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Inertial navigation system for directional surveying

Description: A Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) was developed and tested. Developed for directional surveying of geothermal, oil, and gas wells, the system uses gyros and accelerometers to obtain survey errors of less than 10 ft (approx. 3 m) in a 10,000-ft (approx. 300-m) well. The tool, which communicates with a computer at the surface, is 4 in. (approx. 10 cm) in diameter and 20 ft (approx. 6.1 m) long. The concept and hardware is based on a system developed by Sandia for flight vehicles.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Kohler, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is under research and development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are Overcome. The objective of this program is to develop a joint between packer segments that is easily assembled before lowering downhole and easily disassembled after the sealing job is done. In addition, this tool joint must expand uniformly as though it were a part of the rubber and must not fail under the relatively high pressure of the epoxy cure cycle. The overall goal of the work was to design, build, develop, and test a spiral tool and packer into a single universal tool that can repair casings with diameters varying from 4.5 to 7 inches.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is a based Cu alloy hardened to very high strength. The epoxy adhesive formulation that forms a bond between steel inner wall of casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and thus resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome. The tasks and engineering program plan are outlined.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia

Description: This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D. & Johnson, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska

Description: The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska's North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Glenn, R.K. & Allen, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slant hole completion test (1991) sidetrack as built'' report

Description: During the summer of 1990, a slant hole test well, funded by the US Department of Energy, was drilled to 9,466 ft to evaluate the effectiveness of directional drilling in the tight, naturally fractured gas sands and coals of the Mesaverde Group. The surface location of the SHCT No. 1 is 700 ft south of the DOE Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site in Section 34, T6S, R94W, Garfield County, Colorado, approximately 7.5 miles west of Rifle. Mechanical problems following cementing of a production liner resulted in loss of the completion interval, and operations were suspended. In early 1991, DOE decided to sidetrack the hole to permit production testing of the lost interval. The sidetrack was designed to parallel the original wellbore, but to be drilled 1,000 ft to the east to minimize the chances of encountering formation damage from the original hole. The sidetrack, like the original hole, was to intersect the paludal lenticular sands and coals at 60{degrees} and to penetrate the underlying Cozzette sand horizonally. The sidetrack was spudded May 12, 1991. After re-entering the well in late 1991, early production testing of the Cozzette showed that the 300 ft of in-pay horizontal hole can produce at rate 5 to 10 times higher than vertical wells in the same area. This report contains the geological summary and sidetrack drilling operations summary.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Myal, F.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia

Description: This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. & Johnson, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of geopressured brine injectability: Department of Energy, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well, Brazoria County, Texas

Description: A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22 to 25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-..mu..m and 10.0-..mu..m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130/sup 0/C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and untreated brine were evaluated. Test results indicated that raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.
Date: October 28, 1980
Creator: Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E. & Netherton, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black shale gas production. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1978

Description: An innovative approach was taken to analysis of shale gas production from the Cottageville Field of Jackson County, West Virginia. Slickensides were generally considered to be compaction features, but analysis clearly shows that most are related to regional tectonics. Regional analyses and possible ramifications of this discovery to the Eastern Gas Shales program are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; Kirk, K.G.; Nuckols, E.B.; Long, B.R.; Wilson, T.H.; Dixon, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

Description: This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.
Date: June 6, 1980
Creator: Sackinger, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the workshop on Arctic oil and gas recovery. [Offshore]

Description: Mission of the workshop was to identify research priorities for the technology related to Arctic offshore oil and gas production. Two working groups were formed on ice-related subjects and soil-related subjects. Instrumentation needed to accomplish some of the research objectives was also discussed. Results of a research priority allocation survey are summarized. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Sackinger, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. The methodology--Volume III (of 3 volumes)

Description: The methodology is described in chapters on the analytic approach, estimated natural gas production, recovery from tight gas sands, recovery from Devonian shales, recovery from coal seams, and recovery from geopressured aquifers. (JRD)
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Kuuskraa, V. A.; Brashear, J. P.; Doscher, T. M. & Elkins, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons

