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ON THE PROBLEM OF LIQUID ENTRAINMENT

Description: THe problem of liquid entrainmment by a gas phase is considered with the purpose of gathering, presentinf, and correlating available information which may be useful for predicting the liquid carry-over in a boiling water reactor at high pressure. Correlations which predict water carryover as a function of pressure, of the height of the vapor dome, and of the vapor mass flow rate are presented and discussed. Because entrainment depends upon the hydrodynamic conditions and upon the expansion of a two-phase bubbling mixture, the transportation 0f vapor through such mixtures is also discussed. Equations which relate the volumetric vapor fraction to the reduced (superficial) vapor velocity in bubbling at high pressures are presented, and some inconsistencies are noted. Experimental data and correlations which predict the location of the liquid-vapor interface in bubbling at high pressures are also givna. Experimental data on water carry-over at high pressures reported in the literature are summarized. The problems of drop formation for bursting bubbles and of drop ballistics are discussed together with some analytical formulations of the entrainment problem. The bibliography may prove useful as a source of additional information on the problems of carry- over, corrosion and on the purity of steam and of water at high pressures. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Yeh, G. C.K. & Zuber, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

Description: Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Clotworthy, A.W. & Hingoyon, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THOREX PILOT PLANT CORROSION STUDIES: I. CORROSION OF TYPES 304L AND 309SCb STAINLESS STEEL DURING PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PERIODS

Description: The corrosion behavior of types 304L and 309SCb stainless steel was examined during the production and first half of the development periods of Thorex pilot plant operation between December 15, 1954 and November 10, 1955. The process vessels in which corrosion data were obtained included the batch dissolver tank the feed adjustment tank the AP catch tank and the BT vapor separator. There was no significant difference between the corrosion resistance of the two alloys in any of the environments. Vapor-phase corrosion attack in some vessels was more severe than solution-phase attack in the same vessels, Dependent upon the particular process environment, corrosion rates in the vapor phase ranged from 0.1 to 46 mpy; solution-phase corrosion rates ranged from 0.1 to 28 mpy. The most severe attack in both solution and vapor phases occurred in the feed adjustment tank There was serious corrosion in the BT vapor separator also. Corrosion was moderate (8 mpy or less) in the batch dissolver tank and was almost negligible (0.2 mpy or less) in the AP catch tank. The attack on rolled surfaces of both types of stainless steel was uniform, with the exception that shallow, intergranular penetration was experienced in the more corrosive environments. Edge-surface attack was intense in the latter environments also and introduced some question as to the validity of corrosion rates based upon total attack on specimens. Neither of the alloys, initially stressed at 35,000 psi, experienced stress-corrosion cracking in any of the environments, nor was there any evidence of a stress-induced acceleration in the rates of attack Weld specimens of both alloys underwent preferential attack at the weld-parent metal interface in a number of the environments; the frequency of the attack was random in nature, however. Neither alloy was subject to crevice corrosion nor was accelerated corrosion at solution-vapor ...
Date: May 12, 1959
Creator: English, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN WASTE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING MERCURY

Description: The corosion behavior of A-285, A-135, A-l06, and A-53 carbon steel was studied in multicomponent simulated waste solutions containing mercury. In the liquid phase, the carbon steels corroded at a very low rate; mercury did not increase the corrosion rate in any of the solutions tested. In the vapor phase and at the vapor-liquid interface, pitting occurred; the pitting was independent of solution compesition, and was caused mainly by the condensation of oxygenated water from the aqueous wastes. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Kranzlein, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMODYNAMICS OF CERTAIN REFRACTORY COMPOUNDS. PART II. CONTINUED THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON AN EXTENDED LIST. Second Quarterly Progress Report, September 1 to November 30, 1963

Description: The thermodynamic properties of refractory borides, carbides, nitrides, and oxides of some 31 elements are compiled. Several tables for elements and compounds not previously reported are presented, and the experimental spectroscopic studies of the vapor of boron oxide and hydroxide are discussed. (R.J.S.)
Date: December 15, 1962
Creator: Schick, H.L.; Anthrop, D.F.; Dreikorn, R.E.; Feber, R.C.; Hanst, P.L.; Panish, M.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZIRCONIUM PILOT PLANT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Progress Report

