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A Stereographic Visualization Environment and its Applications

Description: The data visualization activity at Brookhaven National Laboratory is rooted in programs extending back several decades to develop, evaluate and deploy imaging instruments. Several of these developments, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology, were targeted for medical imaging. Other applications made use of images derived from larger, general purpose scientific instruments such as the Laboratory's nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. The most recent impetus to the program has been from a cooperative research and development project between BNL and two industrial companies, GTE and Mobil Oil involving microtomographic imaging of oil reservoir rock, which included development of a novel stereoscopic visualization theatre. This 'Vis Theatre' has been subsequently used for research in other scientific disciplines, and has attracted considerable attention in both the technical literature and even the popular press.
Date: April 12, 1999
Creator: Peskin, A.M. & Andrews, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

Description: Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD.
Date: January 13, 1997
Creator: Ramirez, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

Description: The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Niemeyer, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

Description: A case study approach using Terry Sandstone production from the Hambert-Aristocrat Field, Weld County, Colorado was used to document the process of integration. One specific project goal is to demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to detect reservoir compartmentalization and improve reserve estimates. The final project goal is to derive a general strategy for integration for independent operators. Teamwork is the norm for the petroleum industry where teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers work together to improve profits through a better understanding of reservoir size, compartmentalization, and orientation as well as reservoir flow characteristics. In this manner, integration of data narrows the uncertainty in reserve estimates and enhances reservoir management decisions. The process of integration has proven to be iterative. Integration has helped identify reservoir compartmentalization and reduce the uncertainty in the reserve estimates. This research report documents specific examples of integration and the economic benefits of integration.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Van Kirk, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved methods for water shutoff. Semi-annual report, May 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

Description: In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of water are produced each year during oilfield operations. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl for pipeline transport and $1.50 per bbl for trucked water. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. For each 1% reduction in water production, the cost-savings to the oil industry could be between $50,000,000 and $100,000,000 per year. Reduced water production would result directly in improved oil recovery (IOR) efficiency in addition to reduced oil-production costs. A substantial positive environmental impact could also be realized if significant reductions are achieved in the amount of water produced during oilfield operations. In an earlier project, we identified fractures (either naturally or artificially induced) as a major factor that causes excess water production and reduced oil recovery efficiency, especially during waterfloods and IOR projects. We also found fractures to be a channeling and water-production problem that has a high potential for successful treatment by gels and certain other chemical blocking agents. By analogy, these blocking materials also have a high potential for treating narrow channels behind pipe and small casing leaks. We also determined that the ability of blocking agents to reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil is critical to the success of these blocking treatments in production wells if zones are not isolated during placement of the blocking agents.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Seright, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics to a low quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982-86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, March 13, 1996--June 12, 1996

Description: At this stage, the main emphasis is on the Field Demonstration phase of the project. The drilling portion of the Field Demonstration has been divided into two separate phases. We are currently proceeding with the drilling and completion of the first eleven Phase I wells. Locations for the additional seven Phase III wells were chosen at a Technical Committee meeting during the first week of June. Preliminary results have been very encouraging as all the wells are producing at or above their forecasted rates. Phase I includes the drilling of four producers and one injection well (10-acre nominal spacing) in both the Section 329 study area and the Section 326/327 study area, as well as one producing well in Section 362. Phase I will be completed during the first week of July. Phase II drilling will involve the completion of the waterflood patterns to the west of the Phase I areas in Sections 329 and 327, consisting of two producers and one injection well in each area. The final Phase II well will be located near the southwest corner of Section 324, in an area of the Unit that remains relatively undrained. Producer-injection well conversions will be performed in this area, as well as other peripheral areas of the Unit to add needed water injection.
Date: June 12, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Fluid relationships in recovering attic oil]. Volume 2: Laboratory research

Description: A program of laboratory research was undertaken to study and develop fluid relationships which were used in the reservoir simulation of miscible and immiscible processes in steeply dipping reservoirs. The investigations focused on the development of three phase relative permeability relationships, defining minimum miscibility pressures for various injectants, defining critical velocities of gas front movement in gravity stable miscible displacement processes, and determination of the impact of the use of various injectant gases in miscible and immiscible processes. This paper contains the executive summary, an introduction to the project, an explanation of the laboratory analysis, and recommendations. Details can be found in Part 2.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Manne, A.D.; Wolcott, J.; Schenewerk, P.A. & Kimbrell, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments

Description: Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.
Date: February 23, 2000
Creator: Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W. & McCool, Stan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A model for predicting damage dependent response of inelastic media with microstructure

Description: This paper presents a model developed for predicting the mechanical response of inelastic media with heterogeneous microstructure. Particular emphasis is given to the development of microstructural damage along grains. The model is developed within the concepts of continuum mechanics, with special emphasis on the development of internal boundaries in the continuum by utilizing fracture mechanics-based cohesive zone models. In addition, the grains are assumed to be characterized by nonlinear viscoplastic material behavior. Implementation of the model to a finite element computational algorithm is also briefly described, and example solutions are obtained. Finally, homogenization procedures are discussed for obtaining macroscopic damage dependent mechanical constitutive equations that may then be utilized to construct a well-posed boundary value problem for the macroscopically homogenized damage dependent medium.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Allen, D.H.; DeVries, K.L. & Hurtado, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

