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Intellectual Capital (IC) and Customer Value in a Retailing Context

Description: Intellectual Capital (IC) is the intellectual capability of an organization; it drives the usage of other productive resources and adds value to the business structure. Although the expanding literature on IC has enhanced our understanding, the effects of IC with relation to consumers have not been explored in the marketing literature. Thus, this study fills this void by approaching the notion of IC from a customer perspective. Customer value also has attracted extensive attention in recent years. However, the lack of agreement among scholars with respect to the conceptualization of customer value has resulted in inconsistent empirical measures. Furthermore, despite extensive research focus on IC and customer value separately, there is a void in the literature as far as investigating the relationship between the two is concerned. Thus, this study also empirically investigates the predictive relationships among the various dimensions of IC and perceived customer value. This dissertation delineates three dimensions of IC (i.e., Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Relational Capital) available to a retail store in creating value for customers. This study tests the psychometric properties of scale items for measuring these three resources in an apparel retailing context. It also tests the effects of IC on customer value using both a student sample and a consumer sample. This study makes several important contributions to the literature and has the potential to improve marketing practices. First, this study revisits the conceptualization of IC in relation to consumer’s perception and to value creation in an apparel retailing context. Second, this study investigates the multidimensional nature of IC and the relative influence of different dimensions on customer value. Lastly, marketing practitioners and retail managers can learn, based on these results, that the types of resources and their utilization affect the perception by consumers of the value of retail stores.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Jeon, Sua
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Impact of a Behavioral Style Awareness Training Program on Retail Sales Effectiveness of Commission Sales Personnel in a Major Department Store Chain in the Southwest

Description: The success of any retail institution depends upon many factors including personal selling effectiveness. Traditional sales training has focused primarily on the selling process with emphasis on how to close a sale. The idea of using behavioral style awareness training with salespeople has emerged only recently when behavioral training began to be recognized in the literature as a tool for sales training as well as for management training. The Social Style of Behavior concept developed by Dr. David Merrill was selected for use in this research study. Utilizing this concept, a behavioral style awareness training program was developed involving twenty hours of classroom training. Training methods used were lecture, role play, and videotaped materials with emphasis on behavioral identification and using versatility with applications to personal selling in a retail situation.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gregg, Sharon F. (Sharon Fowler)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Zale Corporation: A Texas Success Story

Description: The study begins by examining economic, political, and social conditions in Tsarist Russia that prompted the Zale family to immigrate to the United States. They eventually settled in Texas where, as a boy, Morris Zale was introduced to the jewelry business. In his first store in Wichita Falls Zale developed the idea of mass marketing his merchandise, and in order to do so he offered credit to his customers. He also made extensive use of advertising. Both of those approaches were revolutionary in the retail jewelry industry. This study examines various methods used by Zale's to expand its holdings. In addition, attention is given to Zale's diversification in the late 1960's and early 1970's. Emphasis is given in the study to Zale's development of a vertically integrated structure. By purchasing diamonds directly from the Diamond Trading Company, Zale's has been able to process the stones at each stage—cutting, polishing, mounting, and marketing. Such an arrangement eliminated middlemen at each step, permitting Zale's to reduce markups and margins and still maintain necessary profit levels. This study examines several serious adversities that have confronted the company—racial and religious prejudice, the Depression, shortages brought on by World War II, potential competition from a synthetic diamond, and an internal scandal involving Zale's chief financial officer. In each case Zale's managed to emerge from the adversity stronger than it had been previously. From the outset Zale's objective has been to sell the greatest amount of jewelry to the greatest number of people at the lowest possible price, and this study indicates how successful the company has been in reaching that goal.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Stringer, Tommy W. (Tommy Wayne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Supply chain relationships in apparel retail product development.

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate supply chain relationships within the apparel retail product development process under a single site case study setting. Relationship determinants (i.e. drivers, facilitators and barriers) that facilitated or impeded the degree of collaborative efforts between the retailer and the supply chain members were identified. As the retailer integrated its product development process with its suppliers, a triangular relationship was formed between the retailer, the overseas manufacturers, and the designated suppliers. The study found that the retailer sought operational efficiency in its business relationships with supply chain members, but continued to seek long-term commitment in these relationships to establish a virtual vertical company.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Lee, Daton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Retail Buyers Saleability Judgements: A Comparison of Merchandise Categories

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the saleability judgements of retail store buyers of women's and men's wear. A sample of 81 women's and men's wear buyers, representing two specialty stores and one mass merchandiser, was sent questionnaires. Principal Components Factor Analysis with Varimax Rotation was used to reduce the number of product, vendor and information source variables to eight factors. Three significant differences existed between the women's wear and men's wear buyers, verifying that not all retail buyers are alike. Results will benefit educators in preparing students to become more effective buyers, retail management can incorporate this same information into a buyer training program and apparel manufacturers can use the study in planning product strategies to retailers.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Stone, Linda C. (Linda Carol)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Retail Location and Clustering: A Case Study of Port Huron, MI

