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Description: As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process this well data and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Boyer, Charles M., II & MacDonald, Ronald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

More than just wires : applying complexity theory to communications network assurance.

Description: Complexity Theory is the study of order within otherwise chaotic systems (Holland, 1999). Complexity Theory often focuses on Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). A CAS is a system of components that interact and reproduce while adapting to their environment. A CAS consists of large numbers of components that are diverse in both form and capability. A CAS exhibits unstable coherence in spite of constant disruptions and a lack of central planning. Large-scale, interconnected infrastructures such as communication networks are CAS. These infrastructures are vastly more dynamic than their predecessors. Such infrastructures consist of a large number of components and participants that are diverse in both form and capability. Furthermore, these infrastructures exhibit unstable coherence in spite of constant disruptions and a lack of central planning. Viewing large-scale, interconnected infrastructures with complex physical architectures, such as communication networks, as CAS can provide many new insights (Bower and Bunn, 2000; North, 2000a, 2000b, and 2001). The CAS approach emphasizes the specific evolution of integrated infrastructures and their participants' behavior, not just simple trends or end states. The adaptation of the infrastructure participants to changing conditions is paramount. Also, the effects of random events and uncertainty are explicitly considered. One powerful computational approach to understanding CAS is agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS). Applying ABMS to communication networks and the infrastructures upon which they depend may allow such networks to be understood as more than just wires. Communication networks may then be electronically managed as complete, dynamic systems. An example is the integrated, systems-level computational perspective ABMS has provided to electrical and natural gas infrastructure research (North, 2001). This holistic computational perspective may allow both the physical and human dimensions of complex systems such as communication networks to be anticipated and managed on-line, in real time. Thus, ABMS may be an important tool for developing ...
Date: September 5, 2002
Creator: North, M.; Macal, C.; Thomas, W. H.; Miller, D. & Peerenboom, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facts Relating to the Production and Substitution of Manufactured Gas for Natural Gas

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over information obtained on manufactured gas production instead of natural gas production. The information collected is discussed. This includes such topics as rates, methods, and locations of gas. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1929
Creator: Odell, William Wallace
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subquality natural gas sweetening and dehydration potential of the physical solvent N-formyl-morpholine

Description: Almost all gas produced in the United States requires processing before it is placed in the transmission system. For approximately 50% of the gas, this is just dehydration. The remainder, however, requires processing that is more complex and costly. A report to the Gas Research Institute states that about 30% of the proven gas reserves contained sufficient nitrogen, carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide to be classified as a subquality.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Semrau, J.T.; Palla, N. & Lee, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Overview of Air Quality Issues in Natural Gas Systems

Description: This report provides information on the natural gas industry and the types and sources of air pollutants in the sector. It examines the role of the federal government in regulating these emissions, including the provisions in the Clean Air Act and Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory activities. It concludes with a brief discussion of the outstanding issues.
Date: June 1, 2016
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

Description: This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Veil, J. A. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

Description: The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. ...
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Meyer, Howard, S. & Lu, Yingzhong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

Description: The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest ...
Date: June 30, 2011
Creator: Trehu, Anne & Kannberg, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

Description: The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we are now negotiating with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. Several commercial sales have also resulted from the partnership with ABB, and sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units now total $2.3 million.
Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: Lokhandwala, Kaaeid
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel

Description: During the duration of this sponsorship, we broadened our understanding of combustion instabilities through both analytical and experimental work. Predictive models were developed for flame response to transverse acoustic instabilities and for quantifying how a turbulent flame responds to velocity and fuel/air ratio forcing. Analysis was performed on the key instability mechanisms controlling heat release response for flames over a wide range of instability frequencies. Importantly, work was done closely with industrial partners to transition existing models into internal instability prediction codes. Experimentally, the forced response of hydrogen-enriched natural gas/air premixed and partially premixed flames were measured. The response of a lean premixed flame was investigated, subjected to velocity, equivalence ratio, and both forcing mechanisms simultaneously. In addition, important physical mechanisms controlling the response of partially premixed flames to inlet velocity and equivalence ratio oscillations were analyzed. This final technical report summarizes our findings and major publications stemming from this program.
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Lieuwen, Tim; Santavicca, Dom & Yang, Vigor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

Description: This study introduces a new type of “cumulative seismic attribute” (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.
Date: October 31, 2009
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology's Impact on Production

Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) ‐‐ entitled Technology’s Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level ‐ ‐ the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies ‐‐Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Amann, Rachel; Deweese, Ellis & Shipman, Deborah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

