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Comparison of experimental and analytical methods to evaluate thermal bridges in wall systems

Description: Twelve ASTM C0236 guarded hot box experiments have been performed on wall systems containing a variety of thermal bridges. All of the wall systems included steel framing. Six walls also had a concrete block wall system and a concrete slab to simulate a wall/floor intersection. Thermal bridges included in the wall systems included steel studs, steel tracks, steel stud/track joints, fasteners (steel framing system), concrete slab, metal bolts and angle iron, and brick ties (concrete block wall). Two-dimensional finite difference modeling was also employed to characterize the wall systems. The experimental test data was used to tune and ultimately validate the computer simulation model. The average variation between the tested and simulated wall system R-Values was 3.3% and ranged from {minus}3.4 to +7.4%. The model was then used to determine the thermal impact of each individual thermal bridge. Beside the standard complement of temperature sensors that are traditionally used for these laboratory experiments, additional sensors were installed near each thermal bridge to define the area and magnitude of the thermal distortion caused by the thermal bridge. These thermal bridges were analytically simulated and the additional heat flux due to each thermal bridge was computed. This paper summarizes the experimental and analytical analyses used to characterize the wall systems and concentrate on the thermal impact each type of thermal bridge has on the overall performance of the wall systems.
Date: March 1997
Creator: Desjarlais, A. O. & McGowan, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operability Test Procedure (OTP) for the Annulus Thermocouple Tree

Description: This document outlines the steps required to properly document the operability testing of this prototypical system. The tree is deployed in the annulus of the underground nuclear waste storage tank 241-AN-107; it is to monitor the temperature gradient of the primary containment wall using 3 arrays of contact thermocouples.
Date: February 5, 1996
Creator: Steele, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transverse resistive wall impedance for multi-layer round chambers

Description: The resistive wall impedance is usually calculated assuming the skin depth being much smaller than the chamber thickness. This approximation is not always correct. In particular, it is not valid when the revolution frequency is very low (as in VLHC [1]), or the surface is coated by a thin conductive layer (as for extraction kickers [2]), or for the coherent effects in the closed orbit motion [3]. A method of analytical calculation of the transverse impedance is developed here for multi-layer vacuum chambers and applied to an arbitrary two-layer structure.
Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Lebedev, Alexy Burov and Valeri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly progress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: Progress is briefly presented on the research pertaining to insulated building blocks. Areas covered include development of a stuffing machine, fabrication, sound tests, and earthquake test design.
Date: July 6, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal behavior of mixtures of perlite and phase change material in a simulated climate

Description: A new concept for use of phase change material (PCM) in building envelopes has been investigated. The concept is called a RCR system in analogy to an electrical circuit with a capacitor between two resistors. Here, the thermal capacitance of the PCM is sandwiched between the thermal resistance of conventional insulation. The PCM used was hydrated calcium chloride dispersed in perlite and contained in watertight test cells. One cell had a PCM/perlite ratio of 2:1 by weight; the other had a 6:1 mixture. Extruded polystyrene (XPS) was the insulation below and above the PCM. Heat-flux transducers on the top and bottom of each cell as well as thermocouples from the top to the bottom of each cell allowed them to follow closely the progression of freezing and melting in the PCM as the authors subjected the cells to both steady and diurnally varying simulated outside temperatures. Computer modeling with a transient heat conduction program was successful in proving that they understood the relevant energy transfer mechanisms and thermophysical properties. For the diurnal cycles, with twice the amount of XPS below as above the PCM, much of the energy stored during daytime by melting PCM flowed to the outside at night when it froze again. Comparisons were made to the behavior of conventional insulation. With PCM, the total daily energy flow into the conditioned space below the test cells was lower and the peak flow rate was delayed in time and decreased in magnitude.
Date: February 1997
Creator: Petrie, T. W.; Childs, P. W.; Christian, J. E.; Childs, K. W. & Shramo, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic response of flexible retaining walls