Description: Retail geography is a field of study that is growing in significance and importance within the academic, business, economic, and governmental realms. This study's main focus is on the changing retail environment with regards to business location and function within a small Midwestern city. The research focuses on Port Huron, Michigan because of the growth and shift of the retail community within the city over the past twenty years. The study specifically examines the changing influence and roles of Port Huron's central business district and of Birchwood Mall a retail development opened on the urban area's north end in 1990. The study uses the chi-squared, ANOVA, and cross tabulation statistical tests to analyze the changing geography of retail functions in the city. These statistics are used along with relative entropy equations to distinguish areas of high diversification, changing area functions, and common locations for multiple retail types.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Dickinson, Amie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report Briefs: Publications of the Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1999

Description: The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether the products found are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for noncomparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up to date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimate that more than 50% of U.S. economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI. The objective it to provide the results of tests on a method for helping BLS staff build new product checklists quickly and efficiently. The domain chosen for studying the method was the telecommunications industry. The method developed by ORNL is based on behavioral science and knowledge-engineering principles. The method has ten steps, which include developing a sample of domain experts, asking experts to list products in the domain, culling the list of products to a manageable number, asking experts to group the remaining products, identifying product clusters using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis, asking experts to compare pairs of products within clusters, and, finally, developing checklists with the comparison data. The method performed as expected. Several prototype checklists for products in the telecommunications domain were developed, including checklists for paging services, digital cell phones, web browsers, routers, and LAN modems. It was particularly difficult, however, to find experts to participate in the project. Attending a professional meeting and contacting experts from the conference's mailing list proved to be ...
Date: March 17, 2000
Creator: Moser, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State heating oil and propane program: Final technical report, 1991-92 heating season, Minnesota Department of Public Service

Description: This report summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1991-92 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel, prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail, price information over the course of the heating season.
Date: May 29, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1992--1993

Description: In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted four additional propane surveys on January 11 and 25, and April 5 and 19, 1993. The heating oil surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on March 15, 1993. The propane surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on April 19, 1993. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Rizzolo, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iowa state heating oil and propane program: 1996--1997 winter heating season. Final report

Description: The objective of the Iowa State Heating Oil and Propane Program is to develop a state-level, company-specific data collection effort so that retail price information on fuel oil and propane is collected by the staff of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources during the winter heating season. The second objective is to provide specific volume and retail price information to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Information Administration on No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semi-monthly basis. This report summarizes the results of the residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) price survey over the 1996--1997 winter heating season in Iowa. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources conducted the survey under a cooperative financial assistance grant with the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA).
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

Description: The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Hunton, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1995--1996

Description: This reports documents the 1995-1996 United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to monitor No. 2 heating oil and propane prices. Data reported encompass states that are heavily dependent on these products. Twelve surveys were conducted semimonthly to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers. Surveys began on October 2, 1995 and ended on March 18, 1996. Responses were analyzed to avoid questionable prices. Tables and graphs included in the report reflect the general activity of the prices furnished during the surveys. 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Rizzolo, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1993--1994

Description: In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted three additional propane surveys on January 31 and February 14 and 28, 1994. The surveys began on October 4, 1993 and ended on March 21, 1994. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Rizzolo, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State heating oil and propane program 1994--1995. Final report

Description: In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Board of Public Utilities (BPU), Division of Energy Planning and Conservation participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, they conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The surveys began on October 3, 1994 and ended on March 20, 1995. The authors submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Rizzolo, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

Description: Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Wiser, R. & Pickle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Assessment of Consumers' Willingness to Patronize Foreign-Based Business Format Franchises: An Investigation in the Fast-Food Sector

Description: This study aimed to address consumers' stereotypical categorizations in the form of essentialist views about foreign cultures and their effect on individual consumers, including their negative or aroused emotions and subsequent retail patronage behaviors. The research mission was to empirically assess the salient dimensions of consumers' states of mind (positive and negative affect, psychological essentialism, epistemic curiosity), states of being (store atmospherics), and states of action (retail patronage behaviors) in a cultural context based on Mehrabian-Russell theory of environmental psychology. Specifically, the retail patronage setting was selected as foreign-based fast-food franchises because it represents both a relevant and timely situational context for consumer behavior. This dissertation makes several contributions to international retail patronage literature. First, it frames curiosity as an aroused emotional state and finds support for the relationship between consumer epistemic curiosity and retail patronage. Second, it provides support for the linkage between consumer affect and retail patronage in an international retail setting. Third, it reveals that affect has a greater impact on retail patronage than epistemic curiosity. The overarching finding of this study is an inability to tie the cultural elements in retail atmospherics, including signs, symbols, and artifacts, to consumer emotions. In addition, we were unable to frame psychological essentialism as a personality trait that would reduce the levels of affect and curiosity in retail store environments characterized by foreign-cultural elements.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Ertekin, Selcuk
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organized Retail Crime: Private Sector and Law Enforcement Collaborate to Deter and Investigate Theft

