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Hybrid fuels for highway transportation. Second annual technical progress report for the period 1 June 1979-1 June 1980

Description: A program has been developed to investigate the potential of hybrid fuels for use in highway transportation. Hybrids are fuels derived from combinations of readily available energetic non-conventional materials with petroleum. They are generally formulated as solutions, emulsions, or slurries. The underlying objective of the program is to reduce the use of petroleum-derived fuels and/or to minimize the processing requirements of the finished hybrid fuels. During the first year of the program, extensive work was done on the development and testing of water and alcohol emulsions and alcohol solutions. In the second year, the emphasis was placed on the development and testing of hybrid fuel slurries. Components evaluated included carbohydrates and various forms of carbon. It was concluded that, of the slurries tested, the carbon (coke, carbon black, etc.) slurries have the most potential for development into finished fuels. The efforts during the third year will concentrate on advancing the development of the slurries (especially the carbon slurries) to the same point as the solutions and emulsions. This work will include examination of the mechanical difficulties, the stability problems, and the combustion phenomena observed when using slurries in heat engines.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Ryan, T.W.; Likos, W. & Moses, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US energy flow, 1981

Description: Flow diagrams to describe the US energy situation have been prepared since 1972 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1981 the energy consumption was 73 quads (or 73 x 10/sup 15/ Btu) - down from 75 quads in 1980. Oil continues to dominate the picture as it comprises 45% of the total energy used. Net oil use (exclusive of oil purchased for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and exports) fell 8%; oil imports declined 14%. In contrast to oil, use of natural gas and coal remained at 1980 levels. Decreased use of residual oils, principally for electric power generation, account for much of the drop in oil use. Increased use of coal and nuclear energy for power generation almost compensated for the decrease in use of oil in that end-use. Transmitted power remained at 1980 levels. The remainder of the drop in energy usage is attributed to price-driven conservation, increased efficiencies in end-use and the recession that prevailed during most of the year. The share of the energy drop attributable to the recession is estimated by various analysts to be on the order of 40 to 50%. The fact that for a given dollar of US GNP, oil consumption has declined faster than overall energy consumption attests to the role factors other than the economic slow-down have had on decreased energy consumption. Gasoline consumption remained at 1980 levels and the total transportation end-use sector increased its energy consumption by a modest 3%.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Briggs, C.K. & Borg, I.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculated photon KERMA factors based on the LLNL EGDL (Evaluated Gamma-Ray Data Library) data file

Description: Photon (Gamma-Ray) KERMA factors calculated from the LLNL EGDL (Evaluated Gamma-Ray Data Library) file are tabulated for the elements from Z=1 to Z=30 and for 15 composite materials. The KERMA factors are presented for 191 energy groups over the incident photon energy range from 100 eV to 100 MeV. 3 refs.
Date: October 10, 1986
Creator: Howerton, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of complex mixtures in aquatic environments: a synthesis of PNL ecological research

Description: The term complex mixture has been recently applied to energy-related process streams, products and wastes that typically contain hundreds or thousands of individual organic compounds, like petroleum or synthetic fuel oils; but it is more generally applicable. A six-year program of ecological research has focused on four areas important to understanding the environmental behavior of complex mixtures: physicochemical variables, individual organism responses, ecosystems-level determinations, and metabolism. Of these areas, physicochemical variables and organism responses were intensively studied; system-level determinations and metabolism represent more recent directions. Chemical characterization was integrated throughout all areas of the program, and state-of-the-art methods were applied. 155 references, 35 figures, 4 tables.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Fickeisen, D.H. & Vaughan, B.E. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

Description: The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include ...
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K. & Dittmer, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leach testing of in situ stabilization grouts containing additives to sequester contaminants

Description: This document discusses laboratory testing performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) of special grout formulations that incorporate specific sequestering agents to help improve the ability of the cement to resist contaminant leaching. To enhance the sequestering of contaminants we chose five additives to introduce (singly) to the control cement. The additives were Florida pebble phosphate, clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite), ferrous sulfide (a reductant), a mixed bed organic ion exchange resin and a proprietary anion-adsorbing mixed metal oxide. These additives were added one per test to the standard formulation and used to encapsulate a diluted high-salt alkaline liquid waste that is produced after various processes to remove uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. This report documents the testing of these additives.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Serne, R.J.; Ames, L.L.; Martin, P.F.C.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)) & Phillips, S.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

Description: Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report.
Date: January 31, 1993
Creator: Orebaugh, E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

Description: Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Holladay, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International energy indicators

Description: Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data are indicated from the date given and into 1980 as far as available. Data are given for the international scene on: world crude oil production, 1975-to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973-to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973-to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974-to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973-to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973-to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973-to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976-to date; and energy/GNP ratio.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Bauer, E.K. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of TSCA on SRC-II commercialization. [Toxic substances control act; impact]

