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Long range transport: Evaluation of a particle-in-cell model using sources in the US and USSR

Description: After being informed that radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant had been discovered on the clothing of workers at a Swedish reactor site, the United States Department of Energy requested that the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) evaluate both the extent and the magnitude of the accident (Dickerson and Sullivan, 1987). ARAC is a real-time emergency response service that specializes in the regional assessment of radiological accidents using advanced dispersion models. While we possessed a sizable inventory of computer models with which to address this problem, we lacked an operational tool that could be used with confidence in determining the fate of airborne radioactivity beyond about 500 km. As an outgrowth of this experience, we began to explore the spatial limits of applicability of our Advection-Diffusion Particle-In-Cell (ADPIC) model (Lange, 1978). At the same time, we began testing a hybrid version of this model that uses the Air Force Global Weather Central's Northern Hemisphere Whole Mesh Grid of wind velocities as input. In combination, these models can provide, potentially, a response capability that extends from tens of kilometers to the entire Northern Hemisphere. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Rodriguez, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

Description: Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L. & Selby, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Results are included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model to estimate radiation dose commitments to the world population from the atmospheric release of radionuclides (LWBR development program)

Description: The equations developed for use in the LWBR environmental statement to estimate the dose commitment over a given time interval to a given organ of the population in the entire region affected by the atmospheric releases of a radionuclide are presented and may be used for any assessment of dose commitments in these regions. These equations define the dose commitments to the world resulting from a released radionuclide and each of its daughters and the sum of these dose commitments provides the total dose commitment accrued from the release of a given radionuclide. If more than one radionuclide is released from a facility, then the sum of the dose commitments from each released nuclide and from each daughter of each released nuclide is the total dose commitment to the world from that facility. Furthermore, if more than one facility is considered as part of an industry, then the sum of the dose commitments from the individual facilities represents the total world dose commitment associated with that industry. The actual solutions to these equations are carried out by the AIRWAY computer program. The writing of this computer program entailed defining in detail the specific representations of the various parameters such as scavenging coefficients, resuspension factors, deposition velocities, dose commitment conversion factors, and food uptake factors, in addition to providing specific numerical values for these types of parameters. The program permits the examination of more than one released nuclide at a time and performs the necessary summing to obtain the total dose commitment to the world accrued from the specified releases.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Rider, J.L. & Beal, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and comparisons with experimental data. [/sup 41/Ar continuously emitted from BNL reactor to atmosphere]

Description: In a previous paper Peterson presented measurements on the /sup 41/Ar emitted continuously into the atmosphere from a reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo atmospheric transport model of Watson and Barr are presented and compared with the experimental data. The measured quantities with which comparisons are made are: the position north of Brookhaven where the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration occurred for specific values of x (east of Brookhaven) and t, time; the standard deviation, sigma/sub y/, of the /sup 41/Ar concentration about the position of maximum concentration for specific values of x and t; and a quantity that is proportional to the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration for specific values of x and t. The calculated results are in moderately good agreement with the experimental data at most distances (less than or equal to 300 km) and most times for which data are available.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Alsmiller, F. S.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.; Bertini, H. W. & Begovich, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

Description: A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O. & Young, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

Description: This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Releases of radioactivity from uranium mills and effluent treatment costs. [Stabilization of uranium mill tailings]

Description: Airborne releases of radioactive materials from uranium milling to the environment consist of ore dust, yellowcake dust, tailings dust, and radon gas while the mill is active. After a mill has ceased operations, tailings may be stabilized to minimize or prevent airborne releases of radioactive particulates. However, radon gas will continue to be released in amounts inversely proportional to the degree of stabilization treatment (and expense). Liquid waste disposal is by evaporation and natural seepage to the ground beneath the tailings impoundment area. The release of radioactive materials (and potential radiation exposures) determines the majority of costs associated with minimizing the environmental impact of uranium milling. Radwaste treatments to reduce estimated radiation doses to individuals to 3 to 5% of those received with current milling practices are equivalent to $0.66 per pounds of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and 0.032 mill per kWhr of electricity. This cost would cover a high efficiency reverse jet bag filter and high energy venturi scrubbers for dusts, neutralization of liquids, and an asphalt-lined tailings basin with a clay core dam to reduce seepage. In addition, this increased cost would cover stabilization of tailings, after mill closure, with a 1-in. asphalt membrane topped by 2 ft of earth and 0.5 ft of crushed rock to provide protection against future leaching and wind erosion. The cost of reducing the radiological hazards associated with uranium milling to this degree would contribute about 0.4% to the current total cost of nuclear power.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Witherspoon, J.P.; Sears, M.B. & Blanco, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

Description: This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W. & Brekke, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance in environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