Description: A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can ...
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. & Myers, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

Description: The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.
Date: January 29, 2002
Creator: Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A. & Bennett, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

Description: This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Shariati, Maryam & Yortsos, Yanis C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRITIQUE OF DUAL CONTINUUM FORMULATIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

Description: Subsurface flow processes may take place at many different scales. The different scales refer to rock pore structure, micro-fractures, distinct fracture networks ranging from small to large fracture spacing, and even faults. Presently, there is no satisfactory methodology for describing quantitatively flow and reactive transport in multi-scale media. Approaches commonly applied to model fractured systems include single continuum models (SCM), equivalent continuum models (ECM), discrete fracture models (DFM), and various forms of dual continuum models (DCM). The SCM describes flow in the fracture network only and is valid in the absence of fracture-matrix interaction. The ECM, on the other hand, requires pervasive interaction between fracture and matrix and is based on averaging their properties. The ECM is characterized by equal fracture and matrix solute concentrations, but generally different mineral concentrations. The DFM is perhaps the most rigorous, but would require inordinate computational resources for a highly fractured rock mass. The DCM represents a fractured porous medium as two interacting continua with one continuum corresponding to the fracture network and the other the matrix. A coupling term provides mass transfer between the two continua. Vidues for mineral and solute concentrations and other properties such as liquid saturation state maybe assigned individually to fracture and matrix. Two forms of the DCM are considered characterized by connected and disconnected matrix blocks. The former is referred to as the DCCM (dual continuum connected matrix) model and the latter as the DCDM (dual continuum disconnected matrix) model. In contrast to the DCCM model in which concentration gradients in the matrix are allowed only parallel to the fracture, the DFM provides for matrix concentration gradients perpendicular to the fracture. The DFM and DCCM models can agree with each other only in the case where both reduce to the ECM. The DCCM model exhibits the incorrect behavior ...
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Lichtner, P.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical, noncontact, automated experimental techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction of object surfaces using projection moire, stereo imaging, and phase-measuring profilometry

Description: Three optical, noncontact, automated experimental techniques for determining the topography of object surfaces were assessed. The main objective was to test the limitations of three experimental techniques: projection moire, stereo imaging, and phase-measuring profilometry. Phase-measuring profilometry is the most promising of the three techniques for mapping rock fracture surfaces automatically, accurately, quickly, and with high resolution. The experimental set-ups used to assess these different techniques are similar, and they require essentially the same equipment. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to go from one experimental set-up to another. Also, the experience gained in implementing one experimental technique is often applicable in another, although the basic principles of each experimental technique are sometimes very dissimilar.
Date: January 20, 1996
Creator: Cardenas-Garcia, J.F. & Severson, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micromechanics of compaction in an analogue reservoir sandstone

Description: Energy production, deformation, and fluid transport in reservoirs are linked closely. Recent field, laboratory, and theoretical studies suggest that, under certain stress conditions, compaction of porous rocks may be accommodated by narrow zones of localized compressive deformation oriented perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress. Triaxial compression experiments were performed on Castlegate, an analogue reservoir sandstone, that included acoustic emission detection and location. Initially, acoustic emissions were focused in horizontal bands that initiated at the sample ends (perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress), but with continued loading progressed axially towards the center. This paper describes microscopy studies that were performed to elucidate the micromechanics of compaction during the experiments. The microscopy revealed that compaction of this weakly-cemented sandstone proceeded in two phases: an initial stage of porosity decrease accomplished by breakage of grain contacts and grain rotation, and a second stage of further reduction accommodated by intense grain breakage and rotation.
Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: DIGIOVANNI,ANTHONY A.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; HOLCOMB,DAVID J. & OLSSON,WILLIAM A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing seal performance and parameter sensitivity with a full-shaft model

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by US government defense programs. Located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico, the facility`s disposal regions are mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 652 m. Four shafts service the operational needs of the facility for air intake, exhaust, waste handling and salt handling. These shafts range in diameter from 3.5 to 6.1 m and extend from the ground surface to the repository. During repository closure, following an operational life of approximately 50 years, these shafts will be sealed in accordance with an acceptable design. Under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Repository Isolation Systems Department (RISD) of Sandia National Laboratories has developed a design for the WIPP shaft sealing system. This design has been reviewed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA). An effective shaft sealing system for the WIPP will limit liquid and gas flows, and permanently prevent the migration of radiological or other hazardous constituents through the sealed shafts from repository to accessible environment. Because of these performance objectives, a significant effort has been directed toward evaluation of the seal design. Whereas RISD (1996) provides a comprehensive discussion, this paper focuses on only one aspect of the evaluation effort, namely a full shaft, fluid flow model.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Reeves, M.; Fryar, D. G.; Statham, W. H. & Knowles, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

