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Containment and recovery system for fuel-reprocessing plants

Description: Tritium containment and removal problems in a fuel-reprocessing plant are identified and conceptual process designs for reducing emissions to the environment to below 1 Ci/day are studied. The conceptual design recommended would allow an air atmosphere in the reprocessing-plant hall and would use a continuous-catalytic-oxidizer/molecular-sieve-adsorber cleanup system to maintain a 40-..mu..Ci/m/sup 3/ tritium level (5 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 3/ HTO) against 180 Ci/day leakage from components and process piping.
Date: August 25, 1976
Creator: Galloway, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution and behavior of tritium in the Coolant-Salt Technology Facility. [Tritium trapping using sodium fluoroborate]

Description: A 1000-MW(e) Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) is expected to produce 2420 Ci/day of tritium. As much as 60 percent of the tritium produced may be transported to the reactor steam system (assuming no retention by the secondary coolant salt), where it would be released to the environment. Such a release rate would be unacceptable. Experiments were conducted in an engineering-scale facility--the Coolant-Salt Technology Facility (CSTF)--to examine the potential of sodium fluoroborate, the proposed coolant salt for an MSBR, for sequestering tritium. The salt was believed to contain chemical species capable of trapping tritium. A series of 5 experiments--3 transient and 2 steady-state experiments--was conducted from July of 1975 through June of 1976 where tritium was added to the CSTF. The CSTF circulated sodium fluoroborate at temperatures and pressures typical of MSBR operating conditions. Results from the experiments indicated that over 90 percent of tritium added at steady-state conditions was trapped by sodium fluoroborate and appeared in the off-gas system in a chemically combined (water-soluble) form and that a total of approximately 98 percent of the tritium added at steady-state conditions was removed through the off-gas system overall.
Date: April 1, 1977
Creator: Mays, G. T.; Smith, A. N. & Engel, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement of airborne radioactivity. Progress report: January--December 1975

Description: Efforts are underway at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to develop new carbon-impregnant formulations suitable for use in nuclear power plants as well as in the SRP system. Emphasis has been placed on carbons derived from domestic raw materials and impregnated with an amine having lower vapor pressure, higher flash point, and lower cost than triethylenediamine (TEDA). Promising results have been obtained with carbons derived from coal, petroleum, wood, and coconut and impregnated with a combination of iodine salts and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). Service-aging of several of the HMTA-iodine salt carbons is also being studied. A separate study of the ability of sodium thiosulfate and potassium hydroxide to retain iodine in aqueous solutions in the presence of high-intensity gamma radiation show that concentrations of approximately 1 wt percent thiosulfate are required to reduce iodine evolution to less than 1 percent. A 0.05 wt percent addition of potassium hydroxide has about the same effect. These studies revealed that lower concentrations of thiosulfate actually appear to promote evolution of both iodine and an unidentified species of iodine that is capable of penetrating several inches of carbon adsorber. The unidentified iodine compounds are, however, efficiently retained by a HEPA filter. This result suggests that the penetrating iodine may exist in the form of a particulate or aerosol.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Evans, A. G. & Dexter, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct in-vessel applications experiments at Harvard Air Cleaning Laboratory. Progress report, January 1, 1976--March 31, 1976. [Removal of LMFBR sodium fire aerosols]

Description: Experimental research on emergency direct in-vessel air cleaning systems for the LMFBR is described. Results which characterize the aerosol from 1 lb sodium pool fires made in a 90 m/sup 3/ chamber are presented. The effective use of turbulent agglomeration to enhance aerosol sedimentation is described. The composition of the aerosol as determined by atomic absorption and chemical tests is discussed. Results from small scale sodium aerosol scavenging tests are presented, anticipating large-scale powder dispersal tests to be conducted in the chamber. Plans for testing the sonic agglomeration characteristics of sodium aerosols are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Mallove, E. F. & First, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spray nozzle pattern test for the DWPF HEME task technical plan. [Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), High-Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME)]