Description: The quality assurance program for environmental monitoring that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) consists of procedure documentation, replicate field-sample analysis, and participation in intercomparison measurements. Sampling, analytical, data processing, and record keeping procedures are described. A replicate-sample collection schedule has been established for all media sampled at LLL. At present, blind-spiked samples are not utilized. Flow rates of air samplers are verified at monthly intervals using a portable, field calibration unit. Intercomparison measurements are made on samples supplied by the Quality Assurance Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency-Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory and the Department of Energy-Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Replicate sampling currently accounts for approximately 8% of both the total samples collected and the analyses performed. Including standard, in-house, quality-control checks, and the intercomparison measurements, it is estimated that during 1978 quality assurance will represent about 15% of the total environmental-monitoring effort at LLL.
Date: May 22, 1978
Creator: Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H. & Silver, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grand Junction remedial action program. Analysis of currently approved and proposed procedures for establishing eligibility for remedial action. Final report

Description: This analysis of the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program has been undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to proposals submitted by the Colorado Department of Health (CHD). In essence those proposals are for approval by DOE of alternative procedures for establishing the eligibility of structures for remedial action. Regardless of the preeminence accorded the RPISU method in the regulation, it is appropriate to question the assumption that this method gives better estimates of average long-term exposure than other potential methods of evaluation. The objectives here are to (1) review the reliability of the methods of measurement authorized by 10 CFR 12, i.e. the RPISU 6 sample method for determining RDC and the presumptive tests based on the indoor net average gamma exposure rate; (2) evaluate the reliability of the alternative measurement methods proposed by the CDH for determining eligibility for remedial action; and (3) recommend for DOE approval specific methods and applicable procedures that may be used to determine eligibility for remedial action with at least the same reliability as presently achieved with the RPISU 6 sample method.
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants. [Use of ARAC to forecast hazards of accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere]

Description: Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Orphan, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of models for assessing compliance with environmental radiation regulations

Description: The use of environmental transport and dosimetry models to predict the consequences of radionuclide releases from nuclear facilities is discussed. It is pointed out that many input parameters, and hence the predictions, of these models have a high degree of variability. The determination of the uncertainties of the predictions of these models is essential for assessing the adequacy of their use to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards. Estimation of the depletion of an airborne plume via dry deposition and the subsequent transfer of materials from air to ground were studied because values of deposition velocity as applied in assessment models are often misinterpretations of the values obtained from field studies. A sensitivity analysis revealed that at distances where most maximum individual exposures would likely occur as a result of routine releases from a nuclear installation, the plume depletion model commonly used is virtually insensitive to variations in deposition velocity. This is not true, however, for the estimation of deposition, which is a linear function of deposition velocity. Therefore, any variation in the value of the deposition velocity will bring about a like variation in the estimated deposition onto vegetation or ground. The uncertainty associated with the calculation of dose to an infant's thyroid as a consequence of the transport of elemental /sup 131/I via the grass-cow-milk pathway was studied as a function of air concentration. Probabilities were determined from a statistical analysis of reported values for deposition velocity, vegetation retention, and the grass-to-milk transfer coefficient.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hoffman, F.O.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Miller, C.W. & Garten, C.T. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Summary of Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Data ore included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy Facilities: the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Addendum 1

Description: The purpose of this addendum is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency on existing technology at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) for the control of radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and on possible additional control technology that could further reduce these emissions. Emission of short-lived air activation products from the LAMPF in 1983 increased substantially over 1981 and 1982 to a total of 464 thousand curies, resulting in a maximum site boundary dose calculated by the US Department of Energy to be 48.4 millirem per year. Existing control technology consists of an air collection system and a stack which provides for some holdup and decay of the short-lived isotopes produced at the beam stop and in target areas. Modifications are presently being installed at the beam stop to improve experimental conditions, which will also reduce the formation of air activation products at the beam stop and provide some additional holdup time. Also under consideration is the installation of a new air tunnel and stack, at a different location, to further increase holdup time of air activation products produced at the beam stop. Alternate control technology suggested by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory includes a holdup tank system to reduce LAMPF stack emissions. The estimated costs and efficiencies in reducing radionuclide emissions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Moore, E.B. & Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1978. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1978, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 6.6 mrem. This represents about 6.6% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.3% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1978. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be re-established as soon as construction activities permit. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem; this represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.002% of the technical standard.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emitted and decayed values of radionuclides in gaseous wastes discharged to the atmosphere from the separation facilities through calendar year 1972

Description: Gaseous wastes from the chemical separations processing of spent reactor fuel elements and product finishing operations have been discharged to the atmosphere since 1944. Data on plutonium, beta, iodine, and uranium emissions for the twenty-nine years are provided. The known radioactivity in gaseous wastes and estimated radioactivity in gaseous waste where prime data were not available are presented. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes emitted from 200 Area facilities which are now under the jurisdiction of other Hanford contractors.
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Anderson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department