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Hawaii ethanol from molasses project. Report on plant inspections

Description: Personal inspections were made of several ethanol plants in Europe and the US in order to determine the best commercial processes presently in operation, prepare a conceptual design of a large plant incorporating these processes, describe the processes, and list best estimates of yields, energy requirements, capital costs and operating costs. Information was obtained from fermentation plant manufacturers and alcohol producers concerning their company-sponsored process improvement and new process developments. A summary of the highlights of these observations are included in this report. The inspectors: observed commercial incineration of waste sulfite liquors; observed the pilot plant (not in operation) to incinerate various waste liquors resulting from fermentation of different feedstocks; observed commercial continuous and batch fermentation of beet molasses for the production of ethanol and stillage evaporation to 70% dissolved solids for animal feed; observed pilot plant operation of a new process (Carver-Greenfield process) for handling stillage; observed anhydrous ethanol production from fermentation of sulfite waste liquor using ethyl ether as the dehydrating agent; and observed the safety precautions taken when using this hazardous material.
Date: September 18, 1979
Creator: Gibson, W.O.; Mashima, K.I.; Roberts, R.R. & Chen, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Letters from Adelitia McGee to the Moore family and Alice McGee, October 16-17, 1889]

Description: This is a letter from the Charles B. Moore Collection. It is written by Adelitia "Dinkie" McGee to the Moore family and Alice McGee. In this letter, Dinkie details the goings-on in Gallatin, Tennessee and the news includes: weather updates, a discussion concerning Alice's Grandma McGee who has passed, a dialogue about making molasses from cane, news about the crops that survived and the crops that were ruined from frost, updates on family and friends, and the daily happenings since the Moore family and Alice have left. She closes the letter by Birdie want to see Alice and Linnet very badly but since Bessie has come to visit, she has not been as lonely. Dinkie notes that she would like for the Moore's and Alice to write soon. On the first page, Dinkie writes another letter dated October 17 to the Moore family and Alice. She details her daily schedule and mentions that Birdie will write next time. She writes a note for Alice to write Bettie Wilson and that Mother (Matilda Dodd) will write the Moore family on Sunday. The envelope is included with the letter.
Date: October 16, 1889
Creator: Dodd, Adelitia
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Microbial enhanced waterflooding pilot project, Mink Unit, Delaware-Childers (OK) field

Description: The first microbial-enhanced waterflood field project was initiated in October of 1986. The site selected for the project is in the Mink Unit of Delaware-Childers field in Nowata County, Oklahoma. The pilot area consists of four adjacent inverted five-spot patterns drilled on 5-acre spacing. There are 21 injection and 15 production wells on this pilot. Four of the 21 injection wells were treated with microbial formulation. Laboratory screening criteria were developed to evaluate microorganisms for this project. Several different microbial formulations were tested. Injectivity and microbial field survivability tests were conducted during the baseline period on two off-pattern wells, and a chemical tracer, fluorescein, was injected into the four injection wells during the baseline period. Methodologies for field applications of microorganisms in ongoing waterfloods were developed as a result of this project. Results from the field pilot showed that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood without causing any problems in injectivity. Microbial treatment did improve oil production rate, and water/oil ratios for producing wells nearest the microbially treated injection wells continue to be more favorable than baseline values. 23 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Bryant, R.S.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, D.M. & Hitzman, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial field pilot study

Description: The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J. & Menzie, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

Description: Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Sublette, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department