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Amorphous Ge bipolar blocking contacts on Ge detectors

Description: Semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors are usually operated in a full depletion mode and blocking contacts are required to maintain low leakage currents and high electric fields for charge collection. Blocking contacts on Ge detectors typically consist of n-type contacts formed by lithium diffusion and p-type contacts formed by boron ion implantation. Electrical contacts formed using sputtered amorphous Ge (a-Ge) films on high-purity Ge crystals were found to exhibit good blocking behavior in both polarities with low leakage currents. The a-Ge contacts have thin dead layers associated with them and can be used in place of lithium-diffused, ion-implanted or Schottky barrier contacts on Ge radiation detectors. Multi-electrode detectors can be fabricated with very simple processing steps using these contacts. 12 refs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Luke, P.N.; Cork, C.P.; Madden, N.W.; Rossington, C.S. & Wesela, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of uncertainties in irradiated hardware characterization: Final report, September 30, 1986-March 31, 1987

Description: Waste Management Group, Inc. has evaluated the techniques used by industry to characterize and classify irradiated hardware components for disposal. This report describes the current practices used to characterize the radionuclide content of hardware components, identifies the uncertainties associated with the techniques and practices considered, and recommends areas for improvement which could reduce uncertainty. Industry uses two different characterization methods. The first uses a combination of gamma scanning, direct sampling, underwater radiation profiling and radiochemical analysis to determine radionuclide content, while the second uses a form of activation analysis in conjunction with underwater radiation profiling. Both methods employ the determination of Cobalt 60 content, and the determination of scaling factors for hard-to-detect Part 61 radionuclides. The accurate determination of Cobalt-60 is critical since the Part 61 activation product radionuclides which affect Part 61 classification are scaled from Cobalt-60. Current uncertainties in Cobalt-60 determination can be reduced by improving underwater radiation profiling equipment and techniques. The calculational techniques used for activation analysis can also be refined to reduce the uncertainties with Cobalt-60 determination. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Bedore, N.; Levin, A. & Tuite, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

Description: Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Volchok, H L & Chieco, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground-water flow and transport modeling of the NRC-licensed waste disposal facility, West Valley, New York

Description: This report describes a simulation study of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from disposal at the NRC licensed waste disposal facility in West Valley, New York. A transient, precipitation driven, flow model of the near-surface fractured till layer and underlying unweathered till was developed and calibrated against observed inflow data into a recently constructed interceptor trench for the period March--May 1990. The results suggest that lateral flow through the upper, fractured till layer may be more significant than indicated by previous, steady state flow modeling studies. A conclusive assessment of the actual magnitude of lateral flow through the fractured till could however not be made. A primary factor contributing to this uncertainty is the unknown contribution of vertical infiltration through the interceptor trench cap to the total trench inflow. The second part of the investigation involved simulation of the migration of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239 from the one of the fuel hull disposal pits. A first-order radionuclide leach rate with rate coefficient of 10{sup {minus}6}/day was assumed to describe radionuclide release into the disposal pit. The simulations indicated that for wastes buried below the fractured till zone, no significant migration would occur. However, under the assumed conditions, significant lateral migration could occur for radionuclides present in the upper, fractured till zone. 23 refs., 68 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Kool, J. B. & Wu, Y. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary remedial action objectives for the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit

Description: Tank 16 is a High Level Radioactive Waste tank in the H-Area Tank Farm on the Savannah River Site that was placed into service in May 1959. A leak was detected in one of the construction weld joints while the tank was being filled. Before jet evacuation of the tank waste was completed, the leak overflowed the annulus pan and an estimated 16 to 700 gallons of waste escaped to the environment (soil and groundwater) over a six hour period contaminating approximately 1,600--70,000 cubic feet of soil with up to 5000 curies of activity (principally Cs[sup 137]). The Tank 16 bottom is constructed below the groundwater table which resulted in almost immediate contamination of that medium. Low groundwater flow rates, the ion exchange property of adjacent soils, and the distance to the nearest surface water bodies (1,500 to 8,000 feet) indicates that surface water and sediment outcrop of contaminates may be expected between 44 and 530 years (Poe et al., 1974). Remedial action objectives consist of medium-specific and operable unit specific goals for protecting human health and the environment. These objectives are specific and do not limit the range of alternatives that may be developed.A range of remedial technologies, which provides for treatment, containment, and removal requirements of contaminated media remaining at the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit, is identified and developed for each general response action.
Date: October 28, 1992
Creator: Miles, W.C. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculated late time spectra of supernovae

