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Effects of thermomechanical processing on the resulting mechanical properties of 6101 aluminum foam

Description: Porous materials represent a tremendous weight savings for light-weight structural applications. The fabrication path can play a critical role in the resulting properties. High porosity aluminum was fabricated in a number of ways. The starting material was a cast 6101 aluminum that had a relative density of 9.8%. The cast aluminum block was compressed by uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial densification. Uniaxial compression was done at room temperature and 200 C. Biaxial compression was achieved by unidirectional rolling at room temperature and 200 C. Triaxial compression was done by cold isostatic pressing at 3.4, 6.7, and 34 MPa (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ksi). Metallography and mechanical test specimens were machines from the processed bars. The mechanical properties showed that the relative yield strength depended both on relative density and processing temperature.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Margevicius, R.W.; Stanek, P.W. & Jacobson, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Porous HMX initiation studies -- Sugar as an inert simulant

Description: For several years the authors have been using magnetic particle velocity gauges to study the shock loading of porous HMX (65 and 73% TMD) of different particle sizes to determine their compaction and initiation characteristics. Because it has been difficult to separate the effects of compaction and reaction, an inert simulant was needed with properties similar to HMX. Sugar was selected as the simulant for several reasons: (1) the particle size distribution of C and H granulated sugar is similar to the coarse HMX the authors have been using (120 {micro}m average size), (2) the particle size of C and H confectioners (powdered) sugar is similar to the fine HMX in the studies (10 {micro}m average size), (3) it is an organic material, and (4) sugar was readily available. Because the densities of HMX and sugar are somewhat different, the authors chose to do the experiments on sugar compacts at 65 and 73% TMD. As expected, no reaction was observed in the sugar experiments. Compaction wave profiles were similar to those measured earlier for the HMX, i.e., the compaction waves in the coarse sugar were quite disperse while those in the fine sugar were much sharper. This indicates that the compaction wave profiles are controlled by particle size and not reaction. Also, the coarse sugar gauge signals exhibited a great deal of noise, thought to the be result of fracto-emission.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L. & Alcon, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques

Description: Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E.; Dugan, B.E. & Tourkow, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties and shear failure surfaces of two alumina powders in triaxial compression

Description: In the manufacture of ceramic components, near-net-shape parts are commonly formed by uniaxially pressing granulated powders in rigid dies. Density gradients that are introduced into a powder compact during press-forming often increase the cost of manufacturing, and can degrade the performance and reliability of the finished part. Finite element method (FEM) modeling can be used to predict powder compaction response, and can provide insight into the causes of density gradients in green powder compacts; however, accurate numerical simulations require accurate material properties and realistic constitutive laws. To support an effort to implement an advanced cap plasticity model within the finite element framework to realistically simulate powder compaction, the authors have undertaken a project to directly measure as many of the requisite powder properties for modeling as possible. A soil mechanics approach has been refined and used to measure the pressure dependent properties of ceramic powders up to 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi). Due to the large strains associated with compacting low bulk density ceramic powders, a two-stage process was developed to accurately determine the pressure-density relationship of a ceramic powder in hydrostatic compression, and the properties of that same powder compact under deviatoric loading at the same specific pressures. Using this approach, the seven parameters that are required for application of a modified Drucker-Prager cap plasticity model were determined directly. The details of the experimental techniques used to obtain the modeling parameters and the results for two different granulated alumina powders are presented.
Date: April 24, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and properties of braided sleeve preforms for chemical vapor infiltration

Description: In all composites the properties and structure of the reinforcement strongly influence the performance of the material. For some composites, however, the reinforcement also affects the fabrication process itself exerting an additional, second order influence on performance. This is the case for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. In this process the matrix forms progressively as a solid deposit, first onto the fiber surfaces, then onto the previous layer of deposit, ultimately growing to fill the inter-fiber porosity. The transport of reactants to the surfaces and the evolved morphology of the matrix depend on the initial reinforcement structure. This structure can vary greatly and is controlled by such factors as fiber size and cross-section, the number of filaments and amount of twist per tow or yarn, and the weave or braid architecture. Often the choice of reinforcement is based on mechanical performance analysis or on the cost and availability of the material or on the temperature stability of the fiber. Given this choice, the composite densification process--CVI--must be optimized to attain a successful material. Ceramic fiber in the form of cylindrical braided sleeve is an attractive choice for fabrication of tube-form ceramic matrix composites. Multiple, concentric layers of sleeve can be placed over a tubular mandrel, compressed and fixed with a binder to form a freestanding tube preform. This fiber architecture is different than that created by layup of plain weave cloth--the material used in most previous CVI development. This report presents the results of the investigation of CVI densification of braided sleeve preforms and the evolution of their structure and transport properties during processing.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Starr, T.L.; Fiadzo, O.G. & Hablutzel, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural characterization of the thermal evolution of tetrahedrally coordinated amorphous carbon films

