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Design Guide for Category I reactors critical facilities

Description: The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned critical facilities be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Brynda, W J & Powell, R W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New approach to the design of core support structures for large LMFBR plants

Description: The paper describes an innovative design concept for a LMFBR Core Support Structure. A hanging Core Support Structure is described and analyzed. The design offers inherent safety features, constructibility advantages, and potential cost reductions.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Burelbach, J.P.; Kann, W.J.; Pan, Y.C.; Saiveau, J.G. & Seidensticker, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixing experiments in an alternating wire wrapped assembly

Description: The salt injection experiment was performed in an alternating wire-wrapped, triangular-array bundle to study the coolant mixing behavior pertaining to alternating wrapped wires. Results show that the coolant mixing is much enhanced in the subchannels for this type of bundle compared to the in-phase wire-wrapped bundle currently used in the LMFBR design. A strong interaction between the coolants in the edge and the interior subchannels at four assembly faces (where the alternating wires give 180/sup 0/ out-of-phase configuration) has also been observed. After calibrating the input parameters for the sweeping flow of the COBRA-IIIC/MIT code against this experimental data, the code is employed to predict the coolant temperatures for a skew-powered alternating wire-wrapped blanket assembly. Comparing the code results with the SUPERENERGY code predicted coolant temperature data for an in-phase wrapped assembly under identical operating conditions, it is observed that the hot spot temperature for the alternating wire-wrapped assembly is less than that for the in-phase wire-wrapped bundle by 5 percent (normalized to the hot spot axial temperature rise).
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E. & Rohsenow, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium

Description: The physical properties of sodium are described and the use of sodium as the coolant in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is discussed. Sodium technology facilities at HEDL for research and testing support of the Fast Flux Test Facility are described.
Date: unknown
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manpower requirements in the nuclear power industry, 1982-1991

Description: The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Johnson, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oak Ridge Research Reactor quarterly report, January, February, and March of 1978

Description: The ORR operated at an average power level of 28.7 MW for 73.4 percent of the time during January, February, and March of 1978. Eight new fuel elements were placed in service. The reactor was shut down on sixteen occasions, one of which was unscheduled. Reactor downtime needed for refueling, maintenance and checks was quite low, with the reactor remaining available for operation 88.9 percent of the time. Maintenance activities, both mechanical and instrument were essentially routine in nature. Special tests or measurements completed during the quarter included: (1) reactivity measurement of the Metals and Ceramics Division's (ORR-MFE-1) experiment in CP-C7; (2) flux mapping for core No. 143-B; and (3) calibration of all six shim rods on February 12, 1978 (Appendix A), and calibration of shim rods Nos. 2 through 6 on February 16, 1978.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Hurt, S.S. III & Lance, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid mechanics model to estimate the leakage of incompressible fluids through labyrinth seals. [LMFBR]

Description: An analytical model for estimating the leakage of incompressible fluids through straight labyrinth seals has been described. Recent developments in theoretical and experimental studies of recirculating flow inside rectangular cavities and of flow in a channel have been incorporated in the model to solve a practical problem. The approach used in this model is different from those of previous ones for compressible fluids in which the gas-dynamics laws with some empirical coefficients determined from gas data were used. The seal leakages predicted by the model are in reasonable agreement with these measured indirectly in sodium and those obtained for gas at low Mach number and small pressure variations. It can be concluded from this study that the labyrinth seal formed with cavities has less leakage than the one formed with threads if all other conditions are the same. Furthermore, the fluid leakage through straight labyrinth seals (for both cavity and thread types) is strongly dependent upon the seal clearance and pressure drop.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Han, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of core-assembly refueling requirements on LMFBR core-system design

Description: Liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) core assemblies are exposed to an operational environment which induces permanent distortions in their main structural members. These distortions have a substantial impact on core assembly refueling since the distortions are large compared to the available spaces. Core assembly refueling requirements demand that refueling be accomplished without damage to the adjacent core components or to the refueling equipment. This paper describes the core assembly refueling requirements and the design procedures used to demonstrate compliance with the requirements. This paper also provides an assessment relative to the influence of these requirements on LMFBR core system design.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Fox, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability based investigation of design factors

Description: Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.
Date: June 30, 1978
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost-competitive, inherently safe LMFBR pool plant

