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Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The observed experimental results indicated that metal capture by sorbents can be as high as 91% depending on the metal species and sorbent involved. All three sorbents tested, i.e., bauxite, zeolite and lime, were observed to be capable of capturing lead and cadmium in a various degree. Zeolite and lime were able to capture chromium. Results from thermodynamic equilibrium simulations suggested the formation of metal-sorbent compounds such as Pb{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(s), CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) and CdSiO{sub 3}(s) under the combustion conditions. Additional experiments are being carried out to provide more statistically representative results for better understanding the metal capture process.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Ho, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

Description: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A. & Bachovchin, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Oxide-Oxide Fiber Reinforced Hot Gas Filter Development

Description: This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The work was divided into two primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of the first task were then used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to assess the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. The results of this testing were then used to down-select the filter composition for full-scale filter fabrication and testing in the optional Phase II of the program.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Wagner, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trace metal capture by various sorbents during fluidized bed coal combustion

Description: Experiments were conducted in a 1-in. quartz fluidized bed combustor enclosed in an electric furnace. Coal samples were burned in the bed with a sorbent under specific combustion conditions and the amount of metal capture by the sorbent determined. Three different cao samples from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Bank were tested. Metals involved were Cd, Pb, and Cr; the sorbents included bauxite, zeolite, and lime. Potential metal-sorbent reactions were identified. Results indicated that metal capture by sorbent can be as high as 96%, depending on the metal species and sorbent. All 3 sorbents were capable of capturing Pb, zeolite and lime were able to capture Cr, and bauxite was the only sorbent capable of capturing Cd. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations suggested the formation of metal-sorbent compounds such as Pb{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and CdSiO{sub 3} solids under the combustion conditions.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Ho, T.C.; Ghebremeskel, A. & Hopper, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-neutral oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

Description: In this research project we plan to determine the rate of oxidation of pyrite associated with coaly particles (coal slurry solid) when the pH of the surrounding environment is held at approximately 7.8. Coaly particles that contain pyrite are generated during the preparation of Illinois Basin coal for market. These particles are discharged to an impoundment, which eventually must be reclaimed. The purpose for reclamation is either to prevent the generation of acidic solution as the pyrite in the coal slurry solid reacts with air, or to prevent the migration of the acidic solution to a groundwater aquifer. The reclamation is usually accomplished by covering the impoundment with a four-foot-thick layer of topsoil. One possible alternative method for reclamation of a coal slurry impoundment is to mix in alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. This codisposal would slow the production of acid and would also neutralize any acid produced. If the codisposal method is found to be environmentally acceptable, it will save the coal mining companies part of their cost of reclamation, and also provide a safe and useful disposal outlet for a portion of the residue that is generated by the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. During this quarter we purchased and set up two automatic titrators, which will be used in determining the rate of pyrite oxidation at nearly neutral pH. The titrators will provide a means for maintaining the pH at the desired level. The rate at which sulfate ion is produced as a result of pyrite oxidation will be used to measure the amount of pyrite oxidized over time.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Frost, J.K. & Dreher, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 14, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996]

Description: The material wastage tests were continued to analyze erosion phenomena under the simulated erosion conditions of in-bed tubes in fluidized bed combustors. AISI 1018 steel and three thermal sprayed coating specimens were tested at an elevated temperature (300{degrees}C) using nozzle type erosion tester. Bed ashes retrieved from the operating biomass-fired boiler were used for erodent particles at a particle loading of 375 g, at particle impact angle of 30{degrees}, at particle velocity 60 m/s for exposure periods of 4 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on the backside. The material wastage of specimens was determined by thickness measurements. Test results can be seen that the cooled specimen had greater material wastage than that of the uncooled specimens. In addition, all of thermal-sprayed coating specimens for both cooled and uncooled specimens could reduce the erosion wastage rates as compared with 1018 steel. Among the three thermal-sprayed coatings, a DS-105 specimen of high velocity oxygen fuel spraying exhibited the lowest erosion wastage rate. When tested a higher particle velocity (60 m/s), but at the same elevated temperature (300{degrees}C), the material wastage rate of all three coatings was about 6 to 18 times higher than that of the material wastage at a low particle velocity (2.5 m/s).
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Lee, Seong W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

