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Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, August 15--November 15, 1989

Description: The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to show that SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) operations and disposition. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, slagging and fouling factors, erosion and corrosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofit. The status of all three phases and the individual tasks under each phase are described.
Date: April 6, 1990
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

Description: The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.
Date: June 27, 1997
Creator: Moro, N. & Jha, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

Description: The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.
Date: June 3, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

Description: The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.
Date: April 25, 1997
Creator: Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I. & Yoon, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems; Technical progress report, July--September 1989

Description: During this quarter, the initial round of iron-oxide based sorbent tests were completed, with iron-oxide based sorbents showing a small advantage over the calcia-based sorbents that had been evaluated previously. Also, the evaluation of coal-water mixture (CWM), was initiated, and a bench-scale series of experiments conducted. These latter experiments concerned spent sorbent stability in molten slag.
Date: November 29, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of coal fines recovered from the handling plant. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1995-- September 30, 1995

Description: The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared from the recovered coal fines and plant coal fines. A specific study was completed which collected data on combustion behavior, flame stability, ash behavior and emission of SO{sub 2} NO{sub x} and particulate in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace in which the residence time and temperature history of the burning particles are similar to that of utility boiler furnace at 834,330 Btu/hr input and an average of 15% excess air. The slurry fuel was prepared at 53.5% solid to match the generic slurry properties. The coal blend was prepared using a mix of 15% wet milled pond fines and 85% plant fines. Combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels were determined at three different firing rates: 834,330 Btu/hr, 669,488 Btu/hr and 508,215 Btu/hr. Finally a comparison of the results is being developed to determine the advantages of coal water slurry fuel over the plant coal blended form.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Masudi, H.; Samudrala, S.R.; Mohannad, O. & Wright, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS). Quarterly progress report, December 15, 1994--March 15, 1995

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of high shear and extensional properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the extensional and high shear properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS. During the past quarter, further rheological testing were performed on CWS samples that had been prepared and stored for a period of three months. The testing included low and high shear measurements as well as dynamic oscillatory measurements. The CWS tested were PSOC-1527 from Middle Kittaning, PSOC-1472 from Lower Banner and PSOC-1475 (Elkhorn No. 3). These tests were performed in order to delineate any differences in rheological properties due to aging, and how this differences will influence subsequent atomization of the slurries. The test results obtained on PSOC-1527 and 1472, showed slight variations in their rheological behavior when compared to previously obtained data on the same samples. The data obtained on PSOC-1475, however showed no significant variation.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of coal fines recovered from the handling plant. Quarterly technical progress report no. 3, April 1, 1995--June 31, 1995

Description: The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared from the recovered coal fines and plant coal fines. A specific study will include the combustion behavior, flame stability, ash behavior and emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and particulate in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace in which the residence time and temperature history of the burning particles are similar to that of utility boiler furnace at 750,000 Btu/hr input and 20% excess air. The slurry fuel will be prepared at 60% solid to match the generic slurry properties, i.e., viscosity less than 500 cp, 100% of particles passing through 100 mesh and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. The coal blend is prepared using a mix of 15% effluent recovered coal and 85% plant fines. Combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels is determined at three different firing rates 750K, 625K, 500K Btu/hr. Finally a comparison of the results is made to determine the advantages of coal water slurry fuel over the plant coal blended form.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Houshang, M.; Samudrala, S.R. & Mohannad, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1995

Description: In the quarterly report of January 1995, atomization was described in terms of fragmentation of ligaments and subsequent breakup of drops into a fine spray. In this way, atomization can be considered a form of comminution. In this report, an analysis is presented which applies probability theory to atomization. In future work, the predictions of this analysis will be examined experimentally.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Dooher, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of coal fines recovered from the handling plant. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared from the recovered coal fines and plant coal fines. A specific study was completed which collected data on combustion behavior, flame stability, ash behavior, emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and particulate in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace. In addition, the residence time and temperature history of the burning particles are similar to that of utility boiler furnace at 834,330 Btu/hr input at an average of 15% excess air. The slurry fuel was prepared at 53.5% solid to match the generic slurry properties. The coal blend was prepared using a mixture of 15% wet milled pond fines and 85% plant fines. Combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels were determined at three different firing rates: 834,330 Btu/hr, 669,488 Btu/hr, and 508,215 Btu/hr. Finally, a comparison of the results will be developed for determining the advantages of coal-water slurry fuel over the plant coal blend form.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.R.; Mohannad, O.; Wright, C. & Reid, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS). Quarterly progress report, March 15, 1995--June 15, 1995