Description: Making use of an extension of a recently proposed, relatively simple, approximate method of analysis, a critical evaluation is made of the response to horizontal ground shaking of flexible walls retaining a uniform, linear, viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and semiinfinite extent in the horizontal direction. Both cantilever and top-supported walls are examined. Following a detailed description of the method and of its rate of convergence, comprehensive numerical solutions are presented that elucidate the action of the system and the effects of the various parameters involved. The parameters varied include the flexibility of the wall, the condition of top support, and the characteristics of the ground motion. The effects of both harmonic base motions and an actual earthquake record are examined. Special attention is paid to the effects of long-period, effectively static excitations. A maximum dynamic response is then expressed as the product of the corresponding static response and an appropriate amplification or deamplification factor. The response quantities examined include the displacements of the wall relative to the moving base, the dynamic wall pressures, and the total wall force, base shear and base moment.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Younan, A.H.; Veletsos, A.S. & Bandyopadhyay, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system.
Date: August 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and analysis plan for the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action, wall coring and scraping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks. These activities are being conducted to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act at the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sampling and analysis activities will be performed in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and/or wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and/or a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory, and analyzed for physical and radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive strontium and cesium, and other alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data quality objectives process, based on US Environmental Protection Agency guidance, was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. The results of the analysis will be used to (1) validate predictions of a strontium concrete diffusion model, (2) estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, (3) provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and (4) estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system. This revision eliminates wall-scraping samples from all tanks, except Tank W-3. The Tank W-3 experience indicated that the wall scrapper does not collect sufficient material for analysis.
Date: February 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

Description: This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Wendt, Robert; Lundell, Clark & Lau, Tin Man
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

Description: This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wendt, R.; Lundell, C. & Lau, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of air infiltration on the thermal performance of a small metal-framed assembly

Description: Innovative construction materials and systems have generated a need for laboratory scale tests to quantify the effect of air leakage on thermal and moisture performance of building assemblies. Some construction materials and systems are inherently more air tight than others. It is desirable to do laboratory scale measurements on alternative systems so as to rank them with respect to air tightness just as they can be ranked with respect to system R-value. Participants in summer 1995 and 1996 workshops for elementary and secondary school science teachers in the Buildings Technology Center (BTC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory sought a way to illustrate basic principles of building science in the classroom. They decided to build a small metal-framed assembly with internal volume of 44 ft{sup 3} (1.25 m{sup 3}) and removable wall sheathing. The assembly included a door and window. Although the door and window were made from 4-in. (10.2-cm) thick foam insulation, the requisite framing for them detracted from the thermal performance of the walls and occupied a disproportionately large fraction of the wall area. The floor and roof of the assembly were also well-insulated so that the walls dominated the conduction heat loss through the assembly. The plan was to test thermal performance of the assembly with the sheathing and without it. Thereby the teachers hoped to show the effects of thermal bridges with metal framing as well as practical yet insightful way to reduce their effects.
Date: March 1997
Creator: Petrie, T. W.; Christian, J. E. & Childs, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative technology summary report: Concrete grinder

Description: The Flex concrete grinder is a lightweight, hand-held concrete and coating removal system used for decontaminating or stripping concrete surfaces. The US Department of Energy has successfully demonstrated it for decontaminating walls and floors for free release surveys prior to demolition work. The grinder is an electric-powered tool with a vacuum port for dust extraction and a diamond grinding wheel. The grinder is suitable for flat or slightly curved surfaces and results in a smooth surface, which makes release surveys more reliable. The grinder is lightweight and produces very little vibration, thus reducing worker fatigue. The grinder is more efficient than traditional baseline, tools at removing contamination from concrete surfaces (more than four times faster than hand-held pneumatic scabbling and scaling tools). Grinder consumables (i.e., replacement diamond grinding wheel) are more expensive than the replacement carbide parts for the scaler and scabbler. However, operating costs are outweighed by the lower purchase price of the grinder (50% of the price of the baseline scaler and 8% of the price of the baseline scabbler). Overall, the concrete grinder is an attractive alternative to traditional scabbling and scaling pneumatic tools. To this end, in July 1998, the outer rod room exposed walls of the Safe Storage Enclosure (SSE), an area measuring approximately 150 m{sup 2}, may be decontaminated with the hand-held grinder. This concrete grinder technology was demonstrated for the first time at the DOE`s Hanford Site. Decontamination of a sample room walls was performed at the C Reactor to free release the walls prior to demolition. The demonstration was conducted by onsite D and D workers, who were instructed by the vendor prior to and during the demonstration.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