Description: The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite, sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor during last quarter, were analyzed. The extent of sulfidation in these samples was in the range of 20 to 50%, which represent carbonizer discharge material at different operating conditions. The high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (BPTGA) unit has been modified and a new pressure control system was installed to eliminate pressure fluctuation during the sulfation tests.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abbasian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC). Technical progress report No. 10, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996]

Description: This technical report summarizes the research performed and progress achieved during the period of January 1, 1996 to March 31, 1996. Numerical modeling and simulation on the gas velocity and pressure were performed to understand swirling, recirculating, turbulent flow in the test chamber. The flow pattern and the pressure profiles were predicted. At the bottom of the chamber, the velocity at the center is greater than that of the wall region. When the secondary air is injected into the chamber, gas velocity decreases rapidly but the whole chamber receives a swirling flow. The profiles show that the gas at the near wall region flows down to the bottom and flows up at the center region, and velocity at the center region increases up along the axis of the combustor chamber. The pressure at the outer region near the wall is greater than that at the inner region near the axis. The pressure at the bottom is greater than that at the top region. The higher pressure zone is formed surrounding the secondary air flow into the center region. The exploratory hot model was designed to better understand the combustion process and the local heat transfer phenomena in the combustor chamber. Design and fabrication of the exploratory hot model will be continued with an arrangement of the auxiliary subsystems. Instrumentation for the system test will be arranged with a computer-assisted data acquisition system. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Lee, Seong W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

Description: The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

Description: This is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed for this project. Our analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, we received and analyzed a hopper ash sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). We also received six ash samples from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. We selected one of the filter cake ashes from this batch of samples for detailed analyses. We continued our work on the HGCU data base we are constructing in Microsoft Access{reg_sign}. We have been entering a variety of information into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on hoop tensile testing of Schumacher FT20 and Refractron candle filter elements removed from the Karhula APF after {approximately}540 hours of service.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of filter-cake thicknesses from on-line flow measurements and gas/particle transport modeling

Description: The use of cylindrical candle filters to remove fine ({approx}0.005 mm) particles from hot ({approx}500- 900{degrees}C) gas streams currently is being developed for applications in advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies. Successfully deployed with hot-gas filtration, PFBC and IGCC technologies will allow the conversion of coal to electrical energy by direct passage of the filtered gases into non-ruggedized turbines and thus provide substantially greater conversion efficiencies with reduced environmental impacts. In the usual approach, one or more clusters of candle filters are suspended from a tubesheet in a pressurized (P {approx_lt}1 MPa) vessel into which hot gases and suspended particles enter, the gases pass through the walls of the cylindrical filters, and the filtered particles form a cake on the outside of each filter. The cake is then removed periodically by a backpulse of compressed air from inside the filter, which passes through the filter wall and filter cake. In various development or demonstration systems the thickness of the filter cake has proved to be an important, but unknown, process parameter. This paper describes a physical model for cake and pressure buildups between cleaning backpulses, and for longer term buildups of the ``baseline`` pressure drop, as caused by incomplete filter cleaning and/or re-entrainment. When combined with operating data and laboratory measurements of the cake porosity, the model may be used to calculate the (average) filter permeability, the filter-cake thickness and permeability, and the fraction of filter-cake left on the filter by the cleaning backpulse or re-entrained after the backpulse. When used for a variety of operating conditions (e.g., different coals, sorbents, temperatures, etc.), the model eventually may provide useful information on how the filter-cake properties depend on the various operating parameters.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Smith, D.H.; Powell, V.; Ibrahim, E.; Ferer, M. & Ahmadi, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLUENT simulations of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner for design optimization