Description: This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project “Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.” The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.
Date: October 27, 2009
Creator: Thoma, Greg; Veil, John; Limp, Fred; Cothren, Jackson; Gorham, Bruce; Williamson, Malcolm et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

Description: We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Archer, David & Buffett, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Hydrate Characterization in the GoM using Marine EM Methods

Description: In spite of the importance of gas hydrate as a low-carbon fuel, a possible contributor to rapid climate change, and a significant natural hazard, our current understanding about the amount and distribution of submarine gas hydrate is somewhat poor; estimates of total volume vary by at least an order of magnitude, and commercially useful concentrations of hydrate have remained an elusive target. This is largely because conventional geophysical tools have intrinsic limitations in their ability to quantitatively image hydrate. It has long been known from well logs that gas hydrate is resistive compared to the host sediments, and electrical and electromagnetic methods have been proposed and occasionally used to image hydrates. This project seeks to expand our capabilities to use electromagnetic methods to explore for gas hydrate in the marine environment. An important basic science aspect of our work was to quantify the resistivity of pure gas hydrate as a function of temperature at seafloor pressures. We designed, constructed, and tested a highpressure cell in which hydrate could be synthesized and then subjected to electrical conductivity measurements. Impedance spectroscopy at frequencies between 20 Hz and 2 MHz was used to separate the effect of the blocking electrodes from the intrinsic conductivity of the hydrate. We obtained very reproducible results that showed that pure methane hydrate was several times more resistive than the water ice that seeded the synthesis, 20,000 {Ohm}m at 0{degrees}#14;C, and that the activation energy is 30.6 kJ/mol over the temperature range of -15 to 15{degrees}#14;C. Adding silica sand to the hydrate, however, showed that the addition of the extra phase caused the conductivity of the assemblage to increase in a counterintuitive way. The fact that the increased conductivity collapsed after a percolation threshold was reached, and that the addition of glass beads does not produce a similar ...
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Constable, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrate Research Activities That Both Support and Derive From the Monitoring Station/Sea-Floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, Northern Gulf of Mexico

Description: A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station/Seafloor Observatory is in danger of lapsing into disuse. However, for the present, interest in the site ...
Date: July 31, 2013
Creator: Lutken, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Sampling and Examination of Mine Gases and Natural Gas

Description: Report by the U.S. Bureau of Mines based on experiments performed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to study mine gases. Findings in this bulletin include descriptions of the experiments and equipment used: "The first part of this report deals with the methods used by the bureau in the collection and examination of the various mine gases; the latter part discusses the bureau's methods of sampling and examining natural gas" (p. 5).
Date: 1913
Creator: Burrell, George A. & Seibert, Frank M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and Examination of Mine Gases and Natural Gas: A Revision of Bulletin 42

Description: Revision of a report by the U.S. Bureau of Mines which described experiments performed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to study mine gases. According to the foreword: "Much of the material is reprinted on the following pages in its original form, and changes have been made only where manifestly necessary. Laboratory methods have been brought up to date. Some types of apparatus described in Bulletin 42 have now become obsolete and newer designs are described instead" (p. 1).
Date: 1936
Creator: Burrell, George A. & Seibert, Frank M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines: Process and Timing of FERC Permit Application Review

Description: This report provides an overview of the federal certification process for interstate natural gas pipelines. It discusses the length of the review for recent interstate gas pipeline applications--a topic of specific interest to Congress and industry. In this context, the report discusses the key provisions in H.R. 161 and their implications for gas pipeline certificate approval.
Date: January 16, 2015
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview and Issues for Implementation of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

Description: This report explains what cloud computing is, including cloud deployment models and service models, discusses issues that should be considered when adopting cloud services, and presents the federal government's planning for IT reform. It also provides information on assessments that have been conducted on agency cloud adoption and discusses both the challenges and drivers of cloud adoption. Finally, the report provides possible mechanisms for Congress to monitor agencies as they implement cloud computing.
Date: January 20, 2015
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia & Fischer, Eric A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Gas for Cars and Trucks: Options and Challenges

Description: The increase in domestic supplies of natural gas has raised new interest in expanding its use in the transportation sector. This report considers issues related to wider use of natural gas as a fuel in passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
Date: November 19, 2014
Creator: Canis, Bill; Pirog, Robert & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Completed both type curve and artificial neural network analysis of the field. Developed list of production enhancement candidates. (2) Made final presentation ...
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Reeves, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department