Description: The authors present the results of a post-deposition annealing structural study on amorphous tetrahedrally-coordinated carbon (a-tC) films on Si(100) prepared by pulsed-laser deposition. Films as-deposited and post-annealed at 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 C, respectively, are studied using combined X-ray reflectivity and low-angle scattering measurements. The scans are fit to the Fresnel equations to obtain values for average film density, film and interface thickness, and film and interface roughness. They observe a correlation between the evolution of film density, roughness and the spacing of quasi-periodic structures in the films as a function of annealing temperature. They relate the evolution of these structural features with previous measurements of the resistivity and the observed stress release in these films.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Siegal, M.P. & DiNardo, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. They are deposited on the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, slag must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Analysis indicated that slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to perform a series of tests to determine the factors that control the retention of the sulfur in the slag. 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed prior to the end of this reporting period, 12/31/98. This compares with 16 tests required in the original project plan. Combustor tests in early 1997 with high (37%) ash, Indian coal confirmed that high slag mass flow rates of about 500 lb/hr resulted in retention in the slag of up to 20% of the injected sulfur content mineral matter. To further increase the slag flow rate, rice husks, which contain 20% ash, and rice husk char, which contain 70% ash, were co-fired with coal in the combustor. A series of 13 combustor tests were performed in fourth quarter of 1997 and a further 6 tests were performed in January 1998 and in the summer of 1998. The test objective was to achieve slag flow rates between 500 and 1,000 lb/hr. Due to the very low bulk density of rice husk, compared to pulverized coal, almost the entire test effort focused on developing methods for feeding the rice husks into combustor. In the last test of December 1997, a peak mineral matter, injection rate of 592 lb/hr was briefly achieved by injection of coal, rice husk char, gypsum, and limestone into the combustor. However, no significant sulfur ...
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: Zauderer, Dr. Bert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This research program is concerned with the development of a new form of feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric O High Pressure Solids Feeder, to feed dry granular solids continuously and controllably into gas pressure. The device is a rotary mechanical feeder, which utilizes the interlocking and internal friction of the granular solids to drive the solids through into the outlet pressure in a continuous and controllable way, using a continuous solids material seal on the feeder outlet to control gas leakage. Earlier work sponsored under previous SBIR grants has successfully demonstrated the potential benefits of the Stamet machine over pressurized lock hopper or paste feeder methods. The objective of this project was to demonstrate proof of principal to feed and meter specified granular coal into 450 psig gas pressure for use with next generation pressurized fluidized bed combustors. This report encompasses the development of material transport properties testers, methods to predict feeder performance by calculation, and the modification and testing of Stamet feeders to feed the material supplied into pressure. Testers were made to measure material compressibility, bulk density, both internal and wall friction coefficients, and permeability under typical conditions experienced inside a Stamet high pressure feeder. This data is then used in support of ongoing efforts to develop calculations to predict the performance of Stamet pressure feeders with different materials and conditions. Three Stamet pressure feeders were modified to handle the fine granular or pulverized coal, and were tested under various conditions using different outlet arrangements. The initial testing identified difficulties in handling the fine materials, but through a series of calculations and tests, the issues were overcome and the material was successfully fed into pressure. In all cases the performance calculated based on the measured material properties and feeder geometry agreed well with the test results, confirming ...
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Aldred, Derek L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

Description: The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for both laboratory methods. The K{sub s} measurements and CDE parameters revealed no significant ...
Date: December 12, 2003
Creator: Sanchez, Maria Ambert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal ...
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Shukla, M.K. & Lal, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 41H Drained Saltcake Core Sample Analysis (HTF-E-03-033 - HTF-E-03-035)

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 carbon steel tanks that currently house 37 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) in the form of salt supernate, saltcake, and sludge solids. The saltcake in several of the SRS tanks was identified as candidates for the Low Curie Salt (LCS) process. LCS involves removing supernatant liquid, draining the saltcake interstitial liquid, and dissolving the remaining saltcake as a feed for the Saltstone Processing Facility. Three samples were received that correspond to approximately the top 26 inches of drained Tank 41H saltcake. The saltcake had an average bulk density of 1.91 g/mL. Two of the samples were extracted with 30 psi N2, the test on the upper sample was stopped after one week, and the other sample continued for one month. The bulk of the salt was light in color, hard packed, and had 3 to 4 wt per cent water. Being drained saltcake, it had relatively small amounts of NaOH and NaNO2. Combining the data from both tests in a conservative manner, the dissolution of the top 26 inches of Tank 41H saltcake may yield a 6 MNa+ solution with as high as 0.10 Ci/gal of 137Cs.
Date: March 3, 2004
Creator: Martino, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