Description: The FLUENT computational fluid dynamics code is being used to aid the design of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB). The MASB is being designed by Westinghouse for use as a topping combustor in a Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion System as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program. The MASB will primarily burn low-energy, coal-derived gaseous fuel (syngas) with vitiated air, at elevated pressure, to supply a gas turbine for power generation. MASB operation will require dual fuel capability, i.e., the ability to burn a high heating value fuel as well as the lower energy syngas. Firing a high heating value gas, such as methane or propane, is required during plant start-up and other off-design conditions. The goal of the current study was to devise a method for introducing dilution air into the MASB to produce an optimum pattern factor without significantly changing the existing design. This design modification must not adversely affect MASB performance when firing syngas.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Norton, T.S. & Mollot, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chaotic behavior control in fluidized bed systems using artificial neural network. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: Pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (FBC) are becoming very popular, efficient, and environmentally acceptable replica for conventional boilers in Coal-fired and chemical plants. In this paper, we present neural network-based methods for chaotic behavior monitoring and control in FBC systems, in addition to chaos analysis of FBC data, in order to localize chaotic modes in them. Both of the normal and abnormal mixing processes in FBC systems are known to undergo chaotic behavior. Even though, this type of behavior is not always undesirable, it is a challenge to most types of conventional control methods, due to its unpredictable nature. The performance, reliability, availability and operating cost of an FBC system will be significantly improved, if an appropriate control method is available to control its abnormal operation and switch it to normal when exists. Since this abnormal operation develops only at certain times due to a sequence of transient behavior, then an appropriate abnormal behavior monitoring method is also necessary. Those methods has to be fast enough for on-line operation, such that the control methods would be applied before the system reaches a non-return point in its transients. It was found that both normal and abnormal behavior of FBC systems are chaotic. However, the abnormal behavior has a higher order chaos. Hence, the appropriate control system should be capable of switching the system behavior from its high order chaos condition to low order chaos. It is to mention that most conventional chaos control methods are designed to switch a chaotic behavior to a periodic orbit. Since this is not the goal for the FBC case, further developments are needed. We propose neural network-based control methods which are known for their flexibility and capability to control both non-linear and chaotic systems. A special type of recurrent neural network, known as Dynamic System Imitator (DSI), ...
Date: February 27, 1996
Creator: Bodruzzaman, M. & Essawy, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

Description: Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Bland, A.E. & Brown, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PFBC and IGCC power generation technologies: status and opportunities

Description: View graphs are presented for pressurized fluidized bed combustion and combined-cycle power plants/coal gasification technologies. Photographs, graphs and flowsheets are included covering the following topics: product line; product goals; product development strategy; this year`s success; barrier issues; key plans for next year; technical status; and market opportunities.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Brdar, R.D. & Reuther, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and mechanisms of NO{sub x} - char reduction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 May, 1996--31 July, 1996

Description: The emission of nitrogen oxides from combustion of coal remains a problem of considerable interest, whether the concern is with acid rain, stratospheric ozone chemistry, or {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases. Whereas earlier the concern was focused mainly on NO (as a primary combustion product) and to a lesser extent NO{sub 2}, in recent years the emissions of N{sub 2}O have also captured considerable attention, particularly in the context of fluidized bed combustion, in which the problem appears to be most acute. The research community has only recently begun to take solid hold on the N{sub 2}O problem. This is in part because earlier estimates of the importance of N{sub 2}O in combustion processes were clouded by artifacts in sampling which have now been resolved. This project is concerned with the mechanism of reduction of both NO and N{sub 2}O by carbons.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Suuberg, E.M.; Lilly, W.D. & Aarna, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Waste Co-Firing Comes of Age

