation radicalness and innovation frequency. Low cost, differentiation and market orientation strategies are proposed to be moderators on the relationship between the stages. To test the proposed relationships, a survey was mailed to executives who are involved in the innovation process in organizations where innovation is expected to be common and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Hierarchical regression was the primary data analysis method and General Linear Model was applied as the pot-hoc data analysis method. Results of the primary data analyses provided support for the direct, positive relationship between the innovation generation and innovation outcome stages of the innovation process. Specifically, there was a direct, positive relationship between innovation generation and product innovation, process innovation, innovation frequency and innovation radicalness. Result of the primary data analysis provided support for the moderating effect of strategy ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Goktan, Ayse Banu
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Military Policy and the Law on Same-Sex Behavior

Description: This report describes the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" military policy, which holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in same-sex acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Under this policy, but not the law, service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their "same-sex orientation." This report also describes recent efforts by certain Members of Congress to amending this policy.
Date: December 20, 2010
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

Description: In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+{nu}{sub y}, 12+{nu}{sub y} and 36+{nu}{sub y}, which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. & Alessi, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

Description: Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus ...
Date: August 25, 2003
Creator: Cada, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Mixing in Large Passive Containment Volumes

Description: This final report details results from the past three years of the three-year UC Berkeley NEER investigation of mixing phenomena in large-scale passive reactor containments. We have completed all of our three-year deliverables specified in our proposal, as summarized for each deliverable in the body of this report, except for the experiments of steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas. We have particularly exiting results from the experiments studying the mixing in large insulated containment with a vertical cooling plate. These experiments now have shown why augmentation has been observed in wall-condensation experiments due to the momentum of the steam break-flow entering large volumes. More importantly, we also have shown that the forced-jet augmentation can be predicted using relatively simple correlations, and that it is independent of the break diameter and depends only on the break flow orientation, location, and momentum. This suggests that we will now be able to take credit for this augmentation in reactor safety analysis, improving safety margins for containment structures. We have finished the version 1 of 1-D Lagrangian flow and heat transfer code BMIX++. This version has ability to solve many complex stratified problems, such as multi-components problems, multi-enclosures problems (two enclosures connected by one connection for the current version), incompressible and compressible problems, multi jets, plumes, sinks in one enclosure problems, problems with wall conduction, and the combinations of the above problems. We believe the BMIX++ code is a very powerful computation tool to study stratified enclosures mixing problems.
Date: October 17, 2002
Creator: Peterson, Per F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of compression behavior of a [011] Ta single crystal with orientation imaging microscopy and crystal plasticity

Description: High-purity tantalum single crystal cylinders oriented with [011] parallel to the cylinder axis were deformed 10, 20, and 30 percent in compression. The engineering stress-strain curve exhibited an up-turn at strains greater than {approximately}20% while the samples took on an ellipsoidal shape during testing, elongated along the [100] direction with almost no dimensional change along [0{bar 1}1]. Two orthogonal planes were selected for characterization using Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM): one plane containing [100] and [011] (longitudinal) and the other in the plane containing [0{bar 1}1] and [011] (transverse). OIM revealed patterns of alternating crystal rotations that develop as a function of strain and exhibit evolving length scales. The spacing and magnitude of these alternating misorientations increases in number density and decreases in spacing with increasing strain. Classical crystal plasticity calculations were performed to simulate the effects of compression deformation with and without the presence of friction. The calculated stress-strain response, local lattice reorientations, and specimen shape are compared with experiment.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Adams, B. L.; Campbell, G. H.; King, W. E.; Lassila, D. H.; Stolken, J. S.; Sun, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of orientation pinning on the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steel

Description: Despite a large number of investigations on the formation of the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steels, the exact mechanisms leading to the preference of this particular orientation are not completely understood so far. As an alternative to the standard explanation of a favored growth of Goss-oriented grains during secondary recrystallization, recently the concept of orientation pinning has been proposed, which considers that the growth of grains with special orientation relationships corresponding to low-angle and twin grain boundaries is disfavored. The present paper present preliminary EBSD-results on the growth of Goss-grains during secondary recrystallization in high-permeability (HiB) transformer steel sheets. A semi-quantitative model to simulate the effect of orientation pinning on the evolution of the Goss-texture is introduced.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Engler, O. & Friedel, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department