Description: We consider here the nebular phase spectra of supernovae whose late time luminosity is provided by the radioactive decay of /sup 56/Ni and /sup 56/Co synthesized in the explosion. A broad variety of supernovae are known or suspected to fall in this category. This includes all SNIa and SNIb, and at least some SNII, in particular SN1987a. At sufficiently late times the expanding supernova becomes basically nebular in character due to its decreasing optical depth. The spectra produced during this stage contain information on the density and abundance structure of the entire supernova, as opposed to spectra near maximum light which are affected only by the outermost layers. A numerical model for nebular spectrum formation is therefore potentially very valuable for answering currently outstanding questions about the post-explosion supernova structure. As an example, we can hope to determine the degree of mixing which occurs between the layers of the ''onion-skin'' abundance structure predicted by current one dimensional explosion calculations. In the sections which follow, such a numerical model is briefly described and then applied to SN1972e, a typical SNIa, SN1985f, an SNIb, and finally to SN1987a. In the case of SN1987a predicted spectra are presented for the wavelength range from 1 to 100 microns at a time 300 days after explosion. 18 refs., 6 figs.
Date: October 30, 1987
Creator: Axelrod, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth and characterization of isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals

Description: Isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals were successfully gown by a newly developed vertical Bridgman method. The system allows us to reliably grow high purity Ge single crystals of approximately 1 cm[sup 3] volume. To our knowledge, we have grown the first [sup 70]Ge single crystal. The electrically active chemical impurity concentration for both crystals was found to be [approximately]2 [times] cm[sup [minus]3] which is two order of magnitude better that of [sup 74]Ge crystals previously grown by two different groups. Isotopic enrichment of the [sup 70]Ge and the [sup 74]Ge crystals is 96.3% and 96.8%, respectively. The residual chemical impurities present in both crystals were identified as phosphorus, copper, aluminum, and indium. A wide variety of experiments which take advantage of the isotopic purity of our crystals are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Itoh, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNAP-21 program, Phase II. Deep sea radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric generator power supply system. Final design description, 10-watt system

Description: The SNAP-21 10-W system provides electrical power for use under the surface of the sea. It functions by converting the heat from a decaying radioisotope fuel into useful electrical energy. This heat energy is converted into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator. Semiconductor-type thermoelectric materials, maintained in a temperature gradient, accomplish the conversion. The isotopic fuel supplies heat to the thermoelectric materials and sea water acts as the heat sink to maintain the temperature gradient. Other components are employed to increase efficiency and condition the electrical output to the desired form. The components performing these functions are enclosed in a pressure vessel which protects them from sea water pressure and exposure. No external inputs are required to maintain operation of the system. With this type of mechanically-static, unsupported operation, long life with no maintenance is achieved.
Date: October 1, 1969
Creator: Wickenberg, R.F. & Harris, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

Description: We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Yelon, W.B. & Schupp, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry

Description: Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry generally equates to high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometry that can be attained by background reduction, selective signal identification, or some combination of both. Various methods for selectively identifying gamma-ray events and for reducing the background in gamma-ray spectrometers are given. The relative magnitude of each effect on overall sensitivity and the relative cost'' for implementing them are given so that a cost/benefit comparison can be made and a sufficiently sensitive spectrometer system can be designed for any application without going to excessive or unnecessary expense. 10 refs., 8 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Brodzinski, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Longitudinal spin fluctuations in nickel

Description: The longitudinal and transverse spin fluctuations in Ni have been measured below {Tc} by means of polarized neutron scattering in the momentum range 0.06 < q < 0.18 {angstrom}{sup -1}. In transverse scans spin wave peaks at E{sub q} = Dq{sup 2} appear as expected from early measurements performed with unpolarized neutrons. The longitudinal magnetic scattering {sub {chi}L}(q, E), on the other hand, is quasielastic without any signature of inelastic peaks near E{sub q}. The q and T dependences of {sub {chi}L}(q, E) resemble the paramagnetic scattering above {Tc}, i.e., the linewidth is roughly proportional to q{sup 2.5} and the integrated intensity I(q) is proportional to (q{sup 2} + {kappa}{sub z}{sup 2}){sup -1}. 8 refs., 3 figs.
Date: October 10, 1989
Creator: Boeni, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Martinez, J.L. (Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)) & Tranquada, J.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thulium oxide fuel characterization study (thulium-170 fueled capsule parametric design)