Description: Total characterization data on gas contents, release kinetics, physical and chemical properties, mineralogy and lithology obtained on the C-1 well are reported. Total hydrocarbon gas contents accumulating in the free space surrounding the shale sample in the sealed canisters range from less than 10 to 90%. A positive correlation is observed between the gas contents and sample depth. Total carbon values vary between 0.4 and 7.2% with an average value of approximately 2.0% hydrogen values ranging between 0.4 and 1.0%. Carbon contents show an increase with increasing sample depth, also indicating a positive correlation between carbon and hydrocarbon gas contents. The relationship is not as pronounced between the hydrogen and gas contents. Among the physical characterization data reported are densities (true and bulk), porosities, surface area, and permeabilities. Shales exhibit relatively high bulk densities, an observation that is supported by low porosity and permeability values. A wide range of surface area values is observed. These values range between less than 1 and over 4 m/sup 2//g. Surface area values are dominated by the clay mineral contents of the shale. Qualitatively x-ray diffraction data indicate illite to be the dominant clay mineral with occasional presence of kaolin minerals noted. Carbonate contents in these shales are very low. Among the more frequent carbonate minerals observed are nahcolite and shortite. Quartz is the most abundant single mineral. Considerable amounts of pyrite also seem to be present in a majority of the shale samples. SEM/EDAX data are in complete agreement with the XRD observations.
Date: March 10, 1979
Creator: Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P. & Snyder, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane drainage with horizontal boreholes in advance of longwall mining: an analysis. Final report

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center has implemented a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of coalbed methane as an energy resource. The program is directed toward solution of technical and institutional problems impeding the recovery and use of large quantities of methane contained in the nation's minable and unminable coalbeds. Conducted in direct support of the DOE Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, this study analyzes the economic aspects of a horizontal borehole methane recovery system integrated as part of a longwall mine operation. It establishes relationships between methane selling price and annual mine production, methane production rate, and the methane drainage system capital investment. Results are encouraging, indicating that an annual coal production increase of approximately eight percent would offset all associated drainage costs over the range of methane production rates and capital investments considered.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Gabello, D.P.; Felts, L.L. & Hayoz, F.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

Description: Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.
Date: November 20, 1980
Creator: Anderson, S. & Kohout, J. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Hydrocarbon - Shale Interaction. Progress Report No. 14, April 1-June 30, 1979

Description: Construction of an apparatus for degasibility/isotherm measurements up to 1000 psi is complete. Results of chromatographic analysis of off-gassing from wells KY No. 4-, PA No. 1-, PA No. 2-, OH No. 3-, and IL No. 4-EGSP are tabulated. Temperature coefficients of degasibility and isotherm parameters in Devonian shales were determined. A summary of degasibility/isotherm data is presented. A computer simulation of a matrix diffusion/fracture flow model in the radial case is discussed. A small infrared/x-ray diffraction study is proceeding on selected samples. (DLC)
Date: Summer 1979
Creator: Schettler, P. D., Jr. & Wampler, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Hydrocarbon-Shale Interaction. Progress Report No. 8, January 1--March 31, 1978

Description: During the period the DOE computer became operational except for plotting capability. Work devoted to the calibration and performance testing of the isothermal diffusion apparatus and related software is reported. Data gathering was initiated on CH/sub 4/ and He isotherms and CH/sub 4/ degasibilities on particles. Data on diffusion and isotherm parameters for gas wells in West Virginia and Illinois are tabulated. (JRD)
Date: 1978
Creator: Schettler, P. D., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation status of the VARGOW oil reservoir model

