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NO/sub x/ emissions from Hanford nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

Description: Operation of the existing Hanford nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities will increase the release of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) to the atmosphere over present emission rates. Stack emissions from two reprocessing facilities, one waste storage facility and two coal burning power plants will contain increased concentrations of NO/sub x/. The opacity of the reprocessing facilities' emissions is predicted to periodically exceed the State and local opacity limit of twenty percent. Past measurements failed to detect differences in the ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration with and without reprocessing plant operations. Since the facilities are not presently operating, increases in the non-occupational ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration were predicted from theoretical diffusion models. Based on the calculations, the annual average ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration will increase from the present level of less than 0.004 ppM to less than 0.006 ppM at the Hanford site boundaries. The national standard for the annual mean ambient air NO/sub 2/ concentration is 0.05 ppM. Therefore, the non-occupational ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration will not be increased to significant levels by reprocessing operations in the Hanford 200 Areas.
Date: September 15, 1978
Creator: Pajunen, A. L. & Dirkes, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

Description: Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Kiefer, Russell B. & Forster, Katharine A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imperial Valley environmental project: air quality assessment

Description: The potential impact on air quality of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley is assessed. The assessment is based on the predictions of numerical atmospheric transport models. Emission rates derived from analyses of the composition of geothermal fluids in the region and meteorological data taken at six locations in the valley over a 1-yr period were used as input to the models. Scenarios based on 3000 MW, 2000 MW, 500 MW, and 100 MW of power production are considered. Hydrogen sulfide is the emission of major concern. Our calculations predict that at the 3000-MW level (with no abatement), the California 1-h standard for H{sub 2}S(42 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) would be violated at least 1% of the time over an area of approximately 1500 km{sup 2} (about 1/3 of the valley area). The calculations indicate that an H{sub 2}S emission rate below 0.8 g/s per 100-MW unit is needed to avoid violations of the standard beyond a distance of 1 km from the source. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, mercury, and radon are not expected to produce significant ground level concentrations, nor is the atmospheric conversion of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide expected to result in significant SO{sub 2} levels.
Date: April 4, 1979
Creator: Ermak, D.L.; Nyholm, R.A. & Gudiksen, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of ecosystems impacts from geothermal development in Imperial Valley, California

Description: A summary of three years of field ecological investigation in Imperial Valley Environmental Program is presented. The potential terrestrial habitat impacts of geothermal development are discussed for shorebirds and waterfowl habitat, the endangered clapper rail, powerline corridors, noise effects, animal trace element burdens, and the desert community. Aquatic habitats are discussed in terms of Salton Sea salinity, effects of geothermal brine discharges to the Salton Sea, trace element baselines, and potential toxicity of brine spills in freshwater. Studies of impacts on agriculture involved brine movement in soil, release of trace metals, trace element baselines in soil and plants, water requirements of crops, and H{sub 2}S effects on crop production in the presence of CO{sub 2} and ozone.
Date: July 13, 1979
Creator: Shinn, J.H.; Ireland, R.R.; Kercher, J.R.; Koranda, J.J. & Tompkins, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for assessing the potential impact on air quality resulting from geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley

Description: Methodology in use in the Imperial Valley for assessing the potential impact on air quality that may result from the development of geothermal resources is discussed. The installation of a network of air quality stations for characterizing the air quality and atmospheric transport properties in the valley prior to development is discussed. Analyses of geothermal fluids for various gases are performed to evaluate the potential emission rates from future geothermal power plants. The principal pollutant of concern is H/sub 2/S because of its noxious odor and potential release rate. These estimated source emission rates and the appropriate meteorological measurements are used as input to a three-dimensional, atmospheric transport code to estimate the potential changes in air quality that result from various scenarios for development of geothermal power.
Date: October 17, 1977
Creator: Gudiksen, P.H.; Axelrod, M.C.; Ermak, D.L.; Lamson, K.C. & Lange, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semiannual progress report for the Idaho Geothermal Program, April 1-September 30, 1981

