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An Intelligent Modular Array System for the Monitoring of VOCs in the Environment

Description: The originally proposed project had one primary objective: TO develop a low cost integrated VOC measurement system, IMAS, that can detect, quantify, and report on chemical contaminants present in water, soil, and air in a minimally invasive manner. A two phase program was initially proposed. Phase 1 would investigate the critical performance and reliability limits of the technology, and Phase 2 would develop and demonstrate a fully integrated module in actual field conditions.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Tolar, N. Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Enhanced Bioremediation at the Savannah River Site to Remediate Pesticides and PCBs

Description: Enhanced bioremediation is quickly developing into an economical and viable technology for the remediation of contaminated soils. Until recently, chlorinated organic compounds have proven difficult to bioremediate. This article reviews the ongoing remediation occurring at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits using windrow turners to facilitate microbial degradation of certain pesticides and PCBs.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Beul, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

Description: Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80{degree}C) and at ambient pressures.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R. & Murguia, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data quality objective to support resolution of the organic complexant safety issue

Description: This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the organic complexant safety issue at the Hanford Site. Two important outputs of this particular DQO application were the following: (1) decision rules for categorizing organic tanks; and (2) analytical requirements that feed into the tank-specific characterization plans. The decision rules developed in this DQO allow the organic tanks to be categorized as safe, conditionally safe, or unsafe based on fuel and moisture concentrations. Then analytical requirements from this DQO process fall into two groups, primary and secondary. The primary data requirements are always applied, while the secondary requirements are only necessary on those half segment samples that violate the fuel and moisture decision rules or that propagate during adiabatic calorimetry testing.
Date: September 8, 1995
Creator: Turner, D. A.; Babad, H.; Buckley, L. L. & Meacham, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

Description: This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Jackson, P.; Keim, P.; Kuske, C. & Willardson, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-scale demonstration of nonthermal plasma VOC treatment at Tinker AFB

Description: Nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology is a promising candidate for the treatment of air pollutants. An NTP is different from a thermal plasma in that high energy electrons are used to create chemically active species without raising the gas to high temperatures. NTPs have the potential of simultaneous removal of multiple air pollutants with better control over treatment byproducts. A silent discharge plasma (SDP) configuration is one method of easily generating such a nonthermal plasma. Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases (oxides of sulfur and nitrogen - SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}), and treating other environmentally-hazardous chemical compounds (hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons, and chlorofluorocarbons). At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the authors have been studying the silent discharge plasma for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units (e.g., incinerators, high-temperature packed bed reactors, arc melters; low-temperature thermal desorbers), and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater).
Date: October 22, 1996
Creator: Korzekwa, R. A. & Rosocha, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crow process modeling

Description: Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shrinkage and microstructural development during drying of organically modified silica xerogels

Description: We have studied the different driving forces behind syneresis in MTES/TEOS gels by aging them in different H{sub 2}O/EtOH pore fluids. We show using shrinkage, density, contact angle, and N{sub 2} sorption measurements, the influence of gel/solvent interactions on the microstructural evolution during drying. Competing effects of syneresis (that occurs during aging) and drying shrinkage resulted in the overall linear shrinkage of the organically modified gels to be constant at {approximately}50%. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the gels caused the driving force for syneresis to change from primarily condensation reactions to a combination of condensation and solid/liquid interfacial energy. In addition the condensation driven shrinkage was observed to be irreversible, whereas the interfacial free energy driven shrinkage was observed to be partially reversible. Nitrogen sorption experiments show that xerogels with the same overall extent of shrinkage can have vastly different microstructures due to the effects of microphase separation.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Raman, N.K.; Wallace, S. & Brinker, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Tri-N-Butyl Phosphate on Tank 48 as a Result of Salt Solution Transfers within the In-Tank Precipitation Facility

Description: The transfer of 12,000 gallons of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) spent salt solution waste from the ITP Feed Tank to Tank 48H will not result in any flammability, compatibility, criticality, or combustibility problems. No impacts on downstream facilities or processes were identified. Addition of the solution to Tank 48H will not result in an increase in the rate of hydrogen production. Insoluble tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) will collect on the surface of the contents of Tank 48H. However, the quantity of TBP will be insufficient to form a layer thick enough to pose a credible combustibility hazard.
Date: May 4, 1994
Creator: Barnes, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume II

