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Radioactive tracers used to characterize geothermal reservoirs

Description: Data obtained from Br/sup 82/ tracer injections with downhole gamma ray monitoring were used to quantify flow fractions entering and leaving the GT-2B and EE-1 reservoirs at various depths. The Br/sup 82/ tracer method also provided data needed to characterize changes in the reservoir volume and flow distribution within fracture system during the recent 281 day sustained heat extraction experiment at the Hot Dry Rock Fenton Hill Site.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Dennis, B.R.; Potter, R. & Kolar, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear spectroscopy of neutron rich A = 147 nuclides: decay of /sup 147/Cs, /sup 147/Ba and /sup 147/La

Description: A study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclides of the A = 147 chain was carried out at the TRISTAN isotope separator. Half lives of /sup 14/'Cs, /sup 147/Ba and /sup 147/La were measured. Six gamma lines are assigned to /sup 147/Cs decay. A decay scheme for /sup 147/Ba with levels up to 2 MeV is proposed for the first time. A partial decay scheme for /sup 147/La is proposed, which confirms the previously existing one, with five new levels added from the present work.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Shmid, M.; Chu, Y.Y. & Gowdy, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential impact of ICRP-30 on the calculated risk from waste repositories

Description: As a result of the large body of information that has been gathered since ICRP-2 was published (1959), the ICRP has undertaken the task of updating its radiation protection guidance. This update involves revision of the primary radiation guidance as well as the recalculation of intake limits (ICRP-30) based on update biological models, updated nuclide decay schemes, and a new method accounting for simultaneous dose to more than one organ. A detailed analysis of the impacts of ICRP-30 on waste repository safety and risk analyses would require an extensive and detailed study that has not yet been undertaken. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify, in an approximate manner, the impact of using ICRP-30 instead of 10 CFR 20/ICRP-2 in calculating the risk from radioactive repositories. Toward this end, the numerical guidance of ICRP-30 has been obtained and converted into RCG values for the general public using the same methods that were employed in deriving 10 CFR 20. The conversion was cross-checked by comparing 10 CFR 20 and ICRP-30-based values that were known to have remained the same. The most restrictive ICRP-30 RCGs were incorporated into the ORIGEN2 computer code, which was then used to calculate the toxicity of some radioactive materials of interest in waste repository considerations. As a basis for discussion, the toxicities of the spent fuel from a PWR and of the uranium ore required to make the fuel are given for both the 10 CFR 20 and ICRP-30-based RCGs. As is evident, the use of the revised RCGs reduces the toxicity of the spent fuel at times less than 100 years and increases the toxicity at times thereafter.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Croff, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic and decay energy measurements for isotopes with 79 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 84 and N approx. = Z

Description: Heavy-ion reactions induced by beams of /sup 24/ /sup 25/ /sup 26/Mg and /sup 28/Si on targets of /sup 58/Ni and /sup 60/Ni have been used to produce a number of new or poorly characterized radioactivities with 79 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 84 and N approx. = Z. The helium-jet recoil transfer technique was employed as a means of continuously preparing essentially massless sources of these radioactivities for extensive x-, ..gamma..-, and ..beta..-ray singles and multiparameter coincidence spectroscopic measurements. The low lying level structure of /sup 80/Sr has been revealed for the first time by the decay of a new isotope /sup 80/Y (T/sub 1/2/ = 34 s). These measurements have also resulted in a considerable clarification of the decay properties of /sup 79/Sr and /sup 81/ /sup 82/Y. Decay energies, Q/sub EC/, and nuclidic mass excesses deduced from them, both show progressively larger deviations from the predictions of currently available mass models for these isotopes, especially as the N = Z line is approached. Preliminary decay data are reported for /sup 83/Zr and /sup 84/Nb, which were both produced as evaporation residues from the /sup 28/Si + /sup 58/Ni reaction.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Haustein, P.E.; Lister, C.J.; Alburger, D.E.; Olness, J.W. & Saha, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigaton of the beta strength function at high energy: gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5. 3-s /sup 84/As to /sup 84/Se

Description: The beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system /sup 84/As(..beta../sup -/)/sup 84/Se was investigated. It was found that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe S/sub ..beta../ by a statistical model. From the /sup 84/As decay scheme an experimental beta strength function was deduced. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Henry, E.A; Lien, O.G. III & Meyer, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments with powdered CMN thermometers between 10 mK and 4K, and a comparison with an NBS SRM 768 fixed-point device

Description: Comparison of a powdered CMN thermometer with an NBS fixed point device demonstrates an internal inconsistency in the T/sub c/'s assigned to the fixed point device. T/sub c/'s between 100 and 200 mK are in excellent agreement with a temperature scale interpolated between He vapor pressure temperatures and nuclear orientation temperatures, but there is a discrepancy of 8% at the 15 mK point. Evidence for different susceptibility-temperature relations for superficially similar CMN thermometers is also presented.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Fogle, W.E.; Hornung, E.W.; Mayberry, M.C. & Phillips, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear-transfer spectroscopy using radioactive targets