Description: Modifications incorporated in the 5-MW Pilot Power Plant at Raft River Geothermal Test Site, system operational testing and maintenance activities at that plant, and the water treatment program's corrosion studies are summarized. Progress is reported on performance tests of the ORNL condenser and the direct-contact heat exchanger in the Prototype Power Plant. Production-injection tests associated with pump installation in monitor wells at Raft River are reported. Case studies conducted and publications prepared for the program of low-to moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource development are also reported. Monitoring activities and studies of the environmental program at Raft River are described and two new areas of research under the Environmental Support Injection Research Program: pressure monitoring, and dispersion studies. Progress of three successful proposers under the User-Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program is summarized. A program to encourage use of geothermal energy at Federal facilities was developed and initiated. Investigation of direct use of hydrothermal energy is reported. Progress is reported on the marketing Assistance Program, through which technical information and assistance are provided to potential users and developers of geothermal resources. Also reported is progress on DOE's Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Program demonstration projects and the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) Program study projects.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Parker, J.T. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4

Description: The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.
Date: December 1, 1984
Creator: George, T.G. & Schonfeld, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation models and their influence on radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents in FFTF

Description: The influence of radiological evaluation models and assumptions on the off-site consequences of hypothetical core disruptive accidents is examined. The effects of initial source term, time of containment venting, meteorology, biological dose model, and aerosol fallout have been included. The analyses were based on two postulated scenarios of a severe hypothetical reactor vessel melt-through accident for 400 MW(t) fast reactor. Within each accident scenario, the results show that, although other variables are significant, radiological consequences are strongly affected by the amount of aerosol fallout computed to occur in the incident.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Stepnewski, D.D.; Hale, J.P.; Martin, H.C.; Peak, R.D. & Franz, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid metal reactions under postulated accident conditions for fission and fusion reactors

Description: Sodium and lithium reactions are considered in the context of a postulated breach of a coolant boundary. Specific topics addressed are coolant-atmosphere and coolant-material reactions which may contribute to the overall consequence of a postulated accident scenario, and coolant reaction extinguishment and effluent control which may be desirable for containment of the spilled coolant.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Muhlestein, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

Description: The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Spencer, S.G. & Russell, B.F. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

Description: In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. This document, Volume 1, identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPS environmental effects on the upper atmosphere

Description: The ionospheric effects and associated environmental impacts which may be produced during the construction and operation of a solar power satellite system are reviewed. Propellant emissions from heavy lift-launch vehicles are predicted to cause widespread ionospheric depletions in electron and ion densities. Collisional damping of the microwave power beam in the lower ionosphere can significantly enhance the local free electron temperatures. Thermal self-focusing of the power beam in the ionosphere may excite variations in the beam power-flux density and create large-scale field-aligned electron density irregularities. These large-scale irregularities may also trigger the formation of small-scale plasma striations. Ionospheric modifications can lead to the development of potentially serious telecommunications and climate impacts. A comprehensive research program is being conducted to understand the physical interactions driving these ionospheric effects and to determine the scope and magnitude of the associated environmental impacts.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Duncan, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

Description: This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Ohi, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

Description: As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

Description: Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Wills, R.A. & Coles, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

Description: This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).
Date: November 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

Description: This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.
Date: February 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's application for certification for Geysers Unit 17

Description: The decision in favor of Geysers Unit 17 is presented. Included in the decisions are the findings, conclusions, and conditions on the following: need, socioeconomics, cultural resources, noise, hydrology and water resources, water quality, soils, biological resources, civil engineering, safety, transmission lines, geotechnical considerations, air quality, public health, and structural engineering and reliability. Provisions for monitoring compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and conditions are incorporated. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision on the Northern California Power Agency's application for certification for Geothermal Project No. 2

