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Nuclear air cleaning handbook. Design, construction, and testing of high-efficiency air cleaning systems for nuclear application

Description: The handbook is a revision of ORNL/NSIC-65. The purposes of the handbook are to summarize available information in a manner that is useful to the designer, to point out shortcomings in design and construction practice, and to provide guides and recommendations for the design of future systems. (TFD)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Burchsted, C. A.; Kahn, J. E. & Fuller, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental evaluation of acoustic agglomerators as an air cleaning system concept for emergency use in LMFBR plants. Final report

Description: In the development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor, a major safety problem concerns the suppression of the sodium oxides aerosol particles produced during a hypothetical core disruptive accident. Some theoretical calculations are presented concerning sonic agglomeration rates of such a system in terms of acoustic frequency, intensity and particles. The information is useful in providing some guidelines for the evaluation and design of sonic systems for LMFBR emergency applications.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Shaw, D T & Wegrzyn, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

Description: The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: First, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of dust-related health hazards associated with air coring at G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

Description: The Yucca Mountain Project was established to evaluate the potential for storing high-level radioactive wastes in geologic formations. Hydrologists recommended that drilling or coring in support of characterization tests be performed dry. Dry drilling, or air coring, presents a concern about health protection for the drilling personnel. The rock generally has a high silica content, and natural zeolites are abundant. Some zeolites are fibrous, leading to concerns that inhalation may result in asbestos-like lung diseases. An industrial hygiene study (IH) was conducted as part of an air coring technical feasibility test. The IH study found the potential for exposures to airborne silica and nuisance dusts to be within regulatory requirements and determined the commercial dust control equipment monitored to be effective when used in conjunction with a good area ventilation system and sound IH practices. Fibrous zeolites were not detected. Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain studies are (1) dust collection and control equipment equivalent or superior to that monitored must be used for any dry drilling activity and must be used with good general dilution ventilation and local exhaust ventilation provided on major emission sources; (2) good industrial hygiene work practices must be implemented, including monitoring any area where zeolitic fibers are suspect; and (3) a study should be conducted to determine the biological effects of the fibrous zeolite, mordenite. 25 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Skaggs, B.J.; Ortiz, L.W.; Burton, D.J.; Isom, B.L. & Vigil, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of HEPA filters to simulated-accident conditions

Description: High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been subjected to simulated accident conditions to determine their response to abnormal operating events. Both domestic and European standard and high-capacity filters have been evaluated to determine their response to simulated fire, explosion, and tornado conditions. The HEPA filter structural limitations for tornado and explosive loadings are discussed. In addition, filtration efficiencies during these accident conditions are reported for the first time. Our data indicate efficiencies between 80% and 90% for shock loadings below the structural limit level. We describe two types of testing for ineffective filtration - clean filters exposed to pulse-entrained aerosol and dirty filters exposed to tornado and shock pulses. Efficiency and material loss data are described. Also, the resonse of standard HEPA filters to simulated fire conditions is presented. We describe a unique method of measuring accumulated combustion products on the filter. Additionally, data relating to pressure drop vs accumulated mass during plugging are reported for simulated combustion aerosols. The effects of concentration and moisture levels on filter plugging were evaluated. We are obtaining all of the above data so that mathematical models can be developed for fire, explosion, and tornado accident analysis computer codes. These computer codes can be used to assess the response of nuclear air cleaning systems to accident conditions.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; Smith, P.R. & Fenton, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

Description: A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/0/sub 2/ and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/0/sub 2/ and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hilliard, R. K.; McCormack, J. D.; Postma, A. K. & Owen, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

Description: This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J. & Bamberger, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations on the structural design and analysis of a piping system

Description: The structural design/analysis of a gas exhaust system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current piping design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel (B PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maxima for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an equivalent static method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a response spectrum method (RSM) analysis. It is shown that a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to the RMS analysis. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hsieh, B.J. & Kot, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent aerosol tests in the Containment Systems Test Facility