Description: The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) is one set of environmental legislation that might constrain the commercialization of coal conversion plants. This paper examines the potential impacts of TSCA on coal conversion using the Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-II) process of coal liqudfaction as representative of emerging conversion technologies. The key element in any assessment of the impact of TSCA on the SRC-II coal liquefaction process is an assessment of the potential hazard to human health and the environment posed by the SRC-II products and by-products. Our analysis shows that many SRC-II products and by-products may be considered hazardous in that they are reported to contain appreciable amounts of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, alkyl benezenes, and other aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Table E-I illustrates some of the possible constraints that the implementation of TSCA might impose on the commercialization of SRC-II or other coal liquefaction processes. Although the table indicates that TSCA may place many constraints on the SRC-II process, these constraints will probably not pose a substantial hindrance to commercialization prospects. Detailed studies must be conducted to determine the actual economic impacts of TSCA implementation before an accurate assessment of the ultimate impact on SRC-II commercialization can be determined.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

Description: This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the use of UCG gas to produce 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD of methanol with conversion to M-gasoline

Description: This study involves an examination of the technical and economic feasibility of using raw gas from an underground coal gasification facility as feedstock for methanol synthesis, and producing M-gasoline from the methanol. It differs from previous studies in considering facilities smaller than those previously studied. Addressed also is the economic and technical feasibility of using equipment from existing ammonia plants for the production of methanol. Ammonia and methanol plants are very similar in type of equipment used and plant layout. Consequently, it is possible to convert an existing ammonia plant into a methanol facility. Existing ammonia and methanol plants which contain equipment that might be utilized with UCG all use natural gas for feedstock. The processing steps in these plants can be divided into unit operations which are described. The product price analysis shows that significant economies of scale exist for the larger of the two facility sizes considered in this study. The economies of scale are evident for both the methanol/M-gasoline and methanol-only facilities. Compared to current market prices, the calculated product prices for the 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD methanol-only facilities are within the range of competitiveness with the prices of conventionally produced methanol. The product prices calculated for the 12,000 BPD methanol/4910 BPD M-gasoline facility are, under the most optimistic assumptions, 50% higher than the current market price for unleaded gasoline.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials selection guidelines for geothermal power systems. First edition

Description: Nine potential power cycles are defined and diagrammed for the generation of electricity from geothermal fluids. General fluid properties that influence the applicability of power cycles to a particular geothermal resource are discussed. The corrosivity of individual process streams in power cycles is described based on variations in chemical composition and temperature. Results of materials performance tests are analyzed based on the chemical composition of the corrosive medium and physical factors such as temperature, duration of exposure, and fluid velocity. The key chemical components in geothermal fluids that are significant in determining corrosivity are identified. Both summarized and detailed results of materials performance tests in U.S. liquid-dominated resources are given. Seven U.S. liquid-dominated KGRA's are classified according to relative corrosiveness and their key chemical components are defined. The various forms and mechanisms of corrosive attack that can occur in geothermal process streams are described. The application of nonmetallic materials in geothermal environments is discussed. The appendices contain information on (1) operating experience at geothermal power plants, (2) corrosion in desalination facilities, (3) reliability of geothermal plants, (4) elastomeric materials, (5) comparative alloy costs, and (6) geothermal equipment manufacturers. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: DeBerry, D.W.; Ellis, P.F. & Thomas, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breckinridge Project, initial effort

Description: Report IV, Volume 4, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Gas Plant (Plant 7). The Gas Plant (Plant 7) receives feed gas streams from various process plants. The Gas Plant compresses, treats, and fractionates the gas streams into intermediate and final products. The following information is included for the plant described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

Description: The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.
Date: February 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

Description: The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.
Date: February 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

Description: Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.
Date: December 10, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

Description: Radiation effects on resin and zeolite used in the waste cleanup at Three Mile Island Unit II have been examined both experimentally and in-situ. Hydrogen and organic gases are generated due to absorbed radiation as a function of resin material, curie loading and residual water content. Significant oxygen scavaging was demonstrated in the organic resin liners. Hydrogen and oxygen gases in near stoichiometric quantities are generated from irradiation of residual water in inorganic zeolites. Gas generation was determined to be directly proportional to curie content but correlates poorly with residual water content in zeolite vessels. Results of the gas generation analyses of EPICOR II liners show that vessels with less than 166 curies had almost no hydrogen generated during two years of storage and therefore did not require safety measures for shipment or storage. Experimental measurements done at research laboratories predicted similar results associated with hydrogen gas generation and oxygen depletion. X-ray diffraction examinations and ion exchange capacity measurements indicated no evidence of irradiation effects on the structure or cesium exchange capacity for zeolites exposed to 10/sup 10/ rads. Darkening and damage of organic resin due to radiation has been identified. Breaking and agglomeration of the purification demineralizer resin is believed to be the result of temperature effects. No damage was identified from radiation effects on zeolite. Organic and inorganic sorbents used in the processing of contaminated waters at TMI-2 have been shown to be effective in maintaining long-term stability under high radiation conditions. The effects of radiolytic degradation have been shown by direct measurements and simulation tests and are of use in their general application throughout the industry.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Quinn, G.J. & Hofstetter, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Baalman, R.W. & Hays, I.D. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fossil energy program. Progress report for January 1978