Description: The analysis of pipeline transportation of highly concentrated suspensions such as coal-water slurries, can exhibit several flow characteristics depending on the concentration and the physical parameters of the dispersed phase. Experiments were conducted for coal-water slurries flows in a series of horizontal capillary tubes of diameters 0.8, 1.5 and 3.0 mm and 100 mm in length, in order to investigate the effect of concentration, pressure drop, and the transitional Reynolds number from laminar to turbulent flow in a homogeneous slurry. The solid concentration was varied from 15% to 63% in 0.1% xanthum gum solution. Pressure drop and the volume flow measurement were made using HVA-6 Capillary viscometer. The Reynolds numbers obtained were found to be dependent on the slurry concentration and the viscosity of the slurry mixture, but independent of the capillary diameter.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 15--September 15, 1995

Description: A coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program is being undertaken to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated In a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (target is 98%) was achieved; however, natural gas cofiring was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production.
Date: June 2, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1995

Description: A theoretical derivation is presented with a presentation of the various pressure drops occurring in the extensional viscometer. In particular, by using energy considerations the meaning of each pressure drop is clearly delineated. This allows for unambiguous data analysis. In the coming quarter, pressure transducers will be added to the viscometer and a series of tests performed on fluids with extensional flow properties.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Dooher, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively. The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Kihm, K.D. & Deignan, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coal-water slurry fueled internal combustion engine and method for operating same

Description: An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: McMillian, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF ATOMIZERS AND BURNERS FOR COAL-WATER SLURRY COMBUSTION

Description: A new, miniature variation on the Triple-Concentric atomizer (TCA) was designed and constructed. This prototype will be used to test the applicability of the TCA concept to very fine sprays such as medical nebulizers. Preliminary tests of its performance with plain water were conducted. Atomization tests of an aqueous polymer solution were conducted using the existing TCA. These tests show that there is little change in the Sauter Mean diameter as polymer concentration or molecular weight are increased until the polymer molecules become highly intertwined. This report documents the activities and results from the period 1 April 1998 to 30 June 1998 and the planned activities for the next period, 1 July 1998 to 30 September 1998. Two primary activities were undertaken in this period: investigation of the variation in performance of a miniature TCA with variation in air flow rate and center air tube location; and droplet size measurements of water and aqueous polymer solutions generated by the existing triple-concentric atomizer.
Date: July 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of coal fines recovered from the handling plant. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared from the recovered coal fines and plant coal fines. A specific study will include the combustion behavior, flame stability, ash behavior and emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and particulate in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace in which the residence time and temperature history of the burning particles are similar to that of utility boiler furnace at 750,000 Btu/hr input and 20% excess air. The slurry fuel will be prepared at 60% solid to match the generic slurry properties, i.e., viscosity less than 500 cp, 100% of particles passing through 100 mesh and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. The coal blend is prepared using a mix of 15% effluent recovered coal and 85% plant fines. Combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels is determined at three different firing rates 750K, 625K, 500K Btu/hr. Finally a comparison of the results is made to determine the advantages of coal water slurry fuel over the plant coal blended form.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Houshang, Masudi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 3, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: Microscopic behavior of the bubble pressure has been investigated for selected aqueous solutions. The Kruss dynamic tensiometer has been modified so that the analog pressure readings of the instrument can be digitized through a computer interface for post data processing. Measurements of peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time are presented for DDBS-soft and 1840{minus}x aqueous solutions of surfactant concentrations of up to 1.0%. The implementation of the A-to-D data conversion also permits to examine the accuracy of the dynamic surface tension measurement which is based on the maximum bubble pressure principle.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Kihm, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this research is the development of improved technology of the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Research accomplishments are summarized for: standardization of experimental procedures; investigation of effect of high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding on the energetics of fine grinding and the rheology of coal-water slurries prepared with such fines; study of aging behavior of slurries; and ways of improving rheology of slurries. The rheological behavior of slurries is a manifestation of particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions in the slurry. Improvement in the rheology of slurries could be brought about by suitably altering these interactions. The research directed towards investigation of the influence of co-addition of sodium hexametaphosphate and vacuum oil, with CoalMaster as the primary dispersant, showed that co-addition of the reagents significantly improved the rheology of coal-water slurries. Further research conducted in this quarter indicated that co-addition of reagents also improves the long-term rheological behavior of coal-water slurries.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Fuerstenau, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Interim report, March 27, 1993--July 30, 1993

Description: The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.
Date: September 24, 1993
Creator: Miller, B. G.; Morrison, J. L. & Sharifi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

Description: The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter`s progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Singh, Shyam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS). Quarterly progress report, September 15, 1993--December 15, 1993

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of high shear and extensional properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the extensional and high shear properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department