Description: The Cost-Competitive, Inherently Safe LMFBR Pool Plant design was prepared in GFY 1983 as a joint effort by Rockwell International and the Argonne National Laboratory with major contributions from the Bechtel Group, Inc.; Combustion Engineering, Inc.; the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; and the General Electric Company. Using current LMFBR technology, many innovative features were developed and incorporated into the design to meet the ultimate objectives of the Breeder Program, i.e., energy costs competitive with LWRs and inherent safety features to maintain the plant in a safe condition following assumed accidents without requiring operator action. This paper provides a description of the principal features that were incorporated into the design to achieve low cost and inherent safety.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: McDonald, J.S.; Brunings, J.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Seidensticker, R.W. & Hren, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages

Description: The objective of the project, conducted by Commonwealth Research Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements that could reduce the overall duration of the outage and achieve an improvement in the plant's availability for power production. Modifications in procedures have been developed and were evaluated during one or more outages in 1977. Conceptual designs have been developed for equipment modifications to the refueling system that could reduce the time required for the refueling portion of the outage. The purpose of the interim report is to describe those conceptual designs and to assess their impact upon future outages. Recommendations are included for the implementation of these equipment improvements in a continuation of this program as a demonstration of plant availability benefits that can be realized in PWR nuclear plants already in operation or under construction.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Mayers, J.B. & Soth, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Existence of short and long range relaxation lengths in heterogeneous media

Description: Experimental data related to boiling water reactors show that the phase of the cross power spectra density between the detector response at two points in the system is described by a pure delay process above certain values of the frequency. For this to occur the adjoint flux (detector field of view) must be sharply peaked around each one of the detectors, which in turn implies the existence of a short range relaxation length. It is shown that the existence of this type of relaxation length is a direct consequence of the physical properties of heterogeneous systems and not a consequence of the number of groups used to describe the neutron field in the equivalent homogeneous system as it has been done traditionally. To show this point a one-group neutron diffusion model which accounts explicitly for the heterogeneities of the system is presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Difilippo, F.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loft waste gas processing system analysis. Line 1-1/2''-BSV-10-VD outside penetration S-5C

Description: Lines 1''-BSV-10-VD and 1/sup 1///sub 2/''-BSV-10-VD were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The lines are part of the Waste Gas Processing System. The model considered the portion of the lines outside the containment. The analysis showed that Class 2 requirements will be met with the pipe supports specified in this report.
Date: August 16, 1978
Creator: Pierce, A.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

Description: This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R. & Saari, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor progress report. Results of the FMSR Benchmark calculations and an assessment of current fission product libraries

Description: As part of the Initial Feasibility Study of the Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor, a series of benchmark calculations were made to determine the sensitivity of the physics analysis to differences in methods and data. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were invited to participate with Brookhaven National Laboratory in the analysis of a FMSR model prescribed by BNL. Detailed comparisons are made including a comprehensive study on the adequacy of the fission product treatments.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Ludewig, H.; Durston, C.; Atefi, B. & Cerbone, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivity and parameter measurements in a coaxial uranium fuel--D/sub 2/O moderated critical lattice

Description: Reactivity and reaction rate parameters were measured for a 7-inch triangular pitch lattice of coaxial uranium fuel in a critical, D/sub 2/O-moderated reactor. The results were compared with RAHABR computations using ENDF/B-IV cross sections and with an earlier subcritical exponential measurement of the same lattice. Measured and calculated reactivity are in good agreement, however, the calculated ratio of epicadmium /sup 238/U captures to subcadmium /sup 238/U captures (rho/sup 28//sub 28/) was 10% lower than measured. Indirect verification of the rho/sup 28/ measurement was obtained by measurement of a new conversion ratio parameter (C/sup +/) defined as the ratio of /sup 238/U captures to total fissions. Agreement between measured and calculated inner-to-outer fuel activation ratios suggests that the discrepancy is caused by underprediction of epicadmium captures in /sup 238/U or by erroneously high measured values of rho/sup 28/ and C/sup +/. However, any adjustment of /sup 238/U captures to match the measured rho/sup 28/ will cause the calculated reactivity to be underpredicted. An unresolved concern is that the experimental results do not satisfy an internal consistency criterion based on the two group neutron balance equation even though all known systematic errors have been accounted for and well known experimental techniques are used. Reaction rate parameters from the critical experiment agree with the exponential measurements indicating that the neutron spectra in the measurement regions were closely identical. The measured buckling in the critical facility is 0.52 m/sup -2/ lower than in the exponential. Other studies have shown systematic differences in reactivity between D/sub 2/O critical and exponential measurements.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Pellarin, D.J.; Ahlfeld, C.E. & Baumann, N.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic fluid-structure interaction analysis of a large LMFBR reactor