Description: The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) is a 20-meter high, 850m/sup 3/ model containment vessel in which various sodium fire aerosol air cleaning tests are studied for purposes of developing and proof testing air cleaning techniques. The first series of tests was designed to study the properties of sodium fire aerosols without any air cleaning and to provide a data base for model verification using large-scale experiments. To date, three such tests (two pool fire and one spray fire) have been completed and are being analyzed. These tests will be discussed, as will plans for the air cleaning tests to follow.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of explosions in air cleaning systems and comparison of the results with computer code predictions

Description: Experimental testing and development of computer codes for predicting the effects of explosions in air cleaning systems are being done for the Department of Energy. The work is a combined effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Los Alamos has lead responsibility in the project and is developing the computer codes; NMSU is doing the experimental testing. Obtaining experimental data to verify the analytical work is the main goal of this effort. Of secondary importance are the experimental data showing the combined effects of explosions within air cleaning systems that contain all of the important air cleaning elements (blowers, dampers, filters, ductwork, and cells). This work will result in tools that safety analysts can use to study the effects of hypothetical explosions in nuclear facility air cleaning systems. The experimental apparatus is a small version of a large experimental system that was installed at NMSU. The small system is used to obtain gas-dynamic data (temperatures and pressures) throughout the system (such as within the cells, along the ductwork, and before and after dampers and filters). Gas explosions are simulated in the experiments using a unique system of gas-filled balloons. The experiments will yield information on the degree of protection a system offers in attenuating explosive effects within air cleaning systems. Analytical predictions were made using computer codes that predict gas-dynamic values such as flows, temperatures, and pressures throughout the system. The gas explosions were compared with the predicted results, and good agreement was found for most of the pressure measurements. Future experiments will involve small explosive charges using blasting caps or squibs. Future experiments also will couple material transport with the explosive gas dynamics.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; Wade, R.D. & Smith, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrofibrous prefilters for use in nuclear ventilation systems

Description: We have established a comprehensive program for the US Department of Energy to develop electrofibrous prefilters to extend the life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters that are used in the nuclear industry. We have selected the electrofibrous filter because, compared to the mechanical fibrous filter, it has a higher efficiency and longer lifetime. Two different electrofibrous filters have been developed for use in nuclear ventilation systems. One prototype is a stationary prefilter while the other is a rolling prefilter. Both prefilters use the same basic filtering technique in which a fibrous filter medium is sandwiched between a high voltage electrode and a ground electrode, both electrodes having a sufficient open area to offer minimum air resistance. The applied voltage on the electrodes generates an electric field that polarizes the filter fibers, which then attract suspended particles via electrostatic forces. The filter media and electrodes have been pleated to provide a sufficiently long particle residence time. The special requirement of protecting the HEPA filter from a high concentration of smoke aerosols during fire conditions led to the development of the rolling, electrofibrous prefilter. We established the feasibility of this concept in a series of tests using commercially available rolling prefilters that were modified for removing smoke aerosols. Although the rolling prefilter concept is not a cost effective measure for the sole purpose of protecting HEPA filters from smoke aerosols, it became cost effective when used primarily for protecting the HEPA filters from normal production aerosols. The same piece of equipment is then used for both normal operating conditions as well as emergency fire conditions. Several prototype electrofibrous rolling prefilters were designed, built and evaluated. The filter evaluations were conducted using NaCl and DOP aerosols as well as smoke aerosols.
Date: February 19, 1981
Creator: Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Russell, W.L.; Taylor, R.D.; Hebard, H.D.; Biermann, A.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

Description: A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Owen, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

Description: Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Johnson, L.J. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of an Emergency Containment System. [Tritium containment]

Description: A system called an Emergency Containment System (ECS) to be used for tertiary containment of tritium was reported at the 13th Air Cleaning Conference. This system was part of the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory then under construction at Mound Facility. A series of experiments has recently been conducted to evaluate the performance of an ECS in capturing tritium accidentally released into an operating laboratory. The ECS is an automatically actuated laboratory air detritiation system utilizing a catalytic oxidation reactor and presaturated oxide adsorption/exchange columns. In the event of an accidental release of tritium into the laboratory, the ECS is automatically activated, and quick-acting pneumatic dampers divert the laboratory air supply and exhaust through the ECS until room concentrations are returned to safe operating levels. The results of the experiments have shown that a tertiary containment of tritium is feasible. In the event of a catastrophic accident, the ECS is capable of preventing the release of a large quantity of tritium to the environment.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Flanagan, T.M.; Rogers, M.L. & Wilkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