Description: In early 1992 DONLEE Technologies, Inc., in cooperation with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program, completed pilot testing of simulated non-infectious waste combustion, co-fired with coal, at its test facility in York, Pennsylvania. The goal of this testing was to demonstrate the ability of fluidized bed combustion to completely destruct medical waste with minimized dioxin emissions. The test facility is a full scale circulating fluidized bed unit with a maximum heat input capability of ten million BTU per hour. The tests showed that the circulating fluidized bed system is ideally suited to meet the medical/infectious waste destruction needs of the health care industry. The dioxin emission levels proved to be significantly lower than those from presently operating MWIS. Based on the successful test results, a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Power Systems, DONLEE Technologies, and the Veterans Administration was reached to design, construct, and test a demonstration unit at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Plant design and construction was started in 1993, with DONLEE Technologies functioning as both the technology supplier and the plant EPC contractor. After some delay the construction of the demonstration unit finally reached completion in the spring of 1996. The unit is currently undergoing initial shakedown and testing to verify the base operating parameters. The unit will first be fired with coal only, followed by the introduction of non-infectious waste and finally total waste, including the ``red bag`` material. The program calls for an extended testing period of up to one year. While the unit is being operated as part of the stream supply system at the VA Hospital, the hospital`s waste is destroyed via combustion in the Fluidized Bed Unit.
Date: December 18, 1996
Creator: Smith-Berntson, K. & Stuart, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 3.14 - demonstration of technologies for remote power generation in Alaska. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: This paper very briefly summarizes progress in the demonstration of a small (up to 6 MWe), environmentally acceptable electric generating system fueled by indigenous fuels and waste materials to serve power distribution systems typical of Alaskan Native communities. Two detailed appendices supplement the report. The project is focused on two primary technologies: (1) atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), and (2) coalbed methane and coal-fired diesel technologies. Two sites have been selected as possible locations for an AFBC demonstration, and bid proposals are under review. The transfer of a coal-fired diesel clean coal demonstration project from Maryland to Fairbanks, Alaska was approved, and the environmental assessment has been initiated. Federal support for a fuel cell using coalbed methane is also being pursued. The appendices included in the report provide: (1) the status of the conceptual design study for a 600-kWe coal-fired cogeneration plant in McGrath, Alaska; and (2) a global market assessment of coalbed methane, fluidized-bed combustion, and coal-fired diesel technologies in remote applications.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Jones, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of fluidized-bed combustion ash in agricultural applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: The field experimental site was located on a well drained Beltsville silt loam soil. Field soil samples were analyzed for trace elements prior to treatment initiation from each of the 12 plot areas. Blackberry plants were planted in June 1995. In August 1995, foliar samples from the field planted blackberry plants were obtained prior to soil treatment applications, Average leaf fresh and dry weights were recorded as well as elemental analysis data. At the end of August, 1995, four plots were treated with fluidized bed combustion (FBC) materials, another four with (FBC) materials plus manure, and the remaining four were used as controls. Post-treatment foliar samples were obtained, weighed and analyzed. Blackberry fruit samples were also obtained, freeze-dried and analyzed. Twenty-four soil columns were constructed from 6 inches (ID) PVC pipes and filled with replicates of the field experiment, control (soil alone), FBC material, manure, and FBC material plus manure. The equivalent of 1 inch of rainfall (200 ml distilled water) was applied weekly for 16 weeks. The day after rainfall additions leachates were collected, filtered and analyzed for pH and electrical conductivity. The remaining sample volumes were frozen until the completion of the study and then analyzed for elemental content. These results are presented. Analysis of the FBC material and dairy manure used in all experiments are presented in Table 1. For comparative purposes, analysis of agricultural limestone is also presented.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Korcak, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC). Technical progress report No. 11

Description: This technical report summarizes the research performed and progress achieved during the period of April 1, 1996 to June 30, 1996. Measurements of particle flow field were conducted to better understand particle behavior and combustion performance in the advanced fluidized bed combustor under swirling flow condition. The modified dual static pressure probe (MDSPP) along with a data acquisition system was employed to measure particle velocity in the test chamber. Three test cases, with different probe locations, have been conducted on 6 inches ID cold flow model. The statistical particle velocities were predicted for three test cases. Design and fabrication of the exploratory hot model were continued with an arrangement of the auxiliary subsystems including air supply subsystem, water supply subsystem, and ignition subsystem. According to the established safety and health guide-line, the auxiliary subsystems were inspected carefully. All instruments are checked and calibrated for the preliminary system test. The preliminary system test was conducted on hot model. Thermal performance of the preliminary test results was analyzed and predicted. Based upon the preliminary test results, the auxiliary subsystems will be modified and improved for the systematic test. Flue gas exhaust subsystem will designed and installed for the controlling particulate emissions. A computer-assisted data acquisition system will be developed to accelerate the data taking process and to eliminate human errors.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Lee, Seong W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3D Oxide/Oxide Composite Filter

