113 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system

Description: The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.
Date: April 14, 1992
Creator: Mohaupt, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale laboratory drilling tests on sandstone and dolomite. Final report

Description: Full-scale laboratory drilling experiments were performed under simulated downhole conditions to determine what effect changing various drilling parameters has on penetration rate. The two rock types, typical of deep oil and gas reservoirs, used for the tests were Colton Sandstone and Bonne Terre Dolomite. Drilling was performed with standard 7/sup 7///sub 8/ inch rotary insert bits and water base mud. The results showed the penetration rate to be strongly dependent on bit weight, rotary speed, and borehole mud pressure. There was only a small dependence on mud flow rate. The drilling rate decreased rapidly with increasing borehole mud pressure for borehole pressures up to about 2,000 psi. Above this pressure, the borehole pressure and rotary speeds had a smaller effect on penetration rate. The penetration rate was then dependent mostly on the bit weight. Penetration rate per horsepower input was also shown to decrease at higher mud pressures and bit weights. The ratio of horizontal confining stress to axial overburden stress was maintained at 0.7 for simulated overburden stresses between 0 and 12,800 psi. For this simulated downhole stress state, the undrilled rock sample was within the elastic response range and the confining pressures were found to have only a small or negligible effect on the penetration rate. Visual examination of the bottomhole pattern of the rocks after simulated downhole drilling, however, revealed ductile chipping of the Sandstone, but more brittle behavior in the Dolomite.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Black, A.D.; Green, S.J. & Rogers, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending March 31, 1979

Description: This document is the second semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes: Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sand Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project. This report is divided into five parts: a summary (Section 1), and a section devoted to each resource (Sections 2 through 5). Each resource section presents information which serves as an introduction to that project.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Wise, R.L. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping acoustic emissions from hydraulic fracture treatments using coherent array processing: Concept

Description: Hydraulic fracturing is a widely-used well completion technique for enhancing the recovery of gas and oil in low-permeability formations. Hydraulic fracturing consists of pumping fluids into a well under high pressure (1000--5000 psi) to wedge-open and extend a fracture into the producing formation. The fracture acts as a conduit for gas and oil to flow back to the well, significantly increasing communication with larger volumes of the producing formation. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the use of acoustic (microseismic) emission to delineate fracture growth. The use of transient signals to map the location of discrete sites of emission along fractures has been the focus of most research on methods for delineating fractures. These methods depend upon timing the arrival of compressional (P) or shear (S) waves from discrete fracturing events at one or more clamped geophones in the treatment well or in adjacent monitoring wells. Using a propagation model, the arrival times are used to estimate the distance from each sensor to the fracturing event. Coherent processing methods appear to have sufficient resolution in the 75 to 200 Hz band to delineate the extent of fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing. The medium velocity structure must be known with a 10% accuracy or better and no major discontinuities should be undetected. For best results, the receiving array must be positioned directly opposite the perforations (same depths) at a horizontal range of 200 to 400 feet from the region to be imaged. Sources of acoustic emission may be detectable down to a single-sensor SNR of 0.25 or somewhat less. These conclusions are limited by the assumptions of this study: good coupling to the formation, acoustic propagation, and accurate knowledge of the velocity structure.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Harris, D.B.; Sherwood, R.J.; Jarpe, S.P. & Harben, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of injection well risk management potential in the Williston Basin

Description: The UIC regulations promulgated by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) provide the EPA, or an EPA approved state agency, with authority to regulate subsurface injection of fluids to protect USDWs. Oil and gas producing industry interests are concerned primarily with Class 2 wells whose uses as defined by UIC regulations are: disposal of fluids brought to the surface and liquids generated in connection with oil and gas production (SWD); injection of fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR); and storage of liquid hydrocarbons. The Williston Basin was chosen for the pilot study of the feasibility of using the risk approach in managing Class 2 injection operations for the following reasons: it is one of the nine geologic basins which was classified as having a significant potential for external casing corrosion, which permitted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the injection well corrosion control measures used by industry; there are 731 active, 22 shut in and 203 temporarily abandoned SWD and water injection wells in the basin; and the basin covers three states. The broad objective of the Williston Basin study is to define requirements and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating risk management into administration of the UIC program. The study does not address the reporting aspects of UIC regulatory and compliance activities but the data base does contain essentially all the information required to develop the reports needed to monitor those activities. 16 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: none,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis

Description: Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H. & Locke, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent extraction of methane from simulated geopressured-geothermal fluids: sub-pilot test results

Description: The extraction of methane dissolved in 15 wt % sodium chloride solution at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi has been demonstrated using n-hexadecane as the solvent in a sub-pilot scale extraction column operated in a continuous, countercurrent flow mode. Greater than 90% recovery of methane was obtained with solvent/brine mass flow ratios in the range of .040 to .045. The height of an ideal stage in this experimental Elgin-type spray column is estimated to be 1.5 ft. Application of this process on actual geopressured fluids is technically feasible, and when combined with direct drive injection disposal is economically attractive. Design and operation of a methane saturated-brine supply system to provide simulated geopressured fluid continuously at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi are also described.
Date: January 14, 1982
Creator: Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H. & Locke, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

Description: This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B. & Salamy, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K/sub Ic/ and J-resistance curve measurements on Nevada tuff

Description: Linear elastic fracture mechanics and J-integral test methods were used to determine the static fracture behavior of a porous volcanic tuff. Notched and prefatigued specimens of two different sizes were tested in three-point bending. The fracture toughness (K/sub Ic/) and the J-resistance (J versus crack growth) curve for each specimen were determined. The results indicate that there is good agreement between the fracture parameters determined by the two methods; however, there is some dependence of the results on specimen size. Possible reasons for this specimen size dependence are discussed. 4 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Weisinger, R.; Costin, L.S. & Lutz, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data accumulation on the methane potential of the coal beds of Colorado. Final report

Description: A two-year project was conducted to gather data that would assist in the evaluation of the methane potential of the coal beds of Colorado. It was found that a number of closed underground coal mines in the State had reported gassy conditions or had experienced fires and explosions of varied intensity and frequency. The majority of such occurrences have been in those areas characterized by coals of relatively low (i.e., below 31%) volatile matter (VM) content. The south half of the Raton Mesa coal region (Las Animas County) and the southeastern part of the Unita region (in Gunnison and Pitkin Counties) contain coals with the lowest percentages of VM, the gassiest producing mines, and the highest grade coking coal in the State. Five active mines in Pitkin County presently are emitting a total of over 8 million cu ft of methane per day. These mines produce the highest quality metallurgical-grade coal in the western US (high-volatile A and medium-volatile bituminous). The gassy coals in these two regions range from Late Cretaceous to Paleocene in age and usually occur in areas related to igneous activity of late Tertiary age. The VM percentages of Colorado coals can be used, with some caution, to determine their potential methane content. Additional desorption measurements and coal analyses are needed to more accurately predict the effects of rank and depth of occurrence on the methane content of coals in the State.
Date: March 31, 1978
Creator: Fender, H. B. & Murray, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential methods for methane extraction from geopressured brine at high temperature and pressure

Description: Recovery of methane from Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal reservoirs does not appear to be profitable without a rise in natural gas prices to offset high production costs. If injection into the production reservoir becomes necessary to maintain productivity and to minimize subsidence, the injection pumping costs approach and even exceed the value of the recoverable methane. An option aimed at reducing the injection pump operating costs is to maintain a higher than normal pressure at the production wellhead to reduce the injection-pumping work load. This option, however, is considerably less attractive if that portion of methane still dissolved at elevated pressure cannot be recovered. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to devise methods for extracting methane at high pressures and temperatures. Liquid extraction with a very low water-soluble organic is a technically feasible method and looks promising as an applicable process. A candidate solvent is hexadecane, a paraffinic hydrocarbon with the necessary phase-equilibrium thermodynamic properties to satisfy the technical requirements for such an operation, without any obvious economic barriers. Gas stripping is another technically feasible method, but the economics do not look favorable because of gas dissolution losses. Freon refrigerants were considered because of their ease of product-stripping gas separation and nitrogen was considered because of its low cost. Brine-driven positive displacement pumps with provisions for methane exsolution are technically feasible concepts and could eliminate or greatly reduce pump power costs. These extraction operations will not preclude the option of recovering the thermal energy component, if desired.
Date: June 2, 1980
Creator: Quong, R.; Owen, L.B. & Locke, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

Description: As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation]