Description: The DWPF melter off-gas systems have two High-Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) upstream of the High-Efficiency Particulates Air filters (HEPA) to remove fine droplets and particulates from the off-gas. The HEMEs consist of three filter candles. Each filter candle consists of a 0.5 inch layer of 30 micron diameter glass fiber on the upstream face followed by a 2.5 inch layer of 8-micron-diameter glass fiber packed at 11 lbs per cubic foot. The coarse 30-micron filter serves as a prefilter and extends the life of the HEME filter. To have an acceptable fitter life and an efficient HEMIE operation, air atomized water is sprayed into the off-gas stream entering the 14EME and onto the HEMEE surface. The water spray keeps the HEME wet which would dissolve the soluble particulates and enhance the HEME efficiency. A properly designed spray nozzle should wet the three candies of the HEME filter completely.
Date: November 15, 1991
Creator: Lee, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium monitoring at the Sandia Tritium Research Laboratory

Description: Sandia Laboratories at Livermore, California, is presently beginning operation of a Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). The laboratory incorporates containment and cleanup facilities such that any unscheduled tritium release is captured rather than vented to the atmosphere. A sophisticated tritium monitoring system is in use at the TRL to protect operating personnel and the environment, as well as ensure the safe and effective operation of the TRL decontamination systems. Each monitoring system has, in addition to a local display, a display in a centralized control room which, when coupled room which, when coupled with the TRL control computer, automatically provides an immediate assessment of the status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array and integrates and records all operational and unscheduled tritium releases.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Devlin, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale tests of aqueous scrubber systems for LMFBR vented containment

Description: Six large-scale air cleaning tests performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) are described. The test conditions simulated those postulated for hypothetical accidents in an LMFBR involving containment venting to control hydrogen concentration and containment overpressure. Sodium aerosols were generated by continously spraying sodium into air and adding steam and/or carbon dioxide to create the desired Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ or NaOH aerosol. Two air cleaning systems were tested: (a) spray quench chamber, educator venturi scrubber and high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series; and (b) the same except with the spray quench chamber eliminated. The gas flow rates ranged up to 0.8 m/sup 3//s (1700 acfm) at temperatures to 313/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Quantities of aerosol removed from the gas stream ranged up to 700 kg per test. The systems performed very satisfactorily with overall aerosol mass removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% in each test.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a passive self-cleaning scrubber for containment venting applications

Description: A novel air cleaning concept is being developed for potential use in venting reactor containment buildings. The two-stage system employs a pre-scrubber (a submerged gravel scrubber) and a fibrous scrubber to obtain high removal efficiencies for particulate contaminants. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the gravel bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter. A series of development tests have been performed on an engineering scale model with a gravel bed area of 0.07 m/sup 2/. Hydraulic tests indicate that the scrubber can be designed to operate at a superficial gas velocity of 0.50 m/s. Aerosol tests were performed with a variety of sodium fire aerosols. The aerosol mass removal efficiency for the pre-scrubber was 99.8% and the efficiency for the system exceeded 99.99%. The test results show that the aerosol removal efficiency is not a strong function of the gas velocity. Scale-up tests were made to evaluate gas distribution on a larger bed. The results demonstrated that the self-cleaning gravel bed can be scaled-up to the sizes required for full-scale containment applications.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Owen, R.K. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

Description: For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Schuster, B. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate and iodine removal analysis for HTGR containments