Description: Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercialization of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second- generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage -tolerant ceramic filter element is needed. Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use PFBC and/or IGCC power generation systems. The optional Task (Phase III, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville 50 advanced candle filters for pilot scale testing.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Lane, J. E.; LeCostaouec, J.; Painter, C. J.; Su, Wei-Fang A. & Radford, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence - phase II - small scale field demonstration. Topical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

Description: It has been proposed that a mix made from fly and bottom ash from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combusters (FBC ash), water, and stabilizers be injected from the surface into abandoned room and pillar coal mines through boreholes. Besides ash disposal, this process would prevent subsidence and acid mine drainage. Such a mix (called `grout`) needs to be an adequately stable and flowable suspension for it to spread and cover large areas in the mine. This is necessary as the drilling of the boreholes will be an expensive operation and the number such holes should be minimized. Addition of bentonite was found to be needed for this purpose. A suitable grout mix was tested rheologically to determine its fluid flow properties. Finding little published information on such materials, tests were performed using a commercial rotational viscometer with a T-bar rotor and a stand which produced a helical rotor path. Existing mixer viscometer test methods were modified and adapted to convert the measurements of torque vs. angular speed to the material properties appearing in several non-Newtonian constitutive equations. Yield stress was measured by an independent test called the vane method. The rheological behavior was a close fit to the Bingham fluid model. Bleed tests were conducted to ascertain the stability of the mixtures. Spread tests were conducted to compare the flowability of various mixes. Using the flow parameters determined in the laboratory, numerical simulations of grout flow were performed and compared with the results of scale model and field tests. A field injection of this grout was performed at the Fairfax mines in Preston county, W.V.. The observations there proved that this FBC ash grout flows as desired, is a very economical way of disposing the environmentally menacing ash, while also preventing the subsidence and acid mine drainage of the ...
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Head, W.J.; Gray, D.D.; Siriwardane, H.J. & Sack, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, February - April, 1996

Description: The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: steam = 20,000 lb/hr; temperature = 353 F (saturated); pressure = 125 psig; and steam quality = {approximately}98.5%. During this reporting period: structural corrections have been made to make the facility meet the required building costs; and refractory bakeout was successfully completed during April 23-25, 1996 over a 54 -hour period. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Stuart, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chaotic behavior control in fluidized bed systems using artificial neural network. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: We have developed techniques to control the chaotic behavior in the Fluidized Bed (FBC) Systems using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). For those techniques to cross from theory to implementation, the computer programs we are developing have to be interfaced with the outside world, as a necessary step towards the actual interface with an FBC system or its experimental mock up. For this reason we are working on a Data Acquisition Board setup that will enable communication between our programs and external systems. Communication is planned to be enabled in both ways to deliver feedback signals from a system to the control programs in one way, and the control signals from the control programs to the controlled system in the other way. On the other hand, since most of our programs are PC based, they have to follow the revolutionary progress in the PC technology. Our programs were developed in the DOS environment using an early version of Microsoft C compiler. For those programs to meet the current needs of most PC users, we are working on converting those programs to the Windows environment, using a very advanced and up to date C++ compiler. This compiler is known as the Microsoft Visual C++ Version 4.0. This compiler enables the implementation of very professional and sophisticated Windows 95, 32 bit applications. It also allows a simple utilization of the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques, and lots of powerful graphical and communication tools known as the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). This compiler also allows creating Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLS) that can be liked together or with other Windows programs. These two main aspects, the computer-system interface and the DOS-Windows migration will give our programs a leap frog towards their real implementation.
Date: July 30, 1996
Creator: Bodruzzaman, M. & Essawy, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department