Description: Hydrocarbonization run HC-25 was completed using Wyodak coal at a lower system pressure (150 psig) than used in previous runs to obtain information on the effect of pressure on yields. The run proceeded smoothly with no interruption of feed or other difficulties. In support of in situ gasification, block pyrolysis experiments BP-42 and -43 were conducted at 0.3/sup 0/C/min reaching surface temperatures of 900 and 1000/sup 0/C, respectively. The toughness of 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo in thick sections suitable for large coal conversion systems is being explored in the pressure vessel and piping materials work for material in the as-fabricated condition. Equipment modification for plasma spraying of CoCrAlY have been completed in the coatings inspection program. In the welding and cladding program, a range of welding parameters has been found for depositing type 320 Cb stainless steel on carbon steel clad with Inconel 82 that produces no cracking on the finished surface. The corrosion data from the fireside corrosion tests for types 304, 316, and 310 stainless steel, Alloy 600, and Alloy 800 exposed to the Fluidyne atmospheric fluidized bed combustor for 500 hr and 1500 hr are summarized. High-temperature specimens for a 3000 hr run have been prepared. A failure analysis of heat exchanger tubes from the Morgantown Energy Research Center fluidized bed combustor and progress in examining corrosion surveillance coupons from the Wilsonville, Alabama, solvent refined coal plant are reported. In the gas-fired potassium boiler experiment, about 5 hr of stable boiling operation was obtained at power levels up to about 3.5 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr. An evaluation was initiated of an in-situ facility for producing methanol which would then be converted to gasoline via the Mobil-M process. An effort was also initiated to develop a computer model for the HYGAS gasifier.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: McNeese, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 20, 1977--September 30, 1977

Description: The primary objective of the subject program is to assess the potential options for controlling atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Accordingly, CO/sub 2/ control scenarios based on conventional technology and applied to the larger industrial emitters will be prepared. The studies will include preliminary cost estimates of selected processes, to identify fruitful areas for environmental control technology (ECT) programmatic development as related to CO/sub 2/ release control. BNL's prior experience in this area includes the development and evaluation of a number of processes for removing CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere for the purpose of producing synthetic carbonaceous fuels including methanol, gasoline, and methane. Background information from other DOE programs will be used to determine the limitations for the control studies. This progress report presents background information on: (1) the concentration levels of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere during the last one hundred years; (2) the possible effects of rising CO/sub 2/ levels; (3) the impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on overall worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions; (4) the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emissions; and (5) process considerations for controlling CO/sub 2/.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Steinberg, M.; Albanese, A.S. & Dang, V.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey and screening of intermediate-size photovoltaic total energy and electric applications

Description: One of the principal objectives of this photovoltaic mission analysis effort has been to identify and evaluate applications for photovoltaic solar energy conversion that could lead to significant contributions to the national energy supply and that would provide attractive opportunities for application experiments aimed at stimulating the adoption of photovoltaic technology. The scope of the study has included applications both for electric-only photovoltaic (PV) systems and for photovoltaic total energy systems (PTES), i.e., systems that provide both photovoltaic electricity and solar thermal energy to meet all or part of the energy demand at a single load point or a group of related load points. In either case, both flat-plate and concentrating systems have been considered and it has been assumed that the thermal energy is collected in and transported by the fluid used in an active cooling system for the photovoltaic cells. Because the efficiency of photovoltaic devices decreases rapidly with increasing temperature and because the operational lifetime of such devices is reduced by prolonged operation at elevated temperatures, a practical upper limit of about 200/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) was assumed for the temperature at which arrays can be allowed to be operated. This limitation, in turn, places an upper bound on the temperature at which solar thermal energy is available in PTES applications. An initial screening aimed at identifying the most promising applications has therefore been required, with the expectation that detailed evaluation will be made of only the higher-ranking candidates. A description of the screening procedure that was adopted and a discussion of the results are presented.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Rattin, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

Description: The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] emissions are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 ...
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Wang, Q. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)) & Santini, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soot formation in synthetic-fuel droplets. Second quarterly technical progress report

Description: The main objective of this program is to provide detailed information on methods of minimizing soot formation during synthetic liquid fuel combustion under conditions which minimize the formation of nitric oxides. The program comprises two main tasks, Fuel Screening Studies, and Flame Studies. The purpose of the first task is to investigate the impact of fuel properties on particulate production, to establish the importance of droplet size and examine atomizer effects, and to develop techniques for surrogate fuels production. In the second task, fundamental details of soot formation from synfuel droplet combustion will be investigated in variable slip velocity configurations. This report describes technical progress during the second three-month period of program effort (January-March 1981). During this period attention has continued to be focussed on the design, construction and commissioning of experimental systems. The Task 1 tunnel furnace modification was completed and made operational, and some preliminary fuel screening studies were carried out. Similarly, construction of the controlled flow droplet reactor was completed and efforts directed towards the design and testing of diagnostic systems. Details of this work are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: England, G.; Kramlich, J. & Payne, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department