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Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

Description: The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-{mu}m/{radical}Hz resolution and 2-{mu}m/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr. & Kahana, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and survey of the elements in RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two rings with cryogenic magnets at a 4.5K operating temperature. Control of positions of the dipole and quadrupole cold masses (iron laminations) and the beam position monitors (BPM`s) during production and installation is presented. The roll of the dipoles is controlled by a combination of rotating coil measurements with the surveying measurements. The center of the quadrupole magnetic field is obtained by direct measurement of the field shape within a colloidal cell placed inside the quadrupoles. Special attention is given to the triplet quadrupole alignment and determination of the field center position.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Trbojevic, D.; Cameron, P. & Ganetis, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The APS booster synchrotron: Commissioning and operational experience

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was constructed to provide a large user community with intense and high brightness synchrotron radiation at x-ray wavelengths. A 7-GeV positron beam is used to generate this light. Acceleration of the beam from 450 MeV to 7 GeV is accomplished at a 2-Hz repetition rate by the booster synchrotron. Commissioning of the booster began in the second quarter of 1994 and continued on into early 1995. The booster is now routinely used to provide beam for the commissioning of the APS storage ring. Reported here are our commissioning and operational experiences with the booster synchrotron.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Milton, S.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toward more precise beam position measurements

Description: For the past year or so we have been examining the properties and limitations of the beam bugs in use in the ETA program at LLNL with a view toward improving the accuracy of beam position and current measurements. When considering measurements of beam position, it is very important to distinguish between relative and absolute position measurements. A relative position measurement determines only the amplitude and direction of the motion of the beam within the transport tube. If one knew where the beam was, one could determine its new position. A relative measurement is essentially independent of errors in mechanical fabrication or electrical components. The minimum measurable displacement is only limited by the strength of the electrical signals or the signal to noise ratio of the position signal. An absolute position measurement is much more challenging. All inaccuracies in mechanical components and fabrication, electrical components, installation and assembly errors must be considered and controlled along with the issues common to relative position measurements. However, if the object is to strike a small specific point on a target or pass the beam through a small hole, absolute beam position measurements are required. The following is a summary of our progress including conclusions and recommendations for developments and improvements. This is, of course, only a step in beam bug development and there is plenty of room for others to contribute.
Date: May 12, 1999
Creator: Clark, J C; Fessenden, T J & Holmes, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational aspects of experimental accelerator physics

Description: During the normal course of high energy storage ring operations, it is customary for blocks of time to be allotted to something called ``machine studies,`` or more simply, just ``studies.`` It is during these periods of time that observations and measurement of accelerator behavior are actually performed. Almost invariably these studies are performed in support of normal machine operations. The machine physicist is either attempting to improve machine performance, or more often trying to recover previously attained ``good`` operation, for example after an extended machine down period. For the latter activity, a good portion of machine studies time is usually devoted to ``beam tuning`` activities: those standard measurements and adjustments required to recover good operations. Before continuing, please note that this paper is not intended to be comprehensive. It is intended solely to reflect one accelerator physicist`s impressions as to what goes on in an accelerator control room. Many topics are discussed, some in more detail than others, and it is not the intention that the techniques described herein be applied verbatim to any existing accelerator. It is hoped,, however, that by reading through the various sections, scientists, including accelerator physicists, engineers, and accelerator beam users, will come to appreciate the types of operations that are required to make an accelerator work.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Decker, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Digital signal processing for the APS transverse and longitudinal damping system

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory will be a 7-GeV machine. It is anticipated that for beam operations beyond the baseline design of 100 mA stored beam current, a transverse and longitudinal damping system is needed to damp instabilities. A key part of this digital damping system is digital signal processing. This digital system will be used to process samples taken from the beam and determine appropriate correction values to be applied to the beam. The processing will take the form of a transversal digital filter with adaptable filter weights. Sampling will be done at 176 MHz with a possible correction bandwidth of 88 MHz. This paper concentrates on the digital processing involved in this system, and especially on the adaptive algorithms used for determining the digital filter weights.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Barr, D. & Sellyey, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-cost non-intercepting beam current and phase monitor for heavy ions

