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Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume I

Description: This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized bed-combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems.
Date: December 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the mechanisms of calcination and sulfation in coal-water mixtures

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to study the mechanisms of sulfur capture when burning coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM) in fluidized beds. Special care is taken to make comparisons with to dry coal and sorbent under comparable experimental conditions. A series of experiments were performed in an eight-inch diameter bubbling fluidized bed combustor to address this problem. 33 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: September 21, 1990
Creator: Christofides, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

Description: This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S. & Tallackson, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrocyclone development program. Quarterly technical report, August-October 1981

Description: Progress is reported in research on the use of applied electrostatics to enhance the performance of large (18-in. dia.) cyclone collectors for cleaning hot exhaust gases from pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustors in coal-fired power plants. Information is included on the electrocyclone cold flow test data; cyclone scaling; electrostatic component development; and redesign of the PFB test module. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Additional research on advanced R and D in Japan

Description: The August 1979 status of research and development programs in Japan on high temperature (inlet temperatures to 3000/sup 0/F) gas turbines, on the cleanup of exhaust gases from gas turbines and from coal combustion for steam generation, on fluidized bed combustion, and on fuel cells are summarized. This information was obtained from reports by and interviews of officials in Japanese industrial organizations and research institutes which are conducting the studies. The results show that economical technologies have been developed for waste water treatment and air pollution control so that the Japanese atmosphere and waters have regained their old purity. Basic studies have been completed on the advanced gas turbine, fluidized bed combustion system and fuel cells and pilot plants to demonstrate their performance are to be built. (LCL)
Date: August 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regenerative process for desulfurization of high temperature combustion and fuel gases. Quarterly progress report No. 8, January 1-March 31, 1978

Description: A highly reactive ..beta..-dicalcium silicate powder sample has been acquired from Professor D. Roy of Pennsylvania State University. We will use it in conjunction with our ash-binder pelletizing technique to form a highly regenerable and reactive sorbent for fluidized bed combustion. Other techniques of forming reactive silicates are also being studied. Simplified mathematical models have been developed for kiln regeneration based on the data with a small quartz rotary kiln reactor. The model provides better undersanding for scaleup of the promising Brookhaven Kiln Regeneration Process. The Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyzed sulfation and regeneration process has been further studied with a small quartz fluidized-bed sulfator and a small rotary kiln regenerator. Ten sulfation-regeneration cycles will be completed within the next reporting quarter. After completion of the cyclic experiments, we will make recommendations for field testing, i.e., testing in one of the DOE pilot fluidized bed combustors and regenerators. The reactivity of a reconstructed CaSO/sub 4/ is indeed higher than the original sample. We plan to further understand the morphological and structural changes taking place in the process. A detailed analysis and a review of the high temperature CaSO/sub 4/ regeneration mechanism were made. Understanding of the mechanism will be useful in improving all the regeneration processes being developed. Kinetics of the rapid reaction between CaO and SO/sub 3/ are being studied and the work will be completed shortly. This is part of our effort to understand the mechanism both in sulfation and regeneration. A good attempt has been made to use ZnO as a regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization. The evaporation rate of the sorbent in a reducing atmosphere is too high for this sorbent to be of practical use. 31 figures, 3 tables.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Yang, R T; Albanese, A S; Chen, J M; Farber, G; Kainz, F B; Pruzansky, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and technology review

Description: Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures. (GHT)
Date: October 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

Description: The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: ,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

Description: A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D. & Hobson, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

Description: The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D. & Hobson, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste systems. Progress report, January 1982-February 1983

