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Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

Description: The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Vaughen, V.C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Hiroshima pkg]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6 P.M.
Date: August 5, 1995
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Analysis of large urban fires

Description: Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.
Date: November 1, 1984
Creator: Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A. & Takata, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

Description: The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Carr, R.B. & Denney, R.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability

Description: This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)
Date: March 20, 1991
Creator: Chrzanowski, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral

Description: The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D. & Bryan, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

Description: In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Speed, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tropospheric response to a nuclear exchange

Description: The immediate effects of a full-scale nuclear war would be large and severe. The survivors of such a war would have to endure possible changes in the chemical structure of the atmosphere. These changes may come about as a result of changes caused by the nuclear explosions themselves (direct effects) or as a result of changes caused by fires that may start after the explosions (indirect effects). This paper focuses on the expected global-scale changes in the chemical structure of the atmosphere from both direct and indirect effects after a full-scale nuclear exchange. The immediate effects of a nuclear explosion include the creation of a hot mass of air or fireball which rises in the atmosphere to a level that depends on the yield of the explosion. Because the fireball is hot, it is able to dissociate atmospheric nitrogen, N/sub 2/. As the fireball cools, nitrogen atoms recombine with oxygen to form nitrogen oxides, NO and NO/sub 2/. In addition, dust and recondensed gases are swept up through the stem of the fireball and deposited at the same level to which the fireball rises. This paper focuses on the response of atmospheric ozone to a nuclear war.
Date: October 1, 1983
Creator: Penner, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microphysical/mesoscale aspects of nuclear winter and new directions in assessments

Description: Recent results of model studies and sensitivity tests have shown the degree to which the intensity and duration of ''nuclear winter'' depends on the mass of soot and dust suspended, its optical properties, its vertical distribution in the atmosphere, and the residence time. The soot from urban fires is viewed as evolving during its dispersion from the early fire induced plumes, to cloud scale systems, to the mesoscale and larger systems. Micro-physical processes are perceived as operating within these systems in a manner to enhance removal from the troposphere, and to alter the verical distribution of the soot or its subsequent, aging or evolving aerosol. Relevant observations and studies of these processes are presented and discussed. Critical inputs to the climate simulation models may well be altered significantly by these process effects, many of which are in need of better definition. Appropriate research needs to be initiated to address and better define these microphysical/mesoscale processes of potential importance in the altered atmospheric system after a major nuclear exchange. 11 refs., 2 figs.
Date: June 1, 1985
Creator: Knox, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive fallout

Description: Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F. & Peterson, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

Description: This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S. & Alonso, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron and gamma-ray dose measurements at various distances from the Little Boy replica

Description: We measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates at various distances from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April of 1983. The Little Boy-Comet Assembly is a replica of the atomic weapon detonated over Hiroshima, designed to be operated at various steady-state power levels. The selected distances for measurement ranged from 107 m to 567 m. Gamma-ray measurements were made with a Reuter-Stokes environmental ionization chamber which has a sensitivity of 1.0 ..mu..R/hour. Neutron measurements were made with a pulsed-source remmeter which has a sensitivity of 0.1 ..mu..rem/hour, designed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). 12 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Huntzinger, C.J. & Hankins, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial recovery capability. Final report. [Claus alumina catalyst for sulfur production]

Description: This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report.
Date: December 1, 1984
Creator: Gregg, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Description: The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Loewe, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear war: preliminary estimates of the climatic effects of a nuclear exchange

Description: The smoke rising from burning cities, industrial areas, and forests if such areas are attacked as part of a major nuclear exchange is projected to increase the hemispheric average atmospheric burden of highly absorbent carbonaceous material by 100 to 1000 times. As the smoke spreads from these fires, it would prevent sunlight from reaching the surface, leading to a sharp cooling of land areas over a several day period. Within a few weeks, the thick smoke would spread so as to largely cover the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, cooling mid-continental smoke-covered areas by, perhaps, a few tens of degrees Celsius. Cooling of near coastal areas would be substantially less, since oceanic heat capacity would help to buffer temperature changes in such regions. The calculations on which these findings are based contain many assumptions, shortcomings and uncertainties that affect many aspects of the estimated response. It seems, nonetheless, quite possible that if a nuclear exchange involves attacks on a very large number of cities and industrial areas, thereby starting fires that generate as much smoke as is suggested by recent studies, substantial cooling could be expected that would last weeks to months over most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but which may have relatively little direct effect on the Southern Hemisphere.
Date: October 1, 1983
Creator: MacCracken, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric and climatic consequences of a major nuclear war: Results of recent research

