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Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

Description: We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.
Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: Taha, Haider & Akbari, Hashem
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field quality measurements of Fermilab Nb{sub 3}Sn common coil dipole model

Description: A short model of single-layer Nb{sub 3}Sn common coil magnet has been fabricated and is being tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes results of magnetic measurements in this model. The geometrical harmonics, coil magnetization and iron saturation effects, ramp-rate dependence, field decay and the ''snap-back'' effect at injection are presented.
Date: November 7, 2003
Creator: al., Vadim Kashikhin et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

Description: Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052).
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: BENECKE, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

Description: The Department of Energy is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation(EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management Alternative Project, focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council and the Environmental Protection Agency. The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry. The following report - documenting our Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation - is one of those supplemental documents.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Document of Workshops for Hanford, Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site as part of the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents - DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration

Description: This document summarizes the result of a series of meetings with regulators, stakeholders, tribal representatives, and end users. The meetings focused on providing information from the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents, DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration and eliciting feedback on the direction of the project, its usefulness, and its applicability to issues faced by the participants. The meetings were held with the DOE and operating contractor personnel working at and stakeholders/tribal representatives associated with the Hanford, Oak Ridge and Savannah River Sites, as well as EPA regions IV and X and state regulators from Washington, Tennessee and South Carolina. These meetings were conducted over the time period beginning August 12 and culminating September 23, 2003. Approximately 120 people participated in these meetings.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Vangelas, KM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

Description: Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.
Date: July 7, 2002
Creator: Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G. & Nazaroff, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Legacy Tritium in Building 232-H Tritium Facility, Savannah River Site

Description: This report describes an estimate of how much tritium will be held up in those parts of the 232-H process that will remain in the building after deactivation The anticipated state of this tritium is also discussed. This information will be used to assess the radiological status of the deactivated facility.
Date: January 7, 2003
Creator: Clark, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bipartite graph partitioning and data clustering

Description: Many data types arising from data mining applications can be modeled as bipartite graphs, examples include terms and documents in a text corpus, customers and purchasing items in market basket analysis and reviewers and movies in a movie recommender system. In this paper, the authors propose a new data clustering method based on partitioning the underlying biopartite graph. The partition is constructed by minimizing a normalized sum of edge weights between unmatched pairs of vertices of the bipartite graph. They show that an approximate solution to the minimization problem can be obtained by computing a partial singular value decomposition (SVD) of the associated edge weight matrix of the bipartite graph. They point out the connection of their clustering algorithm to correspondence analysis used in multivariate analysis. They also briefly discuss the issue of assigning data objects to multiple clusters. In the experimental results, they apply their clustering algorithm to the problem of document clustering to illustrate its effectiveness and efficiency.
Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: Zha, Hongyuan; He, Xiaofeng; Ding, Chris; Gu, Ming & Simon, Horst D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frequency chirp and pulse shape effects in self-modulated laser wakefield accelerators

Description: The effect of asymmetric laser pulses on plasma wave excitation in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator is examined. Laser pulse shape and frequency chirp asymmetries, controlled experimentally in the laser system through a grating pair compressor, are shown to strongly enhance measured electron yields for certain asymmetries. It is shown analytically that a positive (negative) frequency chirp enhances (suppresses) the growth rate of the Raman forward scattering and near-forward Raman sidescatter instabilities, but is of minimal importance for the experimental parameters. Temporal laser pulse shapes with fast rise times (< plasma period) are shown to generate larger wakes (compared to slow rise time pulses) which seed the growth of the plasma wave, resulting in enhanced electron yield.
Date: November 7, 2002
Creator: Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Shadwick, B.A.; van Tilborg, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY03 Annual Report for Environmental Management Science Program - Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides

Description: The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.
Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: Hobbs, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report

Description: This grant was a continuation of research conducted at the University of Florida under Grant No. DE-FG05-91ER45462 in which we investigated the energy bandgap shifts produced in semiconductor quantum dots of sizes between 1.5 and 40 nm. The investigated semiconductors consisted of a series of Column 2-6 compounds (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) and pure Column IV elements (Si and Ge). It is well-known of course that the 2-6 semiconductors possess a direct-gap electronic structure, while the Column IV elements possess an indirect-gap structure. The investigation showed a major difference in quantum confinement behavior between the two sets of semiconductors. This difference is essentially associated with the change in bandgap energy resulting from size confinement. In the direct-gap semiconductors, the change in energy (blue shift) saturates when the crystals approach 2-3 nm in diameter. This limits the observed shift in energy to less than 1 eV above the bulk value. In the indirect-gap semiconductors, the energy shift does not show any sign of saturation and in fact, we produced Si and Ge nanocrystals with absorption edges in the UV. The reason for this difference has not been determined and will require additional experimental and theoretical studies. In our work, we suggest, but do not prove that mixing of conduction band side valleys with the central valley under conditions of size confinement may be responsible for the saturation in the blue-shift of direct-gap semiconductors. The discovery of large bandgap energy shifts with crystal size prompted us to suggest that these materials may be used to form photovoltaic cells with multi-gap layers for high efficiency in a U.S. Patent issued in 1998. However, this possibility depends strongly on the ability to collect photoexcited carriers from energy-confined crystals. The research conducted at the University of Arizona under the subject grant had a major goal of ...
Date: August 7, 2002
Creator: Simmons, Joseph H. & Bukowski, Tracie J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries Modeling Studies of Particulate Materials

Description: The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined.
Date: January 7, 2002
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Terrones, Guillermo; Muller, Susan J.; Denn, Morton M. & Rossen, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

River Protection Project (RPP) Project Management Plan

Description: The Office of River Protection (ORP) Project Management Plan (PMP) for the River Protection Project (RPP) describes the process for developing and operating a Waste Treatment Complex (WTC) to clean up Hanford Site tank waste. The Plan describes the scope of the project, the institutional setting within which the project must be completed, and the management processes and structure planned for implementation. The Plan is written from the perspective of the ORP as the taxpayers' representative. The Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State, has one of the largest concentrations of radioactive waste in the world, as a result of producing plutonium for national defense for more than 40 years. Approximately 53 million gallons of waste stored in 177 aging underground tanks represent major environmental, social, and political challenges for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These challenges require numerous interfaces with state and federal environmental officials, Tribal Nations, stakeholders, Congress, and the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ). The cleanup of the Site's tank waste is a national issue with the potential for environmental and economic impacts to the region and the nation.
Date: March 7, 2001
Creator: NAVARRO, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with antarctic muon and neutrino detector array

Description: The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 10{sup 6} times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 x 10{sup 9} cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90 percent of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.
Date: May 7, 2002
Creator: Ahrens, J.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

Description: A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.
Date: May 7, 2003
Creator: Cadwallader, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

Description: This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.
Date: January 7, 2001
Creator: Bukur, Dr. Dragomir B.; Hanssen, Dr. Ketil; Klinghoffer, Alec; Nowicki, Dr. Lech; O'Dowd, Patricia; Pham, Dr. Hien et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Zeolite Transferred from Tank 19F to Tank 18F on DWPF Vitrification of Sludge Batch 3

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to initiate vitrification of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) in combination with