Description: A doubly encapsulated thulia wafer, i.e., individually lined wafers stacked one upon another inside a fuel capsule was studied. The temperature profiles were determined for thulia power densities ranging from 8 to 24 W/cc and fuel capsule surface temperatures ranging from 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) to 2000/sup 0/F (1093/sup 0/C). Parametric studies were also carried out on a singly encapsulated configuration in which the thulia wafers were stacked face to face in an infinitely long, lined cylinder. The doubly encapsulated wafer configuration yielded a lower centerline temperature than the singly encapsulated capsule. Only in extreme cases of a large wafer diameter in combination with a high thulia power density did the fuel capsule centerline temperature exceed the thulia melt temperature of 4172/sup 0/F (2300/sup 0/C). Results are also given for the maximum radius attainable without having centerline melting when using a thulia microsphere fuel form.
Date: October 1, 1968
Creator: DesChamps, N.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of temperature on the leaching behavior of cement waste forms: The cement/sodium sulfate system

Description: The leaching mechanisms of simulated low-level radioactive waste forms are being determined as support for development of an accelerated leach test. Two approaches are being used: (1) comparisons of leaching data with results of a model that describes diffusion from a finite cylinder, and (2) observation of the leaching process at temperatures between 20{degree}C and 65{degree}C. To provide results that can be used for modeling, leaching at elevated temperatures must change neither the leaching mechanism nor the structural controls of leaching such as the porosity. Releases of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, calcium, sodium and potassium from portland cement containing sodium sulfate, as a simulated evaporator sludge, have been determined under a variety of experimental conditions. Data from the leach tests were compared to model results for diffusion from the finite cylinder. While most leaching appears to be diffusion controlled, notable exceptions occur. For all samples activation energies ranging between 6 and 11 Kcal/mole have been calculated from the relationship of the effective diffusion coefficient to increasing temperature, close to the expected value of 5 Kcal/mole for diffusion. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large area, low capacitance Si(Li) detectors for high rate x-ray applications

Description: Large area, single-element Si(Li) detectors have been fabricated using a novel geometry which yields detectors with reduced capacitance and hence reduced noise at short amplifier pulse-processing times. A typical device employing the new geometry with a thickness of 6 mm and an active area of 175 mm 2 has a capacitance of only 0.5 pf, compared to 2.9 pf for a conventional planar device with equivalent dimensions. These new low capacitance detectors, used in conjunction with low capacitance field effect transistors, will result in x-ray spectrometers capable of operating at very high count rates while still maintaining excellent energy resolution. The spectral response of the low capacitance detectors to a wide range of x-ray energies at 80 K is comparable to typical state-of-the-art conventional Si(Li) devices. In addition to their low capacitance, the new devices offer other advantages over conventional detectors. Detector fabrication procedures, I-V and C-V characteristics, noise performance, and spectral response to 2-60 keV x-rays are described.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Rossington, C.S.; Fine, P.M. & Madden, N.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermomigration of Au/sup 195/ and Sb/sup 125/ in gold and Ni/sup 59/ in nickel

Description: Each interface contained a layer of the appropriate tracer and an inert radioactive Hf/sup 181/O/sub 2/ marker. During the temperature gradient anneal, the maximum of the tracer profile at the hot interface shifted with respect to the Hf/sup 181/O/sub 2/ marker. Heat of transport of Au/sup 195/ in gold was found to be 0.80 +- 0.27 eV. This value supports Huntington's theory. The heat of transport of Ni/sup 59/ in nickel was estimated to be 1.3 +- 7.2 eV. The experimentally determined value of the Sb/sup 125/ heat of transport in gold was -2.02 +- 0.23 eV. This large negative number indicates that the charge carrier-impurity ion interaction is the dominant driving force for Sb/sup 125/ impurity thermomigration in gold. This value compares favorably with the theoretical value for the heat carrier-impurity ion interaction of Q* = -0.5 eV for antimony thermomigration in silver.
Date: October 1, 1968
Creator: Mock, W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of positron emitting radionuclides for imaging with improved positron detectors. [/sup 82/Rb, /sup 62/Zn, /sup 64/Cu, /sup 67/Ga]