Description: The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m/sup 3/ low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m/sup 3/. Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li/sub 2/O, LiOH, and Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m/sup 2/ of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m/sup 2/ at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar ...
Date: October 23, 1980
Creator: Jeppson, D.W. & Barreca, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preconceptual design for the electrostatic enclosure

Description: This report presents a preconceptual design (design criteria and assumptions) for electrostatic enclosures to be used during buried transuranic waste recovery operations. These electrostatic enclosures (along with the application of dust control products) will provide an in-depth contamination control strategy. As part of this preconceptual design, options for electrostatic curtain design are given including both hardwall and fabric enclosures. Ventilation systems, doors, air locks, electrostatic curtains, and supporting systems also are discussed. In addition to the conceptual design, engineering scale tests are proposed to be run at the Test Reactor Area. The planned engineering scale tests will give final material specifications for full-scale retrieval demonstrations.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Meyer, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement of airborne radioactivity. Progress report, January--December 1977

Description: Iodine penetration and ignition temperature data obtained from carbon that was removed from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) confinement system show that Type GX-176 carbon has a useful life of at least 30 months. Development studies on new halogen adsorbers showed that coal- and petroleum-base carbons can be treated in the laboratory to retain methyl iodide as well as, or better than, commercial coconut-base carbons. Radiation stability tests for iodine-loaded, silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) showed that some internal migration of iodine occurs in the AgX under dynamic flow conditions in a high intensity radiation environment. The tests also showed that the distribution of iodine in the test bed is more affected by the inlet air concentration than by exposure to gamma radiation.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Evans, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of indoor aerosol control devices and their effects on radon progeny concentrations

Description: Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles, and their concomitant effects on radon progeny concentrations have been investigated. Of the devices we examined the electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters had significant particle removal rates, while the particle removal rates for several small panel-filters, an ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans were found to be negligible. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in reducing radon progeny concentrations. Furthermore, at the low particle concentrations, plateout of the unattached radon progeny was found to be a significant removal mechanism. The overall removal rates due to deposition of attached and unattached progeny have been estimated from these data, and the equilibrium factors for total and unattached progeny concentrations have been calculated as a function of particle concentration. 7 references, 2 figures.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Sextro, R.G.; Offermann, F.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L. & Yater, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operability test procedure for 241-U compressed air system and heat pump

Description: The 241-U-701 compressed air system supplies instrument quality compressed air to Tank Farm 241-U. The supply piping to the 241-U Tank Farm is not included in the modification. Modifications to the 241-U-701 compressed air system include installation of a 15 HP Reciprocating Air Compressor, Ingersoll-Rand Model 10T3NLM-E15; an air dryer, Hankinson, Model DH-45; and miscellaneous system equipment and piping (valves, filters, etc.) to meet the design. A newly installed heat pump allows the compressor to operate within an enclosed relatively dust free atmosphere and keeps the compressor room within a standard acceptable temperature range, which makes possible efficient compressor operation, reduces maintenance, and maximizes compressor operating life. This document is an Operability Test Procedure (OTP) which will further verify (in addition to the Acceptance Test Procedure) that the 241-U-701 compressed air system and heat pump operate within their intended design parameters. The activities defined in this OTP will be performed to ensure the performance of the new compressed air system will be adequate, reliable and efficient. Completion of this OTP and sign off of the OTP Acceptance of Test Results is necessary for turnover of the compressed air system from Engineering to Operations.
Date: August 31, 1994
Creator: Freeman, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

Description: The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.
Date: September 24, 1990
Creator: Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E. L. & Jerrell, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: July 1990
Creator: Sehmel, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

Description: Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

Description: This test plan describes experimental details of an engineering-scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration to be performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-93. This demonstration will investigate, in the engineering scale, the feasibility of using electrostatic enclosures and devices to control the spread of contaminants during transuranic waste handling operations. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the FY-93 experiments are included in this plan.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Meyer, L. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department