Description: Findings on compliance with statutory site certification requirements, a discussion of the Joint Environmental Study and its significance in terms of the California Environmental Quality and National Environmental Policy Acts, a brief recapitulation of the procedural steps which occured, and a summary of the evidentiary bases for this Decision are included. Topical discussions on the various human and natural environmental areas impacted by the project, as well as the technical, engineering, and other areas of concern affected by the project are presented. These topical discussions summarize the basis for the Commission's ultimate Findings and Conclusions pertaining to each broad category.
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater contaminant plume ranking. [UMTRA Project]

Description: Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

Description: The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: April 30, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heber geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

Description: The binary power plant is to be a 45 MW net electrical facility deriving energy from the low salinity (14,000 ppM), moderate temperature (360/sup 0/F, 182/sup 0/C) Heber reservoir in Southern California. The optimized baseline design established for the power plant is described, and the design and optimization work that formed the basis for the baseline design is documented. The work accomplished during Phase II, Preliminary Design is also recorded, and a base provided from which detailed plant design could be continued. Related project activities in the areas of licensing, environmental, cost, and schedule are also described. The approach used to establish the Phase II optimized baseline design was to (1) review the EPRI Phase I conceptual design and feasibility studies; (2) identify current design criteria and state-of-the-art technology; and (3) develop a preliminary design optimized to the Heber site based on utiliity standards.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanism and environmental effects on MEOR induced by the alpha process

Description: This project was an interdisciplinary investigation of the enhanced oil recovery effects of a commercial microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) system. The purpose was to investigate in parallel laboratory and field studies the response of a portion of the Shannon Sandstone reservoir to two single-well treatments with a commercial MEOR system, to investigate basic bacteria/rock interactions, and to investigate mechanisms of oil release. The MEOR system consisted of a mixed culture of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, inorganic nutrients, and other growth factors. Parallel field and laboratory investigations into the effect and mechanisms of the treatment were carried out by independent principal investigators. The Shannon Sandstone at the Naval Petroleum Reserve [number sign]3 (NPR [number sign]3), Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming, was the location of the pilot field treatment. The treated and adjacent observation wells showed production and microbiological perturbations that are attributed to the effects of treatment during the first four post-treatment months. Effects of treatment declined to background levels within four months of inoculation. No production response was recorded in control wells unaffected by microbial stimulation. Laboratory research resulted in descriptions of colonization patterns of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria in the reservoir rock environment. Core-flooding research utilizing various components of the MEOR system did not result in the isolation of an oilrelease mechanism or measure incremental oil recovery from cores at residual oil saturation to waterflood. Chemical analysis of pre- and post-treatment produced oil identified large organic acid molecules concentrated in the asphaltenic fraction of posttreatment oil, but not in the oil from untreated control wells. No significant changes were measured in the overall quality of the oil produced from MEOR treated wells.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Hiebert, F.K.; Zumberge, J.; Rouse, B.; Cowes, A. & Lake, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Johnsonville Fossil Plant (JOF): Supplement to the environmental assessment (EA) for the new ash dredge pond

Description: In 1989, TVA prepared an EA for development of a new ash dredge pond at JOF. On June 19, 1990, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was released which indicated that the project was not considered to be a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the environment. Since the original EA for this project considered the environmental impacts of only the first phase of construction, the purpose of this supplement is to consider any additional impacts associated with the second phase. It was concluded in the EA that minor air quality impacts (primarily fugitive dust and vehicular emissions) would be created during construction and operation of the first phase of the disposal area. These same impacts would be temporarily created during construction of the second phase of the project. Watering open areas and haul roads and minimization of active areas will reduce fugitive dust. No additional impacts to other environmental media are anticipated from development of the second phase with the exception of potential impacts to groundwater resources. In order to evaluate groundwater impacts of the second phase, groundwater modeling studies conducted in the EA were re-run using estimates based on the conditions expected for the second phase. This information is presented in this report. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department