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A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories

Description: We present a method for implementing gauge theories of chiral fermions on the lattice. Discussed topics include: the lattice as a UV regulator, a chiral QED model, modification of the fermion determinant, large gauge-field momenta, and a non-perturbative problem.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Bodwin, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonperturbative renormalization of QED in light-cone quantization

Description: As a precursor to work on QCD, we study the dressed electron in QED non-perturbatively. The calculational scheme uses an invariant mass cutoff, discretized light cone quantization, a Tamm-Dancoff truncation of the Fock space, and a small photon mass. Nonperturbative renormalization of the coupling and electron mass is developed.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hiller, J.R. & Brodsky, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of electrokinetic effects to quantify groundwater flow

Description: An experimental study of electrokinetic effects (streaming potential) in earth materials was undertaken. The objective was to evaluate the measurement of electrokinetic effects as a method of monitoring and predicting the movement of groundwater, contaminant plumes, and other fluids in the subsurface. The laboratory experiments verified that the electrokinetic effects in earth materials are prominent, repeatable, and can be described well to first order by a pair of coupled differential equations.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, S.R. & Haupt, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of QED at critical field strength

Description: In a new experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC, a low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam is brought into collision with terawatt pulses of 1,054 nm or 527 nm wavelength from a Nd:glass laser. Peak laser intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.6 for the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}m{omega}{sub 0}c. In this case, an electron that crosses the center of the laser pulse has near-unit interaction probability. Results are presented for multiphoton Compton scattering in which an electron interacts with up to four laser photons, in agreement with theoretical calculations.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Bula, C. & Collaboration, E-144
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

Description: Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H. & Stepan, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

Description: Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed by an industrial consortium consisting of Monsanto, E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (DuPont), and General Electric, with participation from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (Figure 1). Lasagna{trademark} remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured or decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Resolution Measurements of the K-Shell Spectral Lines of Hydrogenlike and Heliumlike Xenon

Description: With the implementation of a transmission-type curved crystal spectrometer at the Livermore high-energy electron beam ion trap (SuperEBIT) the window on sub-eV level measurements of the ground-state quantum electrodynamics and the two-electron quantum electrodynamics of high-Z ions has been opened. High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of the K{alpha} spectra of hydrogenlike Xe{sup 53+} and heliumlike Xe{sup 52+} are presented. The electron-impact excitation cross sections have been determined relative to the radiative recombination cross sections. The electron-impact energy was 112 keV which is about 3.7 times the excitation threshold for the n = 2 {yields} 1 transitions. Although the relative uncertainties of the measured electron-impact excitation cross sections range from about 20% to 50%, significant disagreement between the measured and calculated cross section values has been found for one of the heliumlike xenon lines. Overall, the comparison between experiment and theory shows that already for xenon (Z=54) the Breit interaction plays a significant part in the collisional excitation process. The measured cross sections for the hydrogenlike transitions are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Additionally, the Xe{sup 53+} Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} transition energy has been measured utilizing the K{alpha} emission of neutral cesium and barium for calibration. Surprisingly, the experimental result, (31279.2 {+-} 1.5) eV, disagrees with the widely accepted theoretically predicted value of (31283.77 {+-} 0.09) eV. However, this disagreement does not (yet) call for any correction in respect to the theoretical values for the transition energies of the hydrogenlike isoelectronic sequence. It rather emphasizes the need for a reevaluation of the commonly used x-ray wavelengths table for atomic inner-shell transitions, in particular, for the cesium K{alpha} lines.
Date: September 13, 1999
Creator: Windman, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Crespo, J.R.; Osterheld, A.L.; Reed, K.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Millimeter-Size Nylon Fibers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

Description: The Learning Objective is to present to the forensic community a potential qualitative/quantitative method for trace-fiber color comparisons using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Developing a means of analyzing extracted dye constituents from millimeter-size nylon fiber samples was the objective of this research initiative. Aside from ascertaining fiber type, color evaluation and source comparison of trace-fiber evidence plays a critical role in forensic-fiber examinations. Literally thousands of dyes exist to date, including both natural and synthetic compounds. Typically a three-color-dye combination is employed to affect a given color on fiber material. The result of this practice leads to a significant number of potential dye combinations capable of producing a similar color and shade. Since a typical forensic fiber sample is 2 mm or less in length, an ideal forensic dye analysis would qualitatively and quantitatively identify the extracted dye constituents from a sample size of 1 mm or smaller. The goal of this research was to develop an analytical method for comparing individual dye constituents from trace-fiber evidence with dyes extracted from a suspected source, while preserving as much of the original evidence as possible.
Date: July 30, 2001
Creator: Lewis, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOVEL SIGNAL PROCESSING WITH NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES

Description: Nonlinear dielectrics offer uniquely strong and tunable nonlinearities that make them attractive for current devices (for example, frequency-agile microwave filters) and for future signal-processing technologies. The goal of this project is to understand pulse propagation on nonlinear coplanar waveguide prototype devices. We have performed time-domain and frequency-domain experimental studies of simple waveguide structures and pursued a theoretical understanding of the propagation of signals on these nonlinear waveguides. To realistically assess the potential applications, we used a time-domain measurement and analysis technique developed during this project to perform a broadband electrodynamics characterization in terms of nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative effects. We completed a comprehensive study of coplanar waveguides made from high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} electrodes on nonlinear dielectric single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. By using parameters determined from small-signal (linear) transmission characteristics of the waveguides, we develop a model equation that successfully predicts and describes large-signal (nonlinear) behavior.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: REAGOR, D. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microscale Zeta Potential Evaluation Using Streaming Current Measurements

Description: We present a method for determination of zeta potential in capillaries and microscale devices. The use of streaming current measurements under pressure eliminates the need for high voltage measurements while providing a relatively simple means of approximating the zeta potential. This technique finds application in evaluation of coatings as well as materials for separations media and electrokinetic pumping. We will discuss the theory, in which sample porosity and tortuosity information are not required, and we will present zeta potentials of some organic and inorganic media.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Jr., E.R. Hasselbrink; Hunter, M.C.; Jr., W.R. Even & Irvin, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

Description: This multifarious research program is dedicated to the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Currently, research is directed at three general objectives. First, fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on achieving rapid separations and understanding separation systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. Second, instrumentation and methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced. Third, applications of these separation and detection systems should fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques. In particular, it should be possible to perform rapid, highly efficient, and selective separations of hydrophobic compounds (e.g., higher MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes), certain optical isomers, DNA fragments, and various pollutants including certain heavy metals.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Sepaniak, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The screening of the lamb shift in heavy helium-like ions. Final technical report

Description: The project was undertaken in collaboration with Dr. Neal Snyderman of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) through a project under the directorship of Dr. Kennedy Reed of LLNL. It is a collaboration of the work started at LLNL during the summers of 1994 and 1995, and continued at Spelman College. Spelman students Adrienne Stiff and Joy Harris were supported under this project. The main question under investigation was whether a Sturmian representation of the electron Green function is suitable for numerical calculations of QED effects in high-Z helium-like atoms. The frequency-independent part of the two-photon exchange graphs was calculated with this representation and compared with the results of other recent calculations. Only the Coulomb part of these graphs were calculated under this project.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hylton, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

Description: The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ``release levels`` which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON{reg_sign} has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Lomasney, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Sharp Lepton Quandary: Reasonable cautions

Description: Surprisingly, the new APEX experiment designed to measure a definitive invariant mass distribution of the sharp pairs previously reported in similar heavy ion studies reports null results. Although it asserts no direct conflict with any data reported by EPOS/I, the APEX report nevertheless seems to have encouraged the view that the earlier (EPOS/I) observations were erroneous, and by extrapolation, that the whole (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) Puzzle data set can be dismissed as an unfortunate set of physically meaningless statistical fluctuations. We wish here to argue that such sweeping judgments should be postponed, on the grounds that (1) the published APEX analysis of their data is self-inconsistent, and can therefore sustain no valid inference about the EPOS/I data; (2) the data which supports the occurrence of sharp (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) pairs is much more extensive than the EPOS/I data, so that the APEX surprise must be considered as one episode in a much longer struggle finally to settle the question of whether these weak signals are significant or not; (3) a qualitative phenomenology exists which can organize the whole range of data of the Sharp Lepton Problem, and which suggests that (4) certain low energy (and low cost) experiments ought to be explored for their creation of sharp pairs; as follows: the study of pairs emitted following scattering of few MeV electron and positron beams from neutral U and Th atoms, and the study of pairs emitted following the resonant absorption of photons of 1.5 to 2.0 MeV on U and Th atoms. We first present a brief data-oriented history of the Sharp Lepton Problem, to show that no single unexpected null result can provide an adequate basis for rejecting the great range and quantity of data which evidences the occurrence of sharp pairs. We then consider the Quadronium Composite Particle ...
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Griffin, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

Description: Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of cesium than strontium, while some positive results were obtained for the transport of cobalt through concrete using EDTA and for uranium using carbonate.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Morgan, I.L. & Ally, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The equation of motion of an electron.