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Each year organized groups of professional shoplifters steal or fraudulently obtain billions of dollars in merchandise to resell in an activity known as organized retail crime (ORC). These stolen goods can also be sold on online marketplaces, a practice known as "e-fencing." GAO was asked to assess ORC and e-fencing. This report addresses: (1) types of efforts that select retailers, state and local law enforcement, and federal agencies are undertaking to combat ORC; (2) the extent to which tools or mechanisms exist to facilitate collaboration and information sharing among these ORC stakeholders; and (3) steps that select online marketplaces have taken to combat ORC and e-fencing, and additional actions, if any, retailers and law enforcement think may enhance these efforts. GAO reviewed retail-industry documentation, such as reports and surveys, and academic studies related to ORC and efforts to combat it. GAO also interviewed representatives from four major retail associations and five individual retailers, selected for their knowledge of and efforts to combat ORC, as well as eight local law enforcement officials involved in the development of ORC information sharing networks, and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials. The results are not generalizable, but provided insights on activities related to ORC."
Date: June 14, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Service Quality and the Small Apparel Speciality Store : Perceptions of Female Consumers

Description: Service quality defined by the customer is an important element in satisfying customers and may determine retail survival. The SERVQUAL instrument measured desired and minimum expectations and perceptions of service quality in a small apparel specialty store. Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in three dimensions of service quality for both desired and minimum levels of expectations and perceptions: (a) Personal Attention, (b) Reliability, and (c) Tangibles. Regression analyses determined the relationship between overall service quality (OSQ) and various predictor variables. Based on gap scores between desired expectations and perceptions, the Personal Attention and Tangibles dimensions were significant in predicting OSQ. SERVQUAL is a managerial tool that small apparel retailers may use to improve service quality.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Knight, Delores Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role and Contributions of Independent Sales Representatives in the Relationship Between Merchandise Suppliers and Small Retailers: Dynamic Interactions in the Channel

Description: Small retailers are searching for a basis of competitive advantage to compete against larger retailers. The independent sales representative (rep) may represent such a basis. Little is known about how the role of reps and their performance is perceived by suppliers and retailers. We do not know what is expected from reps, if the reps' performance meets suppliers and retailers expectations, or whether met expectations lead to a basis of competitive advantage. Primarily, the study was designed to identify the role and contributions reps in the interactions between the supplier and retailer in the channel of distribution.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Gruben, Kathleen H. (Kathleen Hall)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Contemporary Franchising, with Particular Emphasis on Factors Leading to the Repurchase of Fast-Food Service Franchises

Description: This study explores the question of whether repurchasing of service establishments is an inherent characteristic of service franchising. The answer to this question holds substantial consequences for the economy and for public policy toward franchising.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Tinnery, Terry Jack, 1942-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of the Situational Judgment Test

Description: This research attempts to confirm the reliability and construct validity of a personnel selection instrument called a Situational Judgment Test (SJT) through reliability analysis and factor analysis. The existing literature on SJTs is reviewed, including the advantages of using SJTs in personnel selection as well as the debate on whether SJTs measure a single construct or whether they can be multidimensional depending on the content. The specific SJT in this research was theoretically developed and received expert ratings to assess four general constructs: problem solving, planning, priority setting, and leadership. No support from alpha internal consistency reliability analysis was found for the assembly of these items into the four a priori subscales, thus assembly of these items into the theoretical subscales and scales was not supported.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Conner, Lane A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Needed Improvements in the Office Management of the Goodyear Retail Stores

Description: It is the purpose of this study to analyze certain basic problems of office operations and personnel administration in the Goodyear Retail Stores, and to make recommendations as to improvements most needed. Specifically, this study is undertaken with the intention of determining to what extent proper planning, more efficient operating procedures, and improved personnel relationships can aid in the success of office management in the Goodyear stores.
Date: 1952
Creator: McDow, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

Description: Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C. & Pickle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retail Image Dimensions: An Empirical Analysis

Description: The goals of this dissertation were to determine the salient cognitive dimensions of retail image in the perceptions of consumers and the image attributes related to those dimensions. This study took advantage of multidimensional scaling techniques (MDS) to create dimensioned perceptual maps based on nonpredetermined attributes. Similarities data about five Dallas shopping centers, gathered by questionnaires from a sample (n=181) of women shoppers interviewed at the centers, were analyzed to discover the perceived dimensions of image. Similarities data were also collected on fifteen attributes previously found to be significant. MDS configurations of the attributes were compared with the retail image configuration by means of a matrix fitting technique. These comparisons categorized the attributes according to the dimensions with which they were congruent. Evaluation of these groups provided a means for identifying and naming the primary perceptual dimensions. Saliency of the perceived dimensions was tested by congruency matching respondent preferences to perceptions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Palmer, Arthur M. (Arthur Mohler)
Partner: UNT Libraries