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MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

Description: The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Geddes, R.L.; Spiker, D.L. & Poon, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory avian research program

Description: As wind energy use continues to expand, concern over the possible impacts of wind farms on birds continues to be an issue. The concern includes two primary areas: the effect of avian mortality on bird populations, and possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or the Endangered Species Act or both. In order to address these concerns, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with all stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, utility regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, has an active avian-wind power research program. DOE/NREL is conducting and sponsoring research with the expectation of developing solutions to educe or avoid avian mortality due to wind energy development throughout the US. This paper outlines the DOE/NREL approach and summarizes completed, current, and planned projects.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Sinclair, K.C. & Morrison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Valuation of ecological resources

Description: Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

Description: This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 15, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineered Surety Using the Risk Equation (EnSURE)

Description: Engineered Surety Using the Risk Equation (EnSURE) is a new approach being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for determining and mitigating risk. The EnSURE approach is based on the risk equation, which can be defined by the following equation: R = (Pa)(1-Pe)(C). Where R is risk, Pa is the likelihood of attack, Pe is the system effectiveness and C is the consequence. EnSURE considers each of the components of risk to help in assessing surety (e.g. security, safety, environmental) and providing for the most cost-effective ways to reduce risk. EnSURE is intended to help in evaluating and reducing the risk from either man-caused or natural events. It will help the decision-makers identify possible targets, evaluate the consequences of an event, assess the risk based on the threat and the existing conditions and then help in the application of mitigating measures. EnSURE is in the development stages. It builds on existing and ongoing development activities at Sandia, as well as the considerable work done in the fields of consequence analysis, risk analysis and intelligence. The components of EnSURE include consequences, constraints, threat, target/goal identification, facility/process characterization, evaluation and analysis, system improvement, and decision making. This paper provides a brief description of EnSURE.
Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Jaeger, C.D.; Paulus, W.K.; Duggan, R.A. & Miyoshi, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

Description: Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Wiser, R. & Pickle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power supply expansion and the nuclear option in Poland

Description: Poland is in the process of liberalizing and modernizing its electric power system. Given its heavy reliance on coal and a consequent history of often severe environmental externalities associated with power production, the nature of capacity expansion in Poland has important environmental and social implications. To better understand capacity expansion in Poland, we constructed a data set of the Polish power sector for use with the Elfin capacity expansion planning model. Using Elfin, we derived four scenarios and several sensitivities for new generating capacity construction. These scenarios simulate choices among several generic generating technologies made to achieve the lowest overall net present cost of operating the power system through 2015. We find that natural gas is a highly desirable fuel for future power generation in Poland, but primarily as a peaking resource. As the current system is inflexible and peaking capacity appears to be the most pressing need, this result is not surprising. However, when nuclear power is included as a generation option, natural gas is less desirable than the Polish Power Grid Company (PPGCo) has suggested, and, despite the PPGCo`s claims to the contrary, nuclear power cannot be ruled out in Poland on economic grounds alone. In the unconstrained Elfin scenarios, using PPGCo assumptions, nuclear power is attractive, especially after 2010. The attractiveness of nuclear generation proves sensitive to certain input variables, however, notably fixed operating and maintenance cost, and possible carbon taxes. Moreover, we find that the effectiveness of conservation efforts designed to reduce airborne emissions is limited under scenarios in which nuclear generation is adopted. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Marnay, C. & Pickle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oak Ridge Reservation site management plan for the environmental restoration program

Description: This report describes the overall approach for addressing environmental contamination on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) National Priorities List site located in east Tennessee. The cleanup strategy reflected in this site management plan (SMP) has been developed to accelerate the transition of areas of concern (AOCs) from characterization to remediation by making decisions at the watershed scale based on recommended land uses. Project scoping involves the use of defined remedial action objectives, which are based in part on the land uses selected for the project sites. To provide a consistent land use approach that accommodates the needs of all stakeholders responsible for the remediation and reutilization of the ORR, a reservation-wide strategy has been developed. The Common Ground process is a stakeholder-driven process to determine preferred land use options for the ORR so that clean-up operations will be based on the most likely and acceptable land uses. DOE utilized the information gathered in the Common Ground process to recommend desired land uses for the ORR. The land uses recommended by DOE as a result of the Common Ground process are being used for planning land and facility use/reuse for the next 25 years. Land uses recommended for the ORR in conducting CERCLA remedial activities are conservation, industrial use, and waste management.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

Description: A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Fein, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interoperable, life-cycle tools for assuring building performance: An overview of a commercial building initiative

Description: A key impediment to improving the energy efficiency and reducing the environmental impact of buildings is the complexity and cost of managing information over the life cycle of a building. A surprisingly large fraction of the total cost of buildings is embodied in the decision making and information management process due to the structure of the building industry, the numerous people and companies involved in the process, the current nature of the building acquisition process, and the long time periods over which buildings operate once design and construction are completed. The authors suggest that new interoperable software tools could greatly facilitate and rationalize this complex process, thereby reducing time and cost, and greatly improving the habitability and environmental impact of these buildings. They describe a series of projects in which they are building and testing several prototype toolkits as part of a building life-cycle information system that will allow interoperable software tools to function more effectively throughout the design, construction, commissioning, and operations phases.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Selkowitz, S.; Piette, M.A.; Papamichael, K.; Sartor, D.; Hitchcock, R. & Olken, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Making NEPA more effective and economical for the new millennium