Description: This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D. & Hall, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acoustical properties of drill strings

Description: The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Drumheller, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980

Description: The executive study presents the results and progress of efforts toward understanding shale gas production from the Devonian shale in Appalachia. A correlation was found between the geochemical parameters of the shale in eastern Kentucky and shale gas production there. Tasks on resource inventory tasks and shale characterization include regional structure studies, production studies, geophysical studies, structure studies, fracture density and orientation, and fracture studies. (DLC)
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Negus-de Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study of a hybrid erosion drilling concept, PIFR-984. [ERODRILL]

Description: Analysis of a preliminary design for a hybrid ERODRILL system indicates that the system is practicable for both fabrication and operation in the field. The system as designed is compatible with standard 3-inch i.d., 4/sup 1///sub 2/-inch o.d. drilling pipe and rotary drill bits. Very little additional wellhead equipment will be required in field use. Dynamic loading on the downhole system with this concept is negligible; the upward thrust on the drill stem is only about 6,000 pounds per pulse while the downward force on the drill stem during drilling is 30,000 pounds. Both safety and reliability analyses have been performed which show the hybrid ERODRILL concept to be at least equivalently safe and reliable as standard drilling methods. Preliminary economic analysis shows that with current assumptions, ERODRILL is extremely attractive for offshore drilling operations, and possibly within competitive reach for deep (20,000 feet) land wells. The hybrid concept does not at first blush appear economical for shallow (10,000 feet) land wells. These conclusions are based upon assumptions about system performance, which, while they were based on the best available evidence, may be incorrect by as much as /sup +/- a factor of 2.
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Raytheon downhole information system. Electromagnetic borehole measurements while drilling system. Final report

Description: A description is given of the Raytheon Downhole Information System (RDIS), a real time electromagnetic borehole measurements while drilling system, applicable to oil, gas, and geothermal drilling. It communicates in both directions through the earth in a single hop at a downlink data rate of 3 bps and uplink rates dependent on depth--typically 6 bits/second at 10,000 ft and 2 bits/second at 15,000 ft; electromagnetic signal transmission time of approximately .1 second. Downhole hardware for communications, sensors, and power are packaged in three 30 ft subs. Downhole hardware can be developed to permit operation in a 275/sup 0/C geothermal environment. A cost analysis is included that predicts RDIS service could be economically priced at approximately $1000/day. Commercial availability depends primarily on proof of capability by demonstration in a working drilling well. The most significant portions of needed hardware are available. A description of a geothermal drilling telemetry system is included in Appendix A.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Kolker, M.; Greene, A.H.; Kasevich, R.S.; Robertson, J.C. & Grossi, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. [Vapor-liquid equilibrium]

Description: The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 [times] 10[sup 14] BTU/yr.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bullin, J.A. & Frazier, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data-collection instrumentation and interpretation for geopressured aquifer well tests

Description: The Wells of Opportunity program funded by the Department of Energy, sought to determine the amount of natural gas and thermal energy entrained in geopressured, geothermal aquifers of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast fairways. This determination was made by bringing representative wells onto production for periods long enough to ascertain such characteristics as temperature, gas/brine ratio, reservoir boundaries and permeabilities. During testing, amounts of produced gas and brine were carefully monitored through a computer controlled instrumentation station, which provided reliable and precise indications of the amounts of recoverable gas being produced from the reservoir. A data collection system was designed to be integrated into the surface test equipment to provide real-time control and data compilation during the well tests. Strip chart records provided real-time control information during the test. All pressures, both differential pressures, brine and gas temperatures, and sand detector signals were displayed, and the physical records were maintained for interpretation of well performance. The data collection system coupled with the interpretation software permitted gas/brine ratio to be determined with accuracy of five percent for values as low as 0.02 MCF/STB. In addition, graphical representation of well performance, brine flow rates, gas production, pressure histories, etc., could be made as the test progressed. Data system reliability was very high. Downtime was minimal even under relatively harsh environmental conditions for electronic equipment. This data collection system, while designed initially for geopressured aquifers, is adaptable to the automated collection of scientific and engineering information for the interpretation of well tests of other petroleum resources.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rose, R.E. & Doherty, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

Description: The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Sackinger, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978

Description: Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.
Date: August 8, 1978
Creator: Kalyoncu, R.S. & Snyder, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department