Description: Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) technology holds great promise for treating mixed wastes, in an environmentally safe and efficient manner. In the spring of 1994 the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Operations Office awarded Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, of Boston Massachusetts and its sub-contractor MODAR, Inc. of Natick Massachusetts a Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing (SCWODAT) program. The SCWODAT program was contracted through a Cooperative Agreement that was co-funded by the US Department of Energy and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The SCWODAT testing scope outlined by the DOE in the original Cooperative Agreement and amendments thereto was initiated in June 1994 and successfully completed in December 1995. The SCWODAT program provided further information and operational data on the effectiveness of treating both simulated mixed waste and typical Navy hazardous waste using the MODAR SCWO technology.
Date: November 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Competitive ion kinetics in direct mass spectrometric organic speciation. 1993 Progress report

Description: The following joint projects are either in progress, or have been completed. (1) Southern Illinois University, Prof. S. Scheiner--Combined experimental-theoretical study of the thermochemistry of protonation, complexation, and hydration of di- and polyfunctional ethers. (2) Eastern illinois University, Prof. C. Deakyne--Essentially the same framework as above. The focus here was to determine whether C or N lone pair electrons were more effective in forming ionic hydrogen bonds. (3) Virginia Commonwealth University-Prof. S. El-Shall--The author put the wrap on a joint thermochemical (NIST) and beam expansion study (VCU) which probed structures and stabilities of methanol clusters incorporating either CH{sub 3}CN or (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}N. MeCN and TMA were chosen because of their widely differing proton affinities (PA`s) and the fact that they form single H-bonds (i.e., complex intraclusters involving multiple bonding are unlikely). (4) University of Maryland-Baltimore County-Prof. J. Liebman and the Phillips Laboratory Supercomputer Center, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM-A. Fant--One of the most perplexing problems among physical organic chemists has involved the site of protonation of a class of molecules referred to as quinones and, in particular, the symmetric member, para-benzoquinone, C{sub 6}H{sub 4} (=O{sub 2}), designated below as PBQ. Possible protonation sites either the ring or carbonyl function.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Sieck, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical class specificity using self-assembled monolayers on SAW devices

Description: We have studied the chemical selectivity and sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors covered by (COO{sup {minus}}){sub 2}/Cu{sup 2+}-terminated interfaces by examining the response of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films formed from the solution phase for 36, 84, and 180 h adsorption times. These organomercaptan SAMs were prepared on thin-film Au surfaces having variable, controlled grain size. The SAW response from the carboxylate coordinated Cu{sup 2+}-terminated SAM is compared to that from methyl-terminated SAM, as these films interact with a vapor-phase organophosphonate analyte and the vapors of common organic solvents. Results have implications for designing and reliably fabricating chemical sensors that respond to specific organic analytes.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Thomas, R.C.; Ricco, A.J.; Yang, H.C.; Dermody, D. & Crooks, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated detection and reporting of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in complex environments

Description: This paper describes results from efforts to develop VOC sensing systems based on two complementary techniques. The first technique used a gated channeltron detector for resonant laser-induced multiphoton photoionization detection of trace organic vapors in a supersonic molecular beam. The channeltron was gated using a relatively simple circuit to generate a negative gate pulse with a width of 400 ns (FWHM), a 50 ns turn-on (rise) time, a 1.5 {mu}s turn-off (decay) time, a pulse amplitude of {minus}1000 Volts, and a DC offset adjustable from zero to {minus}1500 Volts. The gated channeltron allows rejection of spurious responses to UV laser light scattered directly into the channeltron and time-delayed ionization signals induced by photoionization of residual gas in the vacuum chamber. Detection limits in the part-per-trillion range have been demonstrated with the gated detector. The second technique used arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices coated with various chemically selective materials (e.g., polymers, self assembled monolayers) to provide unique response patterns to various chemical analytes. This work focused on polymers, formed by spin casting from solution or by plasma polymerization, as well as on self assembled monolayers. Response from coated SAWs to various concentrations of water, volatile organics, and organophosphonates (chemical warfare agent simulants) were used to provide calibration data. A novel visual empirical region of influence (VIERI) pattern recognition technique was used to evaluate the ability to use these response patterns to correctly identify chemical species. This investigation shows how the VERI technique can be used to determine the best set of coatings for an array, to predict the performance of the array even if sensor responses change due to aging of the coating materials, and to identify unknown analytes based on previous calibration data.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Preppernau, B.L. & Osbourn, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical information for the relocation and treatment of Argonne National Laboratory drums

Description: The technical information in this document is to evaluate waste drums stored in Solid Waste Project Management facilities that contain organic and potentially flammable gases. The document provides an evaluation of the planned venting of potentially flammable gases and the potential risks associated with the task.
Date: August 7, 1997
Creator: Clinton, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic reactivity analysis in Hanford single-shell tanks: Experimental and modeling basis for an expanded safety criterion