Description: The removal of aerosol particles and iodine in the containment vessel of an HTGR following a loss-of-coolant accident was examined for two hypothetical accidents; the Design Basis Depressurization Accident (DBDA) and the Maximum Hypothetical Fission Product Release (MHFPR). Current containment cleanup system designs and others were evaluated. The HAARM-2 computer model was adapted to describe aerosol behavior and to predict the consequences of the postulated accidents and to predict the time dependent behavior (agglomeration, growth, deposition, and leakage) of the aerosol. Comparative hypothetical cases for the DBDA and MHFPR demonstrated the effect of concentration, filter removal, particle size distribution and temperature, and pressure on particle removal with the concentration level and filter removal mechanisms showing the most significant effect. For the reference containment system design, plateout on surfaces and the recirculating filter-absorber were the principal iodine removal mechanisms of those considered. Removal of airborne iodine from the containment vessel due to an air cleaning system and by surface deposition was modelled, and the time variation for the total iodine concentration in the reference plant was predicted. Surface deposition and operation of the air cleaning system rapidly lowers the airborne iodine concentration until about 0.3 percent of that released remains airborne. Beyond this point the model predicts a leveling in concentration due to desorption from surfaces.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Gieseke, J. A.; Schmidt, E. W.; Baybutt, P.; Jordan, H. & Postma, A. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control. [LMFBR]

Description: A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Hilliard, R.K. & Muhlestein, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium fire aerosol loading capacity of several sand and gravel filters

Description: Improved specific loading capacity for sodium fire aerosols was the objective of a sand and gravel test series. The aerosol capacity and related differential pressure of eight aggregate filters is presented. A maximum specific aerosol capacity, for dry aerosol, of 2.4 kg (Na) m/sup -2/ was obtained. This filter was loaded to a final differential pressure of 2.6 kPa. The average superficial face velocity was 0.5 cm/s and the average efficiency was 99.8%. The test results indicate that filter capacity increases with aerosol moisture content and with decreasing superficial velocity.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Barreca, J.R. & McCormack, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H. & Corkran, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

Description: This test plan describes experimental details of an engineering-scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration to be performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-93. This demonstration will investigate, in the engineering scale, the feasibility of using electrostatic enclosures and devices to control the spread of contaminants during transuranic waste handling operations. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the FY-93 experiments are included in this plan.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Meyer, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

Description: The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.
Date: September 24, 1990
Creator: Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L. & Jerrell, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium gettering from air with hydrogen uranyl phosphate

Description: The managers of all tritium facilities now worry about their emissions into the atmosphere. The only method for cleaning tritium out of air is to catalyze the formation of tritiated water which is adsorbed, along with the overwhelming bulk of naturally occurring water vapor, on a zeolite molecular sieve. This method generally costs several million dollars for a small system, because of the necessary steel ducting, compressors and holding tanks. We have long had the dream of finding another getter that might be cheaper to use and would, hopefully, not make tritiated water (HTO). In a previous paper, we discovered that hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP, with the formula HUO/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O) getters 1 ppM of tritium gas out of moist air. This makes HUP the first known ''direct'' tritium getter to work in air. However, the tritium enters a hydroxyl network within the HUP, so that it is effectively still in ''water'' form within the HUP. Worse yet, we found up to 10% tritiated water formed during the previous gettering experiments. HUP is unusual in possessing the exceptionally low vapor pressure of 0.6 torr water vapor at 298/sup 0/K. This allows HUP to be used in fairly dry environments. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Souers, P.C.; Uribe, F.S.; Stevens, C.G. & Tsugawa, T.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium gettering from air with hydrogen uranyl phosphate. Revision 1

Description: Hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP), a solid proton electrolyte, getters tritium gas and water vapor from air by DC electrical action. We have reduced the formation of residual tritiated water to less than 2%, and demonstrated that HUP can clean a 5.5 m/sup 3/ working glove box. Data are presented to illustrate the parameters of the gettering and a model is derived. Two other tritium gettering electrolytes have been discovered. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Souers, P.C.; Uribe, F.S.; Stevens, C.G. & Tsugawa, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

Description: This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.
Date: August 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

Description: Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: air cleaning; waste volume reduction and preparation for storage; tritium, carbon-14, ozone; containment of accidental releases; adsorbents and absorbents; and off-gas treatment. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: First, M.W. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department