Description: The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations i n February 1999. In the first extended period of experiments, NSTX achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.
Date: July 14, 2000
Creator: Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.; Barry, R. E.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanorheology of Liquid Alkanes

Description: We report molecular dynamics simulations of liquid alkanes, squalane and tetracosane, confined between moving walls to which butane chains are tethered, effectively screening the details of the wall. As in an experiment, heat is removed by thermostatting the tethered molecules. Results obtained at high strain rates, typical of practical applications, suggest little or no difference between the bulk rheology and confined flow, and the occurrence of a high degree of slip at the wall-fluid interface at the conditions studied. At relatively low velocities and high densities, tetracosane shows the formation of fully-extended chains at certain wall spacings.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Gupta, S.A., Cochran, H.D., Cummings, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

Description: The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations in February 1999, and promptly achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. NSTX is designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST) in a device that can produce non-inductively sustained high-{beta} discharges in the 1 MA regime and to explore approaches toward a small, economical high power density ST reactor core. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: KUGEL,H.W.; MAINGI,R.; BELL,M.; BLANCHARD,W.; GATES,D.; JOHNSON,D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation in an Emitting and Absorbing Medium: A Gridless Approach

Description: A gridless technique for the solution of the integral form of the radiative heat flux equation for emitting and absorbing media is presented. Treatment of non-uniform absorptivity and gray boundaries is included. As part of this work, the authors have developed fast multipole techniques for extracting radiative heat flux quantities from the temperature fields of one-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries. Example calculations include those for one-dimensional radiative heat transfer through multiple flame sheets, a three-dimensional enclosure with black walls, and an axisymmetric enclosure with black walls.
Date: July 27, 2000
Creator: GRITZO,LOUIS A.; STRICKLAND,JAMES H. & DESJARDIN,PAUL E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive strength of masonry (f{sub m}{prime}) for the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant, Hollow Clay Tile Walls

Description: Prism tests have been performed on the HCT walls. The three groups of data were treated as separate data points and averaged. The recommended effective compressive strengths for HCT walls are 735 psi for single wythe 6- and 8-in. walls, and 495 psi for the double wythe 13-in. walls.
Date: April 17, 1995
Creator: Fricke, K.E. & Flanagan, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Out-of-plane behavior of hollow clay tile walls infilled between steel frames

Description: Several buildings at Y-12 Plant rely on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTW) infilled between unbraced, non-moment resisting steel frames to resist natural phenomena forces, seismic and wind. One critical building relies on moment resisting steel frames in one direction while relying on unreinforced HCTWs infilled between the columns in the orthogonal direction to resist these forces. The HCTWs must act as shear walls while maintaining out-of-plane lateral stability. In assessing the safety of these buildings to seismic forces, several models to study the in- and out-of-plane effects were made and analyzed. The study of the moment resisting steel framed building indicated that bending stresses in the walls were induced by building drift and not by inertial forces per se. The discovery of this phenomenon was some what of a surprise in that the analysis performed is not typically used in design of these structures. The study indicated that the walls began to crack at their interface with the foundation at a low ``g`` level and that horizontal cracking at different elevations continued until the walls exhibited little bending resistance. This paper presents results of the study for out-of-plane behavior of unreinforced HCTWs infilled between adjacent moment resisting steel frames and discusses the problems of assessing the in-plane behavior given the horizontal cracks induced by building drift in the out-of-plane direction.
Date: August 16, 1991
Creator: Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D. & Beavers, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly progress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., October 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

Description: Progress is reported on research pertaining to insulated building blocks. Areas covered include coursing, the development of a stuffing machine, block fabrication, designs for earthquake testing, and sound tests.
Date: April 5, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly rogress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

Description: This brief report describes results pertaining to the development of insulated blocks. Areas covered include fabrication, noise and earthquake test design, and the development of a stuffing machine.
Date: October 12, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly progress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

Description: This brief report describes progress made in the development of insulated building block. Areas of research include the development of a stuffing machine; block fabrication, and noise and earthquake design tests.
Date: January 7, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex

Description: The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H. & Betzen, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department