Description: A low cost ion beam measurement system has been developed for use at ATLAS. The system provides nondestructive phase and intensity measurement of passing ion beam bunches by sensing their electric fields. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum jacket where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by the master oscillator. The resulting difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop to stabilize phase readings during microsecond beam drop outs. The other channel uses a linear full-wave active rectifier circuit which converts sine wave signal amplitude to a DC voltage representing beam current. Plans are in progress to install this new diagnostic at several locations in ATLAS which should help shorten the tuning cycle of new ion species.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bogaty, J.M. & Clifft, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of beam current monitors in the APS

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F. & Rotela, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

Description: As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II apploications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pickoff probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements.
Date: March 24, 1999
Creator: Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T; Chen, Y J; Holmes, C & Selchow, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a beam monitor in the Fermilab Tevatron using synchrotron light

Description: Synclite, the beam monitor in the Fermilab Tevatron using synchrotron light is described. The calibration, monitoring and performance of the system is discussed. Observation of some effects of long range beam-beam interactions seen in the beam monitor will be presented as well as a measurement of DC beam in the Tevatron.
Date: June 4, 2003
Creator: Cheung, Harry W.K.; Hahn, Alan & Xiao, Aimin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Choice of Method to Cancel 60 Hz Disturbances in Beam Position and Energy

Description: Because the voltage applied to magnets in accelerators is likely to be rectified, there can be 60 Hz related fluctuations in beam position and energy. Correcting such errors as well as other less repeatable errors can be done with combinations of feedback, feedforward, real time repetitive control, and batch update repetitive control. This paper studies how to mix these approaches for optimized performance. It is shown that use of feedback control can be counterproductive because of the waterbed effect operating on errors such as BPM noise. Also, it is seen that iterative repetitive control updates can produce significantly better error levels than pure feedforward control. Making corrections of errors for harmonics of 60 Hz that are above the Nyquist frequency can be accomplished, and this can save the expense and integration effort to produce fast beam sampling.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Akogyeram, R.A.; Longman, R.W.; Hutton, Andrew & Juang, J.-N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion-chamber-based loss monitor system for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

Description: A new loss monitor system has been designed and installed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The detectors are ion chambers filled with N{sub 2} gas. The electronics modules have a threshold range of 1:100, and they can resolve changes in beam loss of about 2% of the threshold settings. They can generate a trip signal in 2 {mu}s if the beam loss is large enough; if the response time of the Fast Protect System is included the beam will be shut off in about 37 {mu}s.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Plum, M.A.; Brown, D.; Browman, A. & Macek, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antiproton noise source for the Tevatron

Description: A new system for exciting the beam in the Tevatron has been installed in the A1 service building and in the A17 medium straight section. The purpose of the system is to make betatron tune measurements.
Date: October 26, 1992
Creator: McConnell, D. & Fellenz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronics and Algorithms for HOM Based Beam Diagnostics

Description: The signals from the Higher Order Mode (HOM) ports on superconducting cavities can be used as beam position monitors and to do survey structure alignment. A HOM-based diagnostic system has been installed to instrument both couplers on each of the 40 cryogenic accelerating structures in the DESY TTF2 Linac. The electronics uses a single stage down conversion form the 1.7 GHz HOM spectral line to a 20MHz IF which has been digitized. The electronics is based on low cost surface mount components suitable for large scale production. The analysis of the HOM data is based on Singular Value Decomposition. The response of the OM modes is calibrated using conventional BPMs.
Date: October 16, 2006
Creator: Frisch, Josef; Baboi, Nicoleta; Eddy, Nathan; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Hensler, Olaf; McCormick, Douglas et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debuncher Profile Monitor Evaluation