Description: A summary of the work which was done on the small pilot plant during the week's operation shows the following: (1) High vaporization rates can be obtained from a vibrating flash plate. (2) Feeding powder to the plate at a constant and controllable rate presented some difficulty. This may be overcome by pumping between Victoprene seals, proper outgassing of the powder, using a smaller diameter screw, and sloping the feed screw upward to avoid translation of the powder by vibration. (3) Deposition rates could not be properly studied because of high noncondensable pressures. There is an indication that too high a flow rate favors the deposition of ZrI/sub 2/ if the filiment temperature is too low. (4) No corrosion of the flash plate was evidenced during the short period the plant was in operation. A thorough study of corrosion must be made, however, since the entire process may depend on the durability of the flash plate. (5) This type of equipment offers a means of rapidly obtaining good data at a low cost on the fundamentals of an iodide-flow process for the production of zirconium metal. (auth)
Date: November 20, 1951
Creator: Dryden, C.E.; Accountius, O.E.; Black, D.G.; Finney, B.C.; Gruber, B.A.; Jurevic, W.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REDUCTION OF VAPOR CARRY-UNDER IN SIMULATED BOILING

Description: The effect on vapor carryunder in simulated boiling caused by insertion in the flow stream of several different geometric configurations and sizes of wire screens is described. The effect on vapor carryunder caused by screen location and mesh size is shown to be closely related to other system variables. The relationship among the most significant variables is shown in a series of graphs. Significant reduction of vapor carryunder is achieved under certain conditions. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Miller, P.L. & Armstrong, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ARMY PACKAGE POWER REACTOR SM-1, TASK XVII

Description: The SM-1 is described and the various hazards are reviewed. Because of the reactor's location near the nation's capital, containment is of the utmost importance. The maximum energy releace in any possible accident is 7.4 million Btu which is completely contained within a 7/8-in.-thick steel cylindrical shell with hemispherical ends. The vapor container is 60 ft high and 32 ft in diameter and is lined on the iside with 2 ft of reinforced concrete which provides missile protection and is part of the secondary shield. All possible nuclear excursions are reviewed. The energy from any of these is insignificant compared to the stored energy in the water. The maximum credible accident is caused by the reactor running constantly at its maximum power of 10 Mw and through an extremely uniikely sequence of failures, csusing the temperature of the water in the primary and secondary systems to rise to saturation, whereupon a ruptare occurs releasing the stored energy of 7.4 million Btu into the vapor container. If the reactor core melts during the accident, a maximum of 1.5 x lO/sup 7/ c of activity is released into the vapor container. While it is highly improbable for a ruptare of the vapor container to occur except by sabotage or bombing, the hazards to the surrounding area are discussed in the event of such a rupture occurring simultaneously with the maximum credible accident. The SM-1 has been in operation for about 3 years, during which time much operating experience was accumulated and nuclear and system data were obtained through both normal operations and the research and development programs conducted. These data are discussed in relation to their effect on the hazards evaluction of the SM-1 and include core nuclear data, primary and secondary system thermal data, radiological safety, dose rates at various positions ...
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Rosen, S.S. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CORROSION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE ALLOYS IN SULFUR-BEARING CRACKED-AMMONIA ATMOSPHERES

Description: A representative selection of stainless alloys was exposed in sulfur- bearing cracked-ammonia atmospheres containing 43 vol. % water vapor. Experimentally controlled variables have included temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1800 deg F and S levels ranging from zero to 350 grains per 100 ft/sup 3/ of cracked ammonia. It has been found that high S levels do not result in any significant change in the corrosion behavior of materials evaluated. Increasing the temperature resulted in some modifications or Moth physical properties and scaling resistance; however, these changes are a function of the temperature and not an effect of S. (auth)
Date: April 17, 1957
Creator: Ericson, G.L.; Braun, W.J.; Fink, F.W. & Peoples, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photochemical studies of alkali halide vapors

Description: Thesis. An apparatus has been constructed for studying the photodissociation of alkali halides to produce excited alkali metal atoms. The key component is a low pressure H/sub 2/ arc continuum uv source. Radiation from this source, modulated by a chopping wheel and analyzed by a monochromator, enters a cell containing the alkali halide vapor. In the appropriate wavelength range, photodissociation occurs to produce the alkali atom in an excited /sup 2/p state, the flourescence from which is detected by a photomultiplier-lock-in amplifier combination. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1973
Creator: Earl, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department