Description: A laboratory-scale beryllium electrorefining cell has been placed in operation and metallic beryllium with a purity greater than 99.95% has been produced. Methods of uranium chip disposal have been evaluated by performing bench- and pilot-scale testing and by surveying present chip disposal methods. A design criteria has been completed for a new production uranium chip disposal facility. Two types of cementation immobilization processes are being developed to treat several Rocky Flats wastes which do not currently meet repository acceptance criteria. The nitrate salts, as now shipped, are an extremely fine powder, composed chiefly of sodium and potassium nitrate. Nitrates are an oxidizer, and their behavior in a possible fire would be of concern. Accident caused fires involving a cargo of boxed nitrate salts were modeled and the burning characteristics noted. In addition, gypsum cement was tested as an immobilization matrix to reduce dispersibility. A program is in process to construct a facility to remotely size reduce gloveboxes and miscellaneous equipment contaminated with plutonium and other radioactive nuclides. The Title II engineering package is completed and the construction of the facility has been initiated. Modification and additions to the 82 kg/h Fluidized Bed Incinerator were made in preparation for turning the unit over to Production. A program was initiated to identify, characterize, and evaluate for recycle all the spent oil and solvent streams which are immobilized and disposed as Transuranic (TRU) waste. Three technologies were evaluted for denitrification method was studied at Rocky Flats while a thermal decomposition process and a molten salt chemical conversion technique were investigated on a subcontract basis with Thagard Research Corporation and Rockwell International, Energy Systems Group, respectively.
Date: October 24, 1983
Creator: Hickle, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

Description: The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.
Date: November 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume I. Executive summary

Description: An energy storage system which could be attractive for future electric utility peak-load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off-peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak-load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak-load power plant dependence on petroleum-based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal-fired fluidized bed (FBC) combustor/compressed air energy storage (FBC/CAES) systems was performed and is described. The conclusions drawn from the FBC/CAES study program are encouraging. They indicate that pressurized FBC/CAES power plants should be technologically feasible, provide good performance, and be economically competitive. Specifically, it is concluded that: coal-fired FBC/CAES systems should be technically feasible in the near future and potentially attractive for peak-load power generation; and an open-bed PFBC/CAES configuration would provide the best candidate for early commercialization. It has relatively low risk combined with moderate cost and reasonable round-trip heat rate. It also has the potential for future growth options which tend to reduce costs and lower fuel consumption.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D. & Hobson, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

Description: This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat exchanger materials for fluidized bed coal combustors

Description: The 4500-h test in the FluiDyne AFBC tells us three things: (1) ferritic and austenitic superheater alloys perform well to approximately 590/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F), (2) high-temperature alloys can perform well at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F), and (3) they also may fail miserably at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F). Additional studies are clearly needed to develop a fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms in AFBC and to determine the envelope of safe operating conditions, which will depend upon alloy sensitivity, the oxygen and sulfur activities, and the many parameters that affect mixing and homogeneity within an operating AFBC. Ultimately long-term tests for periods to 20,000 h will be needed to assure the operability of in-bed heat exchanger and structural materials for the anticipated lifetime of a plant. Good design and well-controlled operations will yield good material performance in AFBC. The key to reliable material usage is operation within the safe envelope. Results from the present experiment suggest that this envelope is large for utility steam systems but smaller for high-temperature tubes and uncooled components in AFBC.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Godfrey, T G; Copper, R H; DeVan, J H & Drake, K R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized-bed combustor

Description: The use of three options for the reduction of the environmental impact of the solid sorbents used to control SO/sub 2/-emission in fluidized-bed coal combustion systems has been experimentally examined. The three options are: (1) the use of chemical reactivity enhancement agents, such as NaCl, (2) the regeneration and reuse of the limestone and (3) the use of synthetic sorbents. The quantity of waste decreases in the order (1) to (3) while the cost increases in the order (1) to (3). Both the use of chemical enhancement agents and the regeneration of limestone (or dolomite) appear to be viable options at the present time. The high cost, low SO/sub 2/ capacity, and small decrease in environmental impact obtained with synthetic sorbents, at the present state of development eliminate this option from further consideration.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Johnson, I; Vogel, G J; Montagna, J; Shearer, J; Snyder, R; Swift, W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing and verification of granular-bed filters for the removal of particulate and alkalies. Fifth quarterly project report, October 1-December 31, 1981