Description: De-spite demonstrated safe storage in terms of chemical stability of the Hanford high level waste for many decades, including decreasing waste temperatures and continuing aging of chemicals to less energetic states, concerns continue relative to assurance of long-term safe storage. Review of potential chemical safety hazards has been of particular recent interest in response to serious incidents within the Nuclear Weapons Complexes in the former Soviet Union (the 1957 Kyshtym and the 1993 Tomsk-7 incidents). Based upon an evaluation of the extensive new information and understanding that have developed over the last few years, it is concluded that the Hanford waste is stored safely and that concerns related to potential chemical safety hazards are not warranted. Spontaneous bulk runaway reactions of the Kyshtym incident type and other potential condensed-phase propagating reactions can be ruled out by assuring appropriate tank operating controls are in place and by limiting tank intrusive activities. This paper summarizes the technical basis for this position.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Fauske, H.; Grigsby, J.M.; Turner, D.A.; Babad, H. & Meacham, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of a chemical dispersant for the control of scale formation at treatment facility D

Description: At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), ground water is being treated to remove contaminants such as volatile organic compounds and chromium by several types of processes. At Treatment Facility D, remediation of volatile organics is accomplished by sparging the water with air, and the chromium is removed by an ion- exchange process. The air stripping has the effect of raising the pH of the water from -7 to -8, probably as result of removing carbon dioxide from the water. In the absence of further water treatment, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), or calcite, deposits on the downstream equipment as a scale, which causes operational problems. At present, this scale deposition is being controlled by the addition of a polyphosphate formulation (JP-7, Jaeger Products, Inc, Houston, TX), but the use of this chemical is not completely satisfactory because of stringent phosphate discharge limits for the treated water A more benign method of scale control would be highly desirable. Therefore, we evaluated an organic chemical dispersant as a possible alternative.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Krauter, P., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of biosurfactants on mass transfer, biodegradation, and transport of mixed wastes in multiphase systems: Final report

Description: The overall results of this project suggest that is situ treatment with biosurfactants has the potential to be an effective,economical, and nontoxic remediation technology. Specifically, we have demonstrated that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant may be used to increase the apparent solubility and biodegradation rate of organic compounds.
Date: January 17, 1997
Creator: Miller, R.M., Brusseau, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes

Description: Objectives of Phase I (completed Nov. 1995) was to evaluate the feasibility of applying surface sealing and venting features to contain and remediate volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils in the vadose zone. In Phase II, the remediation system will be installed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of INEL. It will cover an area of the landfill known to be contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons, deposited in shallow trenches. Operation will be monitored for 12 to 18 months to evaluate the impact on soil gas displacement. The 4 key components are the surface seal, plenum, vent assembly, and soil vapor monitoring points.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lowry, W.; Dunn, S.D. & Neeper, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

Description: Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Rogers, L. L., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Holding time study of volatile organic compounds in SUMMA canisters

Description: According to this work, the headspace concentration of VOC`s is not changing measurably with time. That is, no appreciable uncertainty is added to the analysis of VOC`s in the headspace of storage drums by storage of the samples in SUMMA canisters for greater than 28 days.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Reedy, G.T.; Applegate, D.V.; Gritters, M.A.; Carpenter, S.E. & Boparai, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 1.10 - Biodesulfurization Year 2. Semi-annual report, July 1-December 31, 1995

Description: Conventional catalytic hydrodesulfurization involves high costs, largely due to heavy metal deactivation of the catalysts. A potentially lower-cost treatment is a microbiological or enzymatic desulfurization. Recent advances at the Energy {ampersand} Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota have improved our understanding of sulfur-specific microbial desulfurization pathways in Rhodococcus bacteria (1, 2), but further work is needed to develop a technology based on biodesulfurization.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The value of adding regional to local stakeholder involvement in evaluating the acceptability of innovative technologies

Description: Technology is urgently needed to clean up contamination by volatile organic compounds at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In many cases, however, existing technology is too slow, inefficient, or expensive. The record of technology development is, in some cases, similarly disappointing. Remediation technologies developed at great expense and evaluated piecemeal over long periods have not been deployed because, in the end, the public judged them ineffective or unacceptable. The need for successful methods of remediation is too great and resources too limited to continue with ineffective technology evaluation. In order to make good decisions about which technologies to deploy, remedial project managers need to know stakeholders` requirements for the performance of proposed technologies. Expanding stakeholder involvement regionally identifies the concerns of a broad range of stakeholders at and DOE sites throughout the West -- issues that must be taken into account if technologies are to be accepted for wide deployment.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Peterson, T.S.; McCabe, G.; Niesen, K. & Serie, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department