Description: We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under ...
Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Gasperikova, E. & Hoversten, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

Description: Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.
Date: May 29, 2008
Creator: Ghezzehei, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO2 gas/oil ratio prediction in a multi-component reservoir bycombined seismic and electromagnetic imaging

Description: Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO2 flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity and electrical conductivity during a CO2 injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization using Archie's law provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity and the electrical conductivity. The rock properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. The electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation. The estimated changes in water saturation are used with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO2 relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. The residual compressional velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO2 /oil ratio. Resulting images of CO2/oil ratio show CO2 rich zones that are well correlated with the location of injection perforations with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO2. The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected CO2 than are any of the individual images of change in geophysical parameters.
Date: August 28, 2002
Creator: Hoversten, G.M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John & Daley, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creating a fuels baseline and establishing fire frequency relationships to develop a landscape management strategy at the Savannah River Site.

Description: USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-41. pp 351-366. Abstract—The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy Nuclear Defense Facility and a National Environmental Research Park located in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Prescribed burning is conducted on 15,000 to 20,000 ac annually. We modifi ed standard forest inventory methods to incorporate a complete assessment of fuel components on 622 plots, assessing coarse woody debris, ladder fuels, and the litter and duff layers. Because of deficiencies in south-wide data on litter-duff bulk densities, which are the fuels most often consumed in prescribed fires, we developed new bulk density relationships. Total surface fuel loading across the landscape ranged from 0.8 to 48.7 tons/ac. The variables basal area, stand age, and site index were important in accounting for variability in ladder fuel, coarse woody debris, and litter-duff for pine types. For a given pine stand condition, litter-duff loading decreased in direct proportion to the number of burns in the preceding thirty years. Ladder fuels for loblolly and longleaf increased in direct proportion to the years since the last prescribed burn. The pattern of fuel loading on the SRS reflects stand dynamics, stand management and fire management. It is suggested that the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program can easily modify sampling protocols to incorporate collection of fuels data.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Parresol, Bernard R.; Shea, Dan & Ottmar, Roger.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S & Maienschein, J L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.
Date: July 11, 2007
Creator: Hsu, P C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.

Description: Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately ¼ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Greco, James & Jackson, Rhett, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

Description: This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.
Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Green, David A.; Nelson, Thomas O.; Turk, Brian S.; Box, Paul D. & Gupta, Raghubir P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-TX-118, core 236 analytical results for the final report

Description: This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-118 push mode core segments collected between April 1, 1998 and April 13, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-118 Push Mode Core sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Benar, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al, 1995) and the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) (Sipson, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Benar, 1997). One sample exceeded the Total Alpha Activity (AT) analysis notification limit of 38.4{micro}Ci/g (based on a bulk density of 1.6), core 236 segment 1 lower half solids (S98T001524). Appropriate notifications were made. Plutonium 239/240 analysis was requested as a secondary analysis. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report.
Date: November 19, 1998
Creator: ESCH, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

Description: A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M. & Guzman, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation ...
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Akers, David J.; Shirey, Glenn A.; Zitron, Zalman & Maney, Charles Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure and fluid saturation prediction in a multicomponent reservoir, using combined seismic and electromagnetic imaging

Description: This paper presents a method for combining seismic and electromagnetic measurements to predict changes in water saturation, pressure, and CO{sub 2} gas/oil ratio in a reservoir undergoing CO{sub 2} flood. Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO{sub 2} flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and electrical conductivity during a CO{sub 2} injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed differences in compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization, using Archie's law, provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity, and the electrical conductivity. The rock-properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. Electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation; estimated changes in water saturation are used along with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO{sub 2} relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. This velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO{sub 2}/oil ratio. Resulting images of the CO{sub 2}/oil ratio show CO{sub 2}-rich zones that are well correlated to the location of injection perforations, with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO{sub 2}. The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected CO{sub 2} than are any of the individual images of ...
Date: 2002-10~
Creator: Hoversten, G. M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John & Daley, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

Description: A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Soukup, J.D. & Erpenbeck, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department