Description: This paper focuses on a ten-element strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act's objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. In other words, this paper proposes a strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less. How these ten elements are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining. The strategy elements discussed in this paper, in no particular order of priority, are as follows: (1) integrate the NEPA process with other environmental compliance and review procedures; (2) accelerate the decision time for determining the appropriate level of NEPA documentation; (3) conduct early and thorough internal EIS (or EA) scoping before public scoping or other public participation begins; (4) organize and implement public scoping processes that are more participatory than confrontational; (5) maintain an up-to-date compendium of environmental baseline information; (6) prepare more comprehensive, broad-scope umbrella EISs that can be used effectively for tiering; (7) encourage preparation of annotated outlines with detailed guidance that serve as a road map for preparation of each EIS or EA; (8) decrease the length and complexity of highly technical portions of NEPA documents; (9) increase and systematize NEPA compliance outreach, training, and organizational support; and (10) work diligently to influence the preparation of better organized, shorter, and more readable NEPA documents.
Date: March 8, 2000
Creator: HANSEN,ROGER P. & WOLFF,THEODORE A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Kotzebue Wind Installation Project, Kotzebue, Alaska

Description: The DOE is proposing to provide financial assistance to the Kotzebue Electric Association to expand its existing wind installation near Kotzebue, Alaska. Like many rural Alaska towns, Kotzebue uses diesel-powered generators to produce its electricity, the high cost of which is currently subsidized by the Alaska State government. In an effort to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce dependence on diesel fuel, and reduce air pollutants, the DOE is proposing to fund an experimental wind installation to test commercially available wind turbines under Arctic conditions. The results would provide valuable information to other Alaska communities experiencing similar dependence on diesel-powered generators. The environmental assessment for the proposed wind installation assessed impacts to biological resources, land use, electromagnetic interference, coastal zone, air quality, cultural resources, and noise. It was determined that the project does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact.
Date: May 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenhouse gas indices. Final report

Description: The objective of this research has been to analyze the various components of a relative gas index, and to seek a procedure that is simple and transparent but still representative of the relationship among gases. To compare the relative effects on climate change of emissions of various kinds, including aerosol precursors, the approach pursued in this research has been to develop a computer algorithm encompassing the critically-linked elements which determine gas lifetimes and radiative influence, and the resulting climate effects. Elements to be considered in the course of work have included the following: regional economic growth and emissions, and the influence of mitigation measures; the latitudinal distribution of emissions; chemical auto-feedbacks; chemical-chemical feedback; multiple gases and aerosols, and their interactions; and the linking of gas effects to damage measures, to seek an economic definition of relative weights. As an outcome of this research, new capacity has been developed for analysis of these multi-gas issues as they relate to climate change. This report covers the accomplishments on this task. Publications and reports that have resulted in whole or in part from this research grant are listed in Section 3, and are included as attachments to this report.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Jacoby, H.D. & Prinn, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

Description: This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.
Date: May 5, 2000
Creator: Sisterson, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

Description: Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

Description: This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.
Date: February 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Total energy cycle emissions and energy use of electric vehicles

Description: The purpose of this project is to provide estimates of changes in life cycle energy use and emissions that would occur with the introduction of EVs. The topics covered include a synopsis of the methodology used in the project, stages in the EV and conventional vehicle energy cycles, characterization of EVs by type and driving cycle, load analysis and capacity of the electric utility, analysis of the materials used for vehicle and battery, description of the total energy cycle analysis model, energy cycle primary energy resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, energy cycle emissions, and conclusions.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Singh, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tazimina hydroelectric project, Iliamna, Alaska. Final technical and construction cost report

Description: The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is on the Tazimina River about 12 miles northeast of Iliamna Lake. The taximina River flows west from the Aleutian Range. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.
Date: August 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed environmental remediation at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating proposed environmental remediation activity at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), Argonne, Illinois. The environmental remediation work would (1) reduce, eliminate, or prevent the release of contaminants from a number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and two radiologically contaminated sites located in areas contiguous with SWMUs, and (2) decrease the potential for exposure of the public, ANL-E employees, and wildlife to such contaminants. The actions proposed for SWMUs are required to comply with the RCRA corrective action process and corrective action requirements of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency; the actions proposed are also required to reduce the potential for continued contaminant release. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy finding of no significant impact concerning the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

Description: This paper documents the US DOE finding for environmental remediation at the Belfield and Bowman inactive uranium processing sites in North Dakota. An Environmental Assessment performed for the sites analyzed the consequences of performing no remedial action and of a remedial action alternative. Based on the assessment, the DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from either alternative. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required for the proposal to revoke the processing designation of the sites.
Date: December 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

Description: This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.
Date: February 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Site Information: Planning group of the Directorate and Conventional Construction Division

Description: This document presents the technical site information for the Superconducting Super Collider project. The Ellis County, Texas site was selected by the Department of Energy in 1989. After assembling the initial staff at temporary facilities in Dallas, the SSC Laboratory began site-specific design work. The resulting design for the SSC accelerators, experimental areas, and laboratory facilities were described in the Site-Specific Conceptual Design Report of July 1990. Since then, design specifications for the technical components and conventional facilities have been formulated. In fact, a very significant amount of surface and underground construction has been initiated and many buildings have been completed. Testing of prototypes for most technical components is advanced. The construction phase of the SSC project is approximately 20% complete. At this time, it is appropriate to capture the conventional design work which has taken place since 1990. This documents records regional and physical information used in site studies, summarizes the site studies for conventional facilities, and presents site layouts for buildings and utilities as they would have been at the end of the construction project. As such, this documents summarizes and complements the work of many groups in the SSC laboratory, the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC), and several subcontractors to the SSC project. The document contains extensive references to their work contained in other drafts and final reports. In particular, it borrows heavily from the Site Development Plan (released in draft form in January, 1992) which has, to date, guided aspects of site development.
Date: November 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department