Description: During the last several years, comprehensive three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models, including detailed parametric formulations of a wide range of climatologically significant processes, have been applied to study the potential consequences of a major nuclear war involving the injection of smoke which could result from the large-scale fires ignited by such an exchange. For plausible smoke injections during the warm season of the year, all model calculations suggest that a significant climatic perturbation would result. In the lower range of smoke injection scenarios (producing of order 10 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke), smoke would act primarily to inhibit convection and rainfall, especially over land areas, including possibly some disruption of the summer monsoon. The upper range of smoke scenarios (of order 100 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke) would cause not only rapid and sharp decreases in land temperature and precipitation (a mid-latitude average land-temperature drop of the order of 20/sup 0/C, up to perhaps twice this amount in continental interiors), but also seems likely to leave enough smoke in the atmosphere to persist into the following warm season, inducing a cooling of several degrees.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Golitsyn, G.S. & MacCracken, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and technology review

Description: Research is described in three areas, high-technology design of unconventional, nonnuclear weapons, a model for analyzing special nuclear materials safeguards decisions, and a nuclear weapons accident exercise (NUWAX-81). (GHT)
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

Description: Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10/sup 12/ = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15/sup 0/C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures.
Date: December 1, 1984
Creator: MacCracken, M.C. & Walton, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GLODEP2: a computer model for estimating gamma dose due to worldwide fallout of radioactive debris

Description: The GLODEP2 computer code provides estimates of the surface deposition of worldwide radioactivity and the gamma-ray dose to man from intermediate and long-term fallout. The code is based on empirical models derived primarily from injection-deposition experience gained from the US and USSR nuclear tests in 1958. Under the assumption that a nuclear power facility is destroyed and that its debris behaves in the same manner as the radioactive cloud produced by the nuclear weapon that attached the facility, predictions are made for the gamma does from this source of radioactivity. As a comparison study the gamma dose due to the atmospheric nuclear tests from the period of 1951 to 1962 has been computed. The computed and measured values from Grove, UK and Chiba, Japan agree to within a few percent. The global deposition of radioactivity and resultant gamma dose from a hypothetical strategic nuclear exchange between the US and the USSR is reported. Of the assumed 5300 Mton in the exchange, 2031 Mton of radioactive debris is injected in the atmosphere. The highest estimated average whole body total integrated dose over 50 years (assuming no reduction by sheltering or weathering) is 23 rem in the 30 to 50 degree latitude band. If the attack included a 100 GW(e) nuclear power industry as targets in the US, this dose is increased to 84.6 rem. Hotspots due to rainfall could increase these values by factors of 10 to 50.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F. & Peterson, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge blurring in stacked x-ray film screen combinations. [Flash radiography for nuclear weapons design]

Description: The Advanced Experiments Group of B-Division, LLNL, has been seeking to improve the sensitivity and spatial resolution of stacked film screens for bremsstrahlung flash radiography of imploding, dense metal shells. In the work reported here, we experimentally measured the spreading of the x-ray shadow of the edge of a uranium block in two film-and-screen combinations. We also used the SANDYL code, which models photon and electron scattering, to calculate the theoretical edge spreading in an array of films and screens. Experimentally, the uranium edge was spread to a width of 1.7 mm in the combination 0.15-mm-Ta/NDT9-XAR5, and 1.5 mm in the combination 0.25-mm-Ta/NDT6-XAR5. The theoretical calculation agreed with these results.
Date: February 6, 1984
Creator: Lyle, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

Description: For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive. (LCL)
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Landauer, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site selection

Description: The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO/sub 2/ content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Olsen, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smoke inputs to climate models: optical properties and height distribution for nuclear winter studies

Description: Smoke from fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in land surface temperatures. The extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change depend on the optical characteristics of the smoke and how it is distributed with altitude. The height distribution of smoke over a fire is determined by the amount of buoyant energy produced by the fire and the amount of energy released by the latent heat of condensation of water vapor. The optical properties of the smoke depend on the size distribution of smoke particles which changes due to coagulation within the lofted plume. We present calculations demonstrating these processes and estimate their importance for the smoke source term input for climate models. For high initial smoke densities and for absorbing smoke ( m = 1.75 - 0.3i), coagulation of smoke particles within the smoke plume is predicted to first increase, then decrease, the size-integrated extinction cross section. However, at the smoke densities predicted in our model (assuming a 3% emission rate for smoke) and for our assumed initial size distribution, the attachment rates for brownian and turbulent collision processes are not fast enough to alter the smoke size distribution enough to significantly change the integrated extinction cross section. Early-time coagulation is, however, fast enough to allow further coagulation, on longer time scales, to act to decrease the extinction cross section. On these longer time scales appropriate to climate models, coagulation can decrease the extinction cross section by almost a factor of two before the smoke becomes well mixed around the globe. This process has been neglected in past climate effect evaluations, but could have a significant effect, since the extinction cross section enters as an exponential factor in calculating the light attenuation due to ...
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Penner, J.E. & Haselman, L.C. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

Description: A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)) & Peters, C.W. (Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department