Description: Recent advances in positron cameras and positron ring detectors for transverse section reconstruction have created renewed interest in positron emitting radionuclides. This paper reports on: generator-produced /sup 82/Rb; cyclotron-produced /sup 62/Zn; and reactor-produced /sup 64/Cu. Investigation of the /sup 82/Sr (25 d)--/sup 82/Rb (75 s) generator determined the elution characteristics for Bio-Rex 70, a weakly acidic carboxylic cation exchanger, using 2% NaCl as the eluent. The yield of /sup 82/Rb and the breakthrough of /sup 82/Sr were determined for newly prepared columns and for long term elution conditions. Spallation-produced /sup 82/Sr was used to charge a compact /sup 82/Rb generator to obtain multi-millicurie amounts of /sup 82/Rb for myocardial imaging. Zinc accumulates in the islet cells of the pancreas and in the prostate. Zinc-62 was produced by protons on Cu foil and separated by column chromatography. Zinc-62 was administered as the amino acid chelates and as the ZnCl/sub 2/ to tumor and normal animals. Tissue distribution was determined for various times after intravenous injection. Pancreas-liver images of /sup 62/Zn-histidine uptake were obtained in animals with the gamma camera and the liver uptake of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid was computer subtracted to image the pancreas alone. The positron camera imaged uptake of /sup 62/Zn-histidine in the prostate of a dog at 20 h. /sup 64/Cu was chelated to asparagine, a requirement of leukemic cells, and administered to lymphoma mice. Uptake in tumor and various tissues was determined and compared with the uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate under the same conditions. /sup 64/Cu-asparagine had better tumor-to-soft tissue ratios than /sup 67/Ga-citrate.
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Yano, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emission computed axial tomography. [Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc with. gamma. camera with /sup 68/Ga and ring of scintillation counters]

Description: Computed transverse section emission tomography using /sup 99m/Tc with the Anger camera is compared to positron annihilation coincident detection using a ring of crystals and /sup 68/Ga. It is concluded that positron computed section imaging has a tenfold increase in sensitivity over multiple-view imaging with the gamma camera which gives multiple sections but requires camera or patient rotation.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Budinger, Thomas F.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Greenberg, William L. & Huesman, Ronald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Additional Pu-238 production

Description: Possible DOD demands for up to 1 MW thermal of heat sources could be partially met by increasing SRP Pu-238 production. The Pu-238 would be an alternate or supplement to Sr-90 in these heat sources. There is a growing surplus of Np-237 target material which could be used to produce high-assay Pu-238 (83.5%). In addition SRP produces low assay Pu-238 (approx. 27%) that could be extracted instead of being sent to the waste tanks. About 216 kg or 121 kw thermal of additional high-assay Pu-238 could be produced at SRP through FY1997; it would produce power at an incremental cost of approx. $1160/watt. About 77 kg or 44 kw thermal of low assay Pu-238 could also be recovered through FY1997; it would generate power at approx. $1850/watt. These quantities would supply only a fraction (approx. 1/6 of the 1 MW demand projection. Also the costs are considerably higher than the costs for Sr-90 fission product heat sources. Sr-90 from SRP and Hanford could supply the total 1 MW thermal requirement (150 MCi at $1 to $3 per Ci) at costs in the range of $150 to $450 per watt.
Date: October 4, 1982
Creator: O'Neill, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs]

Description: Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Poston, T.M. & Soldat, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins

Description: The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this paper is one possible solution to preserving the integrity of these solidified waste forms: the encapsulation of beaded anion exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground granulated blast furnace slag, Type I-II (mixed) portland cement, and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the study reported herein show the cured waste form tested has a low leach rate for nitrate ion from the resin (and a low leach rate is inferred for Tc-99) and acceptable durability as assessed by the water immersion and freezing/thawing test protocols. The results also suggest a tested surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Morgan, I.L. & Bostick, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

Description: Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F. & Cross, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Very hot nuclear systems and their binary and multifragment decay

Description: Compound emission of complex fragments in the reaction {sup 63}Cu + {sup 12}C is used to determine the associated ridge-line potential. Compound binary emission of complex fragments at higher energies is illustrated for a variety of reactions. Complex fragment emission from 18, 26, 31, 35, 45 and 55 MeV/N {sup 139}La/{sup 129}Xe + {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 51}V, {sup nat}Cu and {sup 139}La reactions has been studied. Multifragment events from these reactions were assigned to sources characterized by their energy and mass through the incomplete-fusion-model kinematics. Excitation functions for the various multifragment channels appear to be nearly independent of the system and bombarding energy. Preliminary comparisons of the data with sequential-statistical-decay calculations are discussed. 16 refs., 9 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Moretto, L.G.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Delis, D. & Wozniak, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

Description: The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Weller, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department