Description: The feasibiity and techniques for carrying out transfer spectroscopic experiments with radioactive targets having half lives down to a fraction of a year are reviewed. The use of such radioactive targets is illustrated by recent studies of the spectroscopy of /sup 149/Sm, /sup 174/Lu and /sup 247/Bk using (p,t) transfer spectroscopy.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Naumann, R.A.; Dewberry, R.; Kouzes, R.T.; Hoff, R.; Boerner, H.; Lanier, R.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

Description: The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Hartwell, J. K.; Mandler, J. W.; Duce, S. W. & Motes, B. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hyperfine magnetic field measurements in ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/

Description: Measurements of the hyperfine magnetic field in ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/ in zero applied field are reported in a range of temperatures around the reentrant temperature T/sub c2/. Using the Moessbauer effect of /sup 57/Fe impurities as a hyperfine field microprobe, the low temperature ferromagnetic order is found to persist well above T/sub c2/ into the superconducting state in this compound, thereby providing direct evidence of coexistence between superconductivity and magnetic order.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Cort, G.; Taylor, R.D. & Willis, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision Q-value determinations for neutron-rich rubidium isotopes at TRISTAN

Description: Beta-ray end-point energies for Rb fission products were measured at the TRISTAN on-line mass separator using an intrinsic Ge ..beta.. spectrometer. Coincidence measurements were used to establish feeding relationships and to verify level schemes in daughter nuclides. Q/sub ..beta../ values are reported for /sup 88/ /sup 94/ /sup 96/ /sup 98/Rb and compared with results from other experiments and with predictions of mass formulae.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Brenner, D.S.; Martel, M.K. & Aprahamian, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations

Description: Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of /sup 129/I and /sup 127/I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of /sup 129/I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of /sup 129/I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of /sup 129/I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of /sup 129/I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of /sup 129/I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of /sup 129/I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site.
Date: February 1981
Creator: Price, K. R.; Cadwell, L. L.; Schreckhise, R. G. & Brauer, F. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unsaturated moisture and radionuclide transport: laboratory analysis and modeling

Description: This report describes several laboratory procedures and computer model simulations used to evaluate the transport of water and radionuclides through unsaturated Hanford soils. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was measured using the steady state methods of Klute and the transient state method of Rose. These experimental data were compared to other conductivity models. Good agreement was found between all methods in the wet range; however, disagreement was found in the dry range. None of the conductivity models explicity addresses the water vapor component of the conductivity. This may explain the under prediction of the hydraulic conductivity in the dry range where vapor transport is important. Radionuclide transport through unsaturated media was investigated by using two solute transport models to describe the transport of tritium and strontium-85 in laboratory columns. A two parameter convective-dispersive model was compared with a four parameter mobile-immobile water model. Both models adequately described the movement of tritium and strontium through small (5 cm x 27.5 cm) columns and the movement of tritium and strontium through a large (0.5 m x 1.7) column. The dispersion coefficient was found to be sensitive to changes in both velocity and column length. The mobile-immoble water equations were not as sensitive to changes in experimental scales as the convective-dispersive equation. Both models were relatively successful in describing the rapid flush of strontium-85 from a column initially leached with a low salt solution followed by a high salt solution, a phenomona called the snow plow effect. The four parameter mobile-immobile water model predicted the initial release of the strontium more accurately than the two parameter convective-dispersive model. Both models confirm enhanced mobility of strontium-85 with leaching solutions of increased salt concentration.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Gee, G.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Wierenga, P.J. & Jones, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly report on the strontium heat source development program, advanced nuclear systems and projects division for June-September 1980

Description: Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 subsize Charpy V-Notch (CVN) specimens that had been heated in air or vacuum at 600/sup 0/, 700/sup 0/, or 800/sup 0/C for up to 10,000 h were impact-tested at room temperature. No significant differences in Charpy impact energy were observed between the CVN specimens heated in air and the control specimens heated in vacuum. The CVN specimens aged at 600/sup 0/C showed the greatest reduction in Charpy impact energy, while the specimens aged at 800/sup 0/C showed the least change. Qualification testing of the as-fabricated prototype outer capsules was completed. The capsules passed all of the qualification tests without difficulty. The capsules subjected to the impact (drop) test showed some distortion at the weld area but passed the helium leak test. After the qualification tests were completed two of the capsules were subjected to additional external-pressure tests. The Hastelloy S capsule was pressurized to 24,000 psi (the limit of the autoclave) and showed only a slight distortion. The Hastelloy C-4 capsule collapsed at a pressure of 20,750 psi. Both capsules passed the helium leak check after pressurization. Two other capsules were subjected to an increased percussion test using an impact energy of 20 kg-m instead of the 7 kg-m used in the standard test. Both the Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 capsules passed the more stringent test without difficulty.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly report on the strontium heat source development program, Space and Terrestrial Systems Division for January-March 1981