Description: VARGOW, a variable gas-oil-water reservoir model, provides recovery estimates suitable for assessing various reservoir production policies and regulations. Data were collected for a number of reservoirs. From this data base, three reservoirs approximating the model assumptions were selected for model testing purposes. For all three reservoirs, it has been possible to simulate the observed pressures in both interpolative and extrapolative modes. Simulating the gas/oil ratio (GOR) has not been as successful, however. The VARGOW model will predict physically unrealistic results if the reservoir being simulated is not initially at the bubble point pressure of the reservoir fluid. If the discovery pressure is slightly above the bubble point, adjustments to initial conditions can be made using a method that has been outlined in this report. If the discovery pressure is considerably above the bubble point, it is recommended that an undersaturated reservoir model be employed until the bubble point is reached. For simulating reservoirs whose discovery pressure is below the bubble point, the VARGOW model must be modified.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Mayer, D.W.; Arnold, E.M.; Bowen, W.M. & Gutknecht, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

Description: The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Doe, T.W. & Schwarz, W.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1978-1979

Description: The following appendices are included: regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, production data, hydrology data, and geophysical data. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wys, J.N.; Dixon, J.M.; Evans, M.A.; Lee, K.D.; Shumaker, R.C.; Rauch, H.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole measurements while drilling: systems and activities

Description: Attention is focused on all potential methods of drilling safer and cheaper. Real time data from the bit offers the greatest potential for meeting these needs. As a result, numerous companies are actively competing to develop this oil field service capability and to capture a world wide market. Two basic categories of service are sought. The first, and highest priority, is drilling safety and efficiency; the second is real-time logging, or formation evaluation. This study addresses the types of systems being studied, describes company activity and projects underway, estimates the practical potential for success and considers the commercial market for successful systems. The need for research data on bit hydraulics and drill string dynamics, special deep, hot or sour gas situations and other relatively unusual requirements may become exceptions to the general conclusions that are drawn. Historical and present activity are documented through presenting the results of extensive literature and patent researches. A breakdown is presented of activity by company along with names and addresses for further contact.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: McDonald, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Desulfurization of fuel gases)

Description: The objective of this work was to demonstrate that solid solutions of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and other altervalent oxides (doped CeO{sub 2}) were capable of removing more H{sub 2}S from fuel gases than Ceo{sub 2} without any dopant. The ability of undoped CeO{sub 2} to remove H{sub 2}S from fuel gases had been determined with a previous DOE/SBIR grant. To make the results obtained under the two grants comparable, the procedures for all phases of this work duplicated that used previously as closely as possible. The sorbents GDC proposed to investigate were: (1) undoped CeO{sub 2}, (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 mole % (5 m/o) magnesium oxide (MgO), and (3) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 m/o lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Three additional sorbents: (1) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 m/o strontium oxide (SrO), (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 10 m/o SrO, and (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 10 m/o La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also investigated. All of these sorbents were prepared using the Marcilly technique.
Date: December 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling for energy resources

Description: Drilling is integral to the exploration, development, and production of most energy resources. Oil and natural gas, which are dependent on drilling technology, together account for about 77% of the energy sources consumed in the US. Thus, the limitations of current drilling technology also restrict the rate at which new energy supplies can be found, extracted, and brought to the marketplace. The purpose of the study reported was to examine current drilling technology, suggest areas where additional research and development (R and D) might significantly increase drilling rates and capabilities, and suggest a strategy for improving drilling technology. An overview is provided of the US drilling industry. The drilling equipment and techniques now used for finding and recovering oil, natural gas, coal, shale oil, nuclear fuels, and geothermal energy are described. Although by no means exhaustive, these descriptions provide the background necessary to adequately understand the problems inherent in attempts to increase instantaneous and overall drilling rates.
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells

Description: A major expenditure to maintain oil and gas leases is the support of pumpers, those individuals who maintain the pumping systems on wells to achieve optimum production. Many leases are marginal and are in remote areas and this requires considerable driving time for the pumper. The Air Pulse Oil Pump System is designed to be an economical system for the shallow stripper wells. To improve on the economics of this system, we have designed a Remote Oil Field Monitor and Controller to enable us to acquire data from the lease to our central office at anytime and to control the pumping activities from the central office by using a personal computer. The advent and economics of low-power microcontrollers have made it feasible to use this type of system for numerous remote control systems. We can also adapt this economical system to monitor and control the production of gas wells and/or pump jacks.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Buckman, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department