Description: The original microchannel plates have been damaged in the beam region. After an attempt to revive the plates by baking, the gain of the central 30mm is still reduced by approximately a factor of three. The plates appear to have been irreversibly damaged by being operated for an extended period of time at high gain with high debuncher beam currents. A new set of microchannel plates has been installed in the monitor. Because of a production error, the gap between the microchannel plate output and the anode wire plane was set at 15mm instead of 3mm. The high voltage divider allowed a maximum of 170 volts to be applied across this gap. Under the conditions at which the Monitor was being operated, the distribution of collected electrons from a single micro channel was spread over a large area. A collimated UV light source which had a FWHM of 3mm produced a profile with a FWHM of 22mm with an amplifier threshold supply voltage of 1.0 V and FWHM of 9mm with a threshold voltage of 5.0V. See Figure 1. When new microchannel plates were installed, the anode gap was reduced to 9.5mm, and the gap voltage was increased to 760V, the results shown in Figure 2 were obtained. The width of the distribution depends strongly on the plate gain and discriminator threshold. Analog readout with a SWIC scanner eliminates the dependence of width on plate gain. Figure 3 shows two scanner profiles with plate gains differing by a factor of 64. The anode wire plane allows a significant fraction of the charge to leak through into the low field region behind the plane and spread over several wires before being captured by the wires. This produces broad tails on the width distribution. Replacing the wire plane with strip electrodes etched ...
Date: January 13, 1986
Creator: Krider, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comprehensive Study of Nanometer Resolution of the IPBPM at ATF2

Description: High-resolution beam position monitors (IPBPMs) have been developed in order to measure the electron beam position at the focus point of ATF2 to a few nanometers in the vertical plane. To date, the IPBPM system has operated in test mode with a highest demonstrated resolution of 8.7 nm in the ATF extraction line during 2008. After expected noise source calculations there still remains 7.9 nm of noise of unexplained origin. We summarize the experimental work on the IPBPM system since this measurement and outline the possible origins of these sources. We then present a study plan to be performed at the ATF2 facility designed to identify and to improve the resolution performance and comment on the expected ultimate resolution of this system. The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a test beamline for ILC final focus system in the framework of the ATF international collaboration which was constructed to extend the extraction line at ATF, located at KEK, Japan. There are two goals of the ATF2: firstly to demonstrate focusing to 37 nm vertical beam size, secondly to achieve a few nanometer level beam orbit stability at the focus point in the vertical plane. High-resolution beam position monitors (IPBPMs) for the interaction point (IP) have been developed in order to measure the electron beam position at the focus point of the ATF2 to a few nanometers in the vertical plane. The previous measured position resolution of IPBPMs was 8.7 nm for a 0.68 x 10{sup 10} e/bunch beam with a dynamic range of 5 {mu}m. The intrinsic noise of the system was estimated to be 2.6 nm at 10{sup 10} e/bunch. It is scaled to 3.8 nm at 0.68 x 10{sup 10} e/bunch which means that 7.9 nm of unknown noise remains. The origin of the unknown noise must be ...
Date: December 13, 2011
Creator: Kim, Y.I.; Park, H.; U., /Kyungpook Natl.; Boogert, S.T.; /Oxford U., JAI; Frisch, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resolving two beams in beam splitters with a beam position monitor

Description: The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device. In the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), 20-ns beam pulses (bunches) are extracted from the 50-GeV main proton synchrotron and then are transported to the target by an elaborated transport system. The beam transport system splits the beam bunches into equal parts in its splitting sections so that up to 12 synchronous beam pulses can be delivered to the target for the multi-axis proton radiography. Information about the transverse positions of the beams in the splitters, and possibly the bunch longitudinal profile, should be delivered by some diagnostic devices. Possible candidates are the circular wall current monitors in the circular pipes connecting the splitter elements, or the conventional stripline BPMs. In any case, we need some estimates on how well the transverse positions of the two beams can be resolved by these monitors.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Kurennoy, S. (Sergey)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Timing Jitter Characterization at the NSLS SDL