Description: This paper describes a seismic analysis which includes fluid-structure interactions for a large LMFBR reactor with many internal components and structures. Two mathematical models were employed. An axisymmetrical model was used for the vertical excitation analysis whereas a three-dimensional model was used for the horizontal excitation analysis. In both analyses, the sodium coolant was treated by continuum fluid elements. Thus, important seismic effects such as fluid-structure interaction, free-surface sloshing, fluid coupling, etc. are included in the analysis. This study is useful to the design of future LMFBR reactors. The results of this study can be used to improve the margin of safety of LMFBR plants under seismic conditions.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J. & Chang, Y.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense terrestrial reactor program

Description: The Defense Terrestrial Reactor (DTR) Program has as its goal the design, construction, and operation of a compact, inherently safe, prototype 10 megawatt-electric (MWe) nuclear reactor. This standarized design could then be deployed to provide a secure energy supply for mission critical functions at selected military installations. This paper outlines the background for selecting nuclear reactors for this application, including military power requirements and an assessment of energy supply alternatives; and developments in reactor technology, both design innovation and management techniques, that might be employed in the DTR Program to avoid the problems besetting the commercial reactor sector. A program plan for achieving a fully operational prototype in five years from date of prime contract award is included.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Kirchner, W.L. & Colston, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

Description: This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US central station nuclear electric generating units: significant milestones (status as of July 1, 1980)

Description: The status of 189 US nuclear power plants is reported in a table which gives the name, owner, capacity, type, NSSS architect and contractor and data of public announcement, NSSS order, licensing, and initial operation. The plants are also indexed according to state, region, utility, and alphabetical name. The utility nuclear steam supply system orders are also listed. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear electric capacity expansion in Mexico: system effects of reactor size and cost

Description: Mexico's electrical generation capacity could more than double over the next ten years - from about 15 GWe currently to as much as 35 GWe in 1990. While new capacity additions will be predominantly oil-fired in the 1980's, nuclear power will become increasingly important in the 1990's. This study investigated the appropriate size of new, nuclear capacity additions by assessing the implications of installing different size reactors into Mexico's electrical grid. Included in the assessments of reactor sizes are estimates of electrical generation costs and comparisons of the effective load-carrying capability of a 10 GWe nuclear capacity expansion.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Thayer, G.R.; Abbey, D.S.; Hardie, R.W.; Enriquez, R.P. & Uria, E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning, design, and construction of nuclear power plants: an overview. Final report

Description: Chapters are included on generation system descriptions and alternative energy sources; load forecasting and growth projections; utility studies, program development, and analytical models; organizational alternatives and contract arrangements; project control in the design and construction phase; site management activities; construction activities; and startup and testing.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Rhodes, D.A. & Rad, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U. S. fast reactor materials and structures program

Description: The U.S. DOE has sponsored a vigorous breeder reactor materials and structures program for 15 years. Important contributions have resulted from this effort in the areas of design (inelastic rules, verified methods, seismic criteria, mechanical properties data); resolution of licensing issues (technical witnessing, confirmatory testing); construction (fabrication/welding procedures, nondestructive testing techniques); and operation (sodium purification, instrumentation and chemical analysis, radioactivity control, and in-service inspection. The national LMFBR program currently is being restructured. The Materials and Structures Program will focus its efforts in the following areas: (1) removal of anticipated licensing impediments through confirmation of the adequacy of structural design methods and criteria for components containing welds and geometric discontinuities, the generation of mechanical properties for stainless steel castings and weldments, and the evaluation of irradiation effects; (2) qualification of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel and tribological coatings for design flexibility; (3) development of improved inelastic design guidelines and procedures; (4) reform of design codes and standards and engineering practices, leading to simpler, less conservative rules and to simplified design analysis methods; and (5) incorporation of information from foreign program.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Harms, W.O. & Purdy, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department