Description: The Westinghouse Electric Corporation with Ducon, Inc. and Burns and Roe, Inc. are conducting a test and evaluation program of a Granular Bed Filter (GBF) for gas cleaning applications in pressurized-fluidized bed combustion processes. This work is funded by DOE PRDA for Exploratory Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation of Systems or Devices for Hot Gas Clean-up. This report describes the status of the testing of the subpilot scale GBF unit and test results and analysis from the bench scale alkali gettering work.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Lippert, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

Description: This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Judkins, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conference on energy research at historically black universities

Description: A conference was convened to present and discuss significant research and development in Historically Black Institutions (current and past); areas that show potential for inter-institutional collaboration and the sharing of facilities; existing capabilities to sustain funded research activities and future potential for expansion and enhancement; and appropriate arrangements for maximum interaction with industry and government agencies. Papers were presented at small group meetings in various energy research areas, and abstracts of the projects or programs are presented. The Solar Energy small group provided contributions in the areas of photovoltaics, biomass, solar thermal, and wind. Research reported on by the Fossil Fuel small group comprises efforts in the areas of fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal liquefaction, and oil shale pyrolysis. Five research programs reported on by the Conservation Research small group involve a summer workshop for high school students on energy conservation; use of industrial waste heat for a greenhouse; solar energy and energy conservation research and demonstration; energy efficiency and management; and a conservation program targeted at developing a model for educating low income families. The Environment Impact groups (2) presented contributions on physical and chemical impacts and biological monitors and impacts. The Policy Research group presented four papers on a careful analysis of the Equity issues; one on a model for examining the economic issue in looking at the interaction between energy technology and the state of the economy; and a second paper examined the institutional constraints on environmental oriented energy policy. Six additional abstracts by invited participants are presented. (MCW)
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Des Moines Energy Center repowering with PCFB technology

Description: Iowa Power and Dairyland Power have formed a partnership and entered into an agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to repower a mothballed electric generating facility using Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology. The project is the first commercial application of PCFB technology. The project includes the refurbishment of an existing steam turbine cycle, installation of the PCFB and gas turbine, and a two year operating period to demonstrate the technology. The repowered unit is expected to be rated at 80 MW. The plant is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Process systems are described.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ambrose, S.J.; Kreumpel, G.E. & Dryden, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

Description: Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems assessment of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion: baseline study

Description: Early in December 1977, ORNL was asked to undertake a systems analysis and technology assessment of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) with specific emphasis on: Market potential, comparative economics, technical issues, and impact of environmental control requirements. The baseline study of this activity was performed during December and culminated in the present draft report on December 30, 1977. The purpose of this report is to identify the major issues and questions regarding AFBC, survey available literature, propose a work plan for the six-month execution phase of the project beginning January 1, 1978, present a preliminary outline of the execution phase final report, and identify major current AFBC projects and issues being addressed by each.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Jones, J.E. Jr.; McNeese, L.E.; Samuels, G.; Siman-Tov, M.; Cochran, H.D.; Godfrey, T.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approach to market-penetration analysis for advanced electric-power-generation technologies

Description: If commercialization of new technologies is the primary objective of the Department of Energy's Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programs, the ultimate measure of benefit from RD and D programs is the extent of commercial acceptance of the developed technologies. Uncertainty about barriers to commercialization - government policy, fuel supply, etc. - make the task of estimating this acceptance very difficult. However, given that decisions must be made regarding allocation of RD and D funds, the best information available, with due regard for uncertainty, should serve as input to these decisions. An approach is presented for quantifying the range of market potential for new technologies (specifically in the utility sector) based on historical information and known plans for the future.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Lamontagne, J.; Love, P. & Queirolo, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

Description: Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R. & Remsen, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department