Description: Two novel timing jitter measurement techniques with a 100 fs resolution are presented in this paper. The first technique based on the Schottky effect, is used to measure the timing jitter between the photoinjector drive laser and the RF system; and it was employed to characterize the environment effects on the timing jitter. The I/Q beam monitor based on a stripline beam position monitor (BPM) is used to characterize the electron beam arrival time jitter.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Qian,H.; Hidaka, Y.; Murphy, J. B.; Podobedov, B.; Seletskiy, Shen, Y.; Yang, X. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BPM Design and Impedance Considerations for a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

Description: The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the 30 high robust Phase I graphite secondary collimators with 30 high Z Phase II collimators. This paper reports on BPM and impedance considerations and measurements of the integrated BPMs in the prototype rotatable collimator to be installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. The BPMs are necessary to align the jaws with the beam. Without careful design the beam impedance can result in unacceptable heating of the chamber wall or beam instabilities. The impedance measurements involve utilizing both a single displaced wire and two wires excited in opposite phase to disentangle the driving and detuning transverse impedances. Trapped mode resonances and longitudinal impedance are to also be measured and compared with simulations. These measurements, when completed, will demonstrate the device is fully operational and has the impedance characteristics and BPM performance acceptable for installation in the SPS.
Date: August 26, 2010
Creator: Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; /SLAC; Keller, Lewis; /SLAC; Lundgren, Steven; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Undulator Magnet Damage Due to Beam Finder Wire Measurements

Description: Beam Finder Wire (BFW) devices will be installed at each break in the Undulator magnet line. These devices will scan small wires across the beam causing some electrons to lose energy through bremsstrahlung. The degraded electrons are subsequently detected downstream of a set of vertical dipole magnets after they pass through the vacuum chamber. This signal can then be used to accurately determine the beam position with respect to the BFW wire. The choice of the wire diameter, scan speed, and operating parameters, depends on the trade-off between the signal size and the radiation damage to the undulator magnets. In this note I estimate the rate of undulator magnet damage that results from scanning as a function of, wire size, scan speed, and average beam current. A separate analysis of the signal size was carried out by Wu. The damage estimate is primarily based on two sources: the first, Fasso, is used to estimate the amount of radiation generated and then absorbed by the magnets; the second, Alderman et. al., is used to estimate the amount of damage the magnet undergoes as a result of the absorbed radiation. Fasso performed a detailed calculation of the radiation, including neutron fluence, that results from a the electron beam passing through a 100 micron diamond foil inserted just in front of the undulator line. Fasso discussed the signficance of various types of radiation and stated that photoneutrons probably play a major role. The estimate in this paper assumes the neutron fluence is the only significant cause of radiation-induced demagnetization. The specific results I use from Fasso's paper are reproduced here in Figure 1, which shows the radial distribution of the integrated neutron fluence per day in the undulator magnets, and Figure 2, which shows the absorbed radiation dose all along the undulator line. ...
Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Welch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance Correction in the 2006 ILC Bunch Compressor

Description: A recent study [1] has indicated substantial potential emittance growth in the ILC bunch compressor due to quad misalignments, BPM misalignments, and pitches in the RF cavities. Table 1 summarizes several results from [1]. In this simulation, quad misalignments and cavity pitches are Gaussian distributed and are considered with respect to the nominal survey line; BPM misalignments are also Gaussian-distributed but are considered with respect to the quadrupole axis. It is assumed that the BPM offsets with respect to the quads are found in a previous quad-shunting BBA step which is not simulated. In this study we seek to repeat the studies documented above, and additionally to perform a study in which additional dispersion bumps are used to further reduce the projected emittance.
Date: March 5, 2007
Creator: Tenenbaum, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department