Description: At Hanford, strontium is separated from the high-level waste, converted to the fluo-ride, and doubly encapsulated in small, high-integrity containers for subsequent long-term storage. The fluoride conversion, encapsulation, and storage takes place in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facilities (WESF). The encapsulated strontium fluoride represents an economical source of /sup 90/Sr if the WESF capsule can be licensed for heat-source applications under anticipated-use conditions. The objects of this program are to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources and specifically the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules. The information needed for licensing can be divided into three general task areas: Task 1--Chemical and Physical Properties of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/; Task 2--/sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ Compatibility Studies; and Task 3--Capsule Qualification and Licening. Efforts are proceeding concurrently on all three tasks to obtain the required information.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly report on the Strontium Heat Source Development Program, Operations and By-Products Utilization Division for April-June 1981

Description: All experimental activities related to the Strontium Heat Source Development Program have been completed. The only remaining activities are preparation and issuance of final reports that summarize program results. This report represents the last of the program quarterly progress reports that will be issued.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 600 to 800

Description: The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 800/sup 0/C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 800/sup 0/C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 600/sup 0/ to ...
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lysimeter tests of SRP waste forms

Description: A field study, estimated to last 10 years, has been started to define leaching and migration rates of radionuclides from typical SRP buried wastes. The study utilizes 42 lysimeters (6-ft or 10-ft diameter by 10-ft deep) which have been charged with soil and waste to simulate burial ground conditions. Eight waste forms were selected for the study, which represent the bulk of the wastes generated at SRP. This report describes the lysimeter design, the physical and radiological characteristics of the wastes, and the experimental approach. Calculations have also been made which predict the migration of various radionuclides in the lysimeter soil. The calculations should provide guidance during the course of the study, and are the basis of recommendations made for collecting and interpreting data so that important parameters of migration can be evaluated.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Hooker, R. L. & Root, R. W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Transport Division. 1980 report

Description: Aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial studies and instrumentation developments are described in a series of articles. More details about specific studies are given in publications listed at the end of the report.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.E.; Fliermans, C.B.; Garrett, A.J. & Halverson, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

Description: A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Wilmot, E L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excitation functions and isomer ratio measurements for the reaction /sup 41/K(/sup 6/Li,p2n)/sup 44/Sc/sup m/,/sup 44/Sc/sup q/. [14. 4, 23. 4, 32. 0, and 41. 5 MeV]

Description: For the purpose of eventually determining how population distributions of /sup 44/Sc* in the E-J plane affect resulting isomer ratios in /sup 44/Sc, excitation functions and isomer ratios in the reaction /sup 41/K(/sup 6/Li,p2n)/sup 44/Sc/sup m/,/sup 44/Sc/sup q/ were measured. Preliminary results seem to indicate, as expected, a very weak compound nucleus reaction component of the reaction cross section.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Nguyen, H.D.; Trinh, H.N.; Le, H.D.; Moody, K.J.; Groening, H. & Seaborg, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial action technology development for humid sites

Description: Results of three separate field-scale remedial actions are described and their effectiveness evaluated. The placement of segmenting dams within a burial trench, coupled with a PVC subsurface cover, resulted in the enhanced hydrologic isolation of its buried waste and led to a significant reduction in the /sup 90/Sr discharge from Solid Waste Disposal Area (SWDA) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hydrologic studies of SWDA 4 have indicated that 57% of the /sup 90/Sr transport from it is associated with storm runoff events. This has indicated that a surface runoff diversion plan for SWDA 4 would result in an 80% reduction in its /sup 90/Sr discharge. Treatment of a burial trench in SWDA 5 with caustic soda has resulted in a two order of magnitude reduction in the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in its interstitial water. Such chemical treatment could prove to be a valuable remedial action for problem burial trenches.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Spalding, B.P. & Huff, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of /sup 85/Kr concentrations in air using a cryogenic sampling technique

Description: A new method to detect moderate concentrations (down to approximately 370 Bq/m/sup 3/ under actual field conditions) of /sup 85/Kr in air has been developed. This method employs a cryogenic sampler for collection of the air sample of interest and a Ge(Li) spectroscopy system to determine the concentration of /sup 85/Kr by detection of the 514-keV gamma photon. Data from experiments are presented.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Owens, M.E.; Berven, B.A. & Perdue, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly report on the strontium heat source development program, advanced nuclear systems and projects division for October-December 1980

Description: At Hanford, strontium is separated from the high-level waste, converted to the fluoride, and doubly encapsulated in small, high-integrity containers for subsequent long-term storage. The fluoride conversion, encapsulation, and storage take place in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facilities (WESF). The encapsulated strontium fluoride represents an economical source of /sup 90/Sr if the WESF capsule can be licensed for heat-source applications under anticipated-use conditions. The objectives of this program are to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources and specifically the WESF /sup 90/SrF2 capsules. The information needed for licensing can be divided into three general task areas: Task 1 - Chemical and Physical Properties of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/; Task 2 - /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ Compatibility Studies; and Task 3 - Capsule Qualification and Licensing. Efforts are proceeding concurrently on all three tasks to obtain the required information.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department