Description: An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.
Date: May 25, 1998
Creator: McMechan, G.A. & Soegaard, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of reservoir wettability and its effect on oil recovery. Annual report, February 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

Description: We report on the first year of the project, {open_quotes}Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.{close_quotes} The objectives of this five-year project are: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the first year of this project we have focused on understanding the interactions between crude oils and mineral surfaces that establish wetting in porous media. Mixed-wetting can occur in oil reservoirs as a consequence of the initial fluid distribution. Water existing as thick films on flat surfaces and as wedges in comers can prevent contact of oil and mineral. Water-wet pathways are thus preserved. Depending on the balance of surface forces-which depend on oil, solid, and brine compositions-thick water films can be either stable or unstable. Water film stability has important implications for subsequent alteration of wetting in a reservoir. On surfaces exposed to oil, the components that are likely to adsorb and alter wetting can divided into two main groups: those containing polar heteroatoms, especially organic acids and bases; and the asphaltenes, large molecules that aggregate in solution and precipitate upon addition of n-pentane and similar agents. In order to understand how crude oils interact with mineral surfaces, we must first gather information about both these classes of compounds in a crude oil. Test procedures used to assess the extent of wetting alteration include adhesion and adsorption on smooth surfaces and spontaneous imbibition into porous media. Part 1 of this project is devoted to determining the mechanisms by which crude oils alter wetting.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Buckley, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, October 1--December 1997

Description: The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be constructed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and petrophysical characterization of the fluvial-deltaic Ferron Sandstone and are described within: (1) regional stratigraphic interpretation and (2) technology transfer.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Allison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary three-dimensional discrete fracture model, Tiva Canyon tuff, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

Description: A three-dimensional discrete fracture model was completed to investigate the potential effects of fractures on the flow of water at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. A fracture network of the Exploratory Studies Facility starter tunnel area was simulated and calibrated with field data. Two modeled volumes were used to simulate three-dimensional fracture networks of the Tiva Canyon tuff. One volume had a width and length of 150 meters, and the other had a width and length of 200 meters; both volumes were 60 meters thick. The analysis shows that the fracture system in the Exploratory Studies Facility starter tunnel area has numerous connected fractures that have relatively large permeabilities. However, pathway analysis between three radial boreholes indicated there were few pathways and little connection, which is consistent with results of cross-boreholes pressure testing. Pathway analysis also showed that at the scales used there was only one pathway connecting one end of the flow box to the opposite end. The usual vertical pathway was along one large fracture, whereas in four horizontal directions the pathway was from multiple fracture connections. As a result, the fracture network can be considered sparse. The fracture network was refined by eliminating nonconductive fractures determined from field-derived permeabilities. Small fractures were truncated from the simulated network without any effect on the overall connectivity. Fractures as long as 1.25 meters were eliminated (a large percentage of the total number of fractures) from the network without altering the number of pathways. Five directional permeabilities were computed for the 150- and 200-meter-scale flow box areas. Permeabilities for the 150-meter scale vary by almost two orders of magnitude, with the principal permeability direction being easterly. At the 200-meter scale, however, the flow box permeabilities only vary by a factor of four, with the principal permeability direction being vertical.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Anna, L. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature water adsorption on The Geysers rocks

Description: In order to measure water retention by geothermal reservoir rocks at the actual reservoir temperature, the ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quality of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers geothermal reservoir was measured at 150{sup degree}C, 200{sup degree}C, and 250{sup degree}C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {<=}p/p{sub degree} {<=} 0.98, where p{sub degree} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A correlation is sought between water adsorption, the surface properties, and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M. & Mesmer, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater colloids: Their mobilization from subsurface deposits. Final report

Description: The overall goal of this program has involved developing basic understandings of the mechanisms controlling the presence of colloidal phases in groundwaters. The presence of colloids in groundwater is extremely important in that they may enable the subsurface transport of otherwise immobile pollutants like plutonium or PCBs. The major findings of this work have included: (1) Sampling groundwaters must be performed with great care in order to avoid false positives; (2) Much of the colloidal load moving below ground derives from the aquifer solids themselves; and (3) The detachment of colloids from the aquifer solids occurs in response to changes in the groundwater solution chemistry.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding, Class 1

Description: The objectives of this project were (1) to demonstrate the in situ microbial population in a fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir could be induced to proliferate to such an extent that they will selectively restrict flow in the more porous zones in the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through previously unswept areas thus improving the sweep efficiency of the waterflood and (2) to obtain scientific validation that microorganisms are indeed responsible for the increased oil recovery. One expected outcome of this new technology was the prolongation of economical life of the reservoir, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in areas of the reservoir subjected to the MPPM technology than it would if it followed its historic trend.
Date: February 2, 2000
Creator: Stephens, James O.; Brown, Lewis R. & Vadie, A. Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department