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Concentration of remote-handled, transuranic, sodium nitrate-based sludge using agitated thin-film evaporators

Description: The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to prepared transuranic waste for final disposal. Once operational, this facility will process, package, and certify remote-handled transuranic waste for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. One of the wastes that will be handled at WHIPP is the transuranic sludge currently stored at ORNL in eight 50,000-gal underground tanks. The use of an Agitated Thin-Film Evaporator (ATFE) for concentration of this waste is being investigated. Tests have shown that the ATFE can be used to produce a thick slurry, a powder, or a fused salt. A computer model developed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to simulate the operation of ATFE's on their waste is being modified for use on the ORNL transuranic sludge. This paper summarizes the results of the test with the ATFEs to date, discusses the changes in the SRP model necessary to use this model with the ORNL waste, and compares the results of the model with the actual data taken from the operation of ATFEs at vendors' test facilities. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Pen, Ben-Li (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The thermodynamic properties of 2-aminobiphenyl (an intermediate in the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network)

Description: Catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) is a key step in upgrading processes for conversion of heavy petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and the products of the liquefaction of coal to economically viable products. This research program provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key organic nitrogen-containing compounds present in the range of alternative feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key HDN reaction networks. This report is the first in a series that will lead to an analysis of a three-ring HDN system; the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network. 2-Aminobiphenyl is the initial intermediate in the HDN pathway for carbazole, which consumes the least hydrogen possible. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2-aminobiphenyl are reported. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and 820 K. The critical temperature and critical density were determined for 2-aminobiphenyl with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. The Gibbs energies of formation are used in thermodynamic calculations to compare the feasibility of the initial hydrogenolysis step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} network with that of its hydrocarbon and oxygen-containing analogous; i.e., fluorene/H{sub 2} and dibenzofuran/H{sub 2}. Results of the thermodynamic calculations are compared with those of batch-reaction studies reported in the literature. 57 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E. & Nguyen, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isolating /sup 241/Am from waste solutions containing Al, Ca, Fe, and Cr

Description: About 2.4 kg of /sup 241/Am contaminated with calcium and aluminum had been recovered from low-activity waste during recycle of 11% /sup 240/Pu. A process was developed and demonstrated to purify the americium before shipment as /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/. The americium and some of the calcium were batch extracted into 50% TBP-n-paraffin from 2.2M Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ - 0.3M HNO/sub 3/ solution in a canyon tank. Pregnant solvent was scrubbed first with 2.1M Al/sup 3 +/-0.3M Li/sup +/-6.7M NO/sub 3/- and then with 7M LiNO/sub 3/ to reduce the calcium content and to displace the aluminum. Americium was then stripped from the solvent with water and concentrated by evaporation. Before precipitating the americium with oxalic acid, the nitric acid was adjusted with NH/sub 4/OH to yield a 1M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ solution. Recovery across the batch extraction step was 97.8%, while 93% of the calcium and >99% of the aluminum was rejected. Recovery across precipitation averaged >96% while producing a product which was >99.3% pure /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/. The major impurities were water, carbon, calcium, iron, and zinc.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A. & King, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

Description: Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Date: March 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental nuclear and radiochemistry. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980. [Dept. of Chemistry, Carnegie-Mellon Univ. , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2/1/79 to 1/31/80]

Description: This project entails the investigation of deep nuclear spallation reactions induced by high-energy light particles on complex nuclei. Experimental studies involve activation of various medium- to heavy-mass targets bombarded by pi mesons, protons, and alpha particles. A prime objective is to deconvolve the cascade and evaporation steps in the reaction mechanism. Experimentally, then, particular emphasis has been placed on spallation products far from yield maxima. Irradiations have been performed predominantly at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Results from bombardments of /sup 89/Y with 190-MeV ..pi../sup -/, 800-MeV protons and 720-MeV alphas (SREL) have been nearly completed; mass-yield distributions were compared. Pion-induced neutron removal reactions have been presented for /sup 90/Zr and /sup 96/Ru along with a serious critique of the final-state charge interaction hypothesis. Theoretical efforts are being directed at the evaporative behavior of very high-temperature nuclei as determined by the nuclear equation of state and how such behavior might become evident in spallation processes. In addition, the soft spheres model has been extended to consider the significance of nuclear transparency in high-energy reactions.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Karol, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Division quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1977

Description: Fuel Cycle Research and Development: Results are presented on the fluidized-bed calcination of high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing on the post treatment of the calcine, and on the removal of actinide elements from the waste prior to calcination. Other projects include the development of storage technology for /sup 85/Kr waste; a study of the hydrogen mordenite catalyzed reaction between NO/sub x/ and NH/sub 3/; the adsorption and storage of /sup 129/I on silver exchanged mordenite; physical properties, materials of construction, and unit operations studies on the evaporation of high-level waste; the behavior of volatile radionuclides during the combustion of HTGR graphite-based fuel; and the use of the uranium-ruthenium system in age-dating uranium ore bodies. Special Materials Production: The long-term management of defense waste from the ICPP covers postcalcination treatment of ICPP calcined waste; the removal of actinide elements from first-cycle raffinate; the retrieval and handling of calcined waste from ICPP storage vaults; and the preparation of the ''Defense Waste Document''. Process improvements are reported on the Fluorinel headend process for Zircaloy-clad fuels and on uranium accountability measurements. Other development results cover the process for recovering spent Rover fuel, buried pipeline transfer systems, support to the Waste Management Program, and effluent monitoring methods evaluation and development. Other Projects Supporting Energy Development: In this category are studies on nuclear materials security; application of a liquid-solid fluidized-bed heat exchanger to the recovery of geothermal heat; in-plant reactor source term measurements; burnup methods for fast breeder reactor fuels; absolute thermal fission yield measurements; analytical support to light water breeder reactor development; research on analytical methods; and the behavior of environmental species of iodine.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Slansky, C. M.; Dickey, B. R.; Musgrave, B. C. & Rohde, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department