Description: We review the current status of understanding of the equation of motion of an electron. Classically, a consistent linearized theory exists for an electron of finite extent, as long as the size of the electron is larger than the classical electron radius. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics seems to offer a fine theory even in the point particle limit. Although there is as yet no convincing calculation, it is probable that a quantum electrodynamical result will be at least as well-behaved as is the nonrelativistic quantum mechanical results.
Date: September 2, 1998
Creator: Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ``empty`` waves

Description: A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ``empty`` waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ``zeron``. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed.
Date: August 22, 1995
Creator: MacGregor, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

Description: Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Ho, S.; Athmer, C. & Sheridan, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Conductance Quantization by Cross-Wire Junction

Description: The thesis studied quantized conductance in nanocontacts formed between two thin gold wires with one of the wires coated by alkainthiol self assembly monolayers (SAM), by using the cross-wire junction. Using the Lorenz force as the driving force, we can bring the two wires in contact in a controlled manner. We observed conductance with steps of 2e2 / h. The conductance plateaus last several seconds. The stability of the junction is attributed to the fact that the coating of SAM improves the stability and capability of the formed contact.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Zheng, Tao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Passive damping in EDS maglev systems.

Description: There continues to be strong interest in the subjects of damping and drag forces associated with electrodynamic suspension (EDS) systems. While electromagnetic drag forces resist the forward motion of a vehicle and therefore consume energy, damping forces control, at least in part, the response of the vehicle to disturbances. Ideally, one would like to reduce the drag forces as much as possible while retaining adequate damping forces to insure dynamic stability and satisfactory ride quality. These two goals turn out to be difficult to achieve in practice. It is well known that maglev systems tend to be intrinsically under damped. Consequently it is often necessary in a practical system design to enhance the damping passively or actively. For reasons of cost and simplicity, it is desirable to rely as much as possible on passive damping mechanisms. In this paper, rough estimates are made of the passive damping and drag forces caused by various mechanisms in EDS systems. No attention will be given to active control systems or secondary suspension systems which are obvious ways to augment passive damping mechanisms if the latter prove to be inadequate.
Date: May 3, 2002
Creator: Rote, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absolute wavelength measurement and fine structure determination in /sup 7/Li II

Description: The energy levels of two-electron atoms continue to provide rigorous tests of relativistic quantum theory, and of correlation effects within a multi-particle system. These interactions are determined perturbatively, with several approximations, and theoretical results often differ. It is critical to provide precise measurements of absolute wavelengths connecting these atomic energy levels to obtain a resolution of the precision of the different parts of such complex calculations. In this work, we report a high precision optical measurements in the 1s2s /sup 3/S - 1s2p /sup 3/P multiplet of Li II using fast-beam laser spectroscopy. A collinear interaction using both parallel and antiparallel laser and ion beams allows both for precise elimination of large Doppler shifts, and for a strong kinematic narrowing of the observed resonances, as compared with thermal beam experiments. The wavelengths of the observed resonance fluorescence radiation are determined by comparing them with simultaneously recorded saturated absorption profiles of molecular iodine hyperfine components. In turn, the absolute wavelengths of the iodine lines are obtained from precisely calibrated Fabry-Perot etalon fringes in a separate experiment. The final precision of the Li II wavelengths is 5 parts in 10/sup 9/, which is at a level of precision of 80 ppM of the QED corrections in the transition. 3 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Riis, E.; Berry, H.G.; Poulsen, O.; Lee, S.A. & Tang, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE THEORY OF QUANTIZED FIELDS. PART 3

Description: In this paper we discuss the electromagnetic field, as perturbed by a prescribed current. All quantities of physical interest in various situations, eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, and transition probabilities, are derived from a general transformation function which is expressed in a non-Hermitian representation. The problems treated are: the determination of the energy-momentum eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the isolated electromagnetic field, and the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the field perturbed by a time-independent current; the evaluation of transition probabilities and photon number expectation values for a time-dependent current that departs from zero only within a finite time interval, and for a time-dependent current that assumes non-vanishing time-independent values initially and finally. The results are applied in a discussion of the infra-red catastrophe and of the adiabatic theorem. It is shown how the latter can be exploited to give a uniform formulation for all problems requiring the evaluation of transition probabilities or eigenvalue displacements.
Date: May 1, 1953
Creator: Schwinger, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED

Description: I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Bardeen, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variational methods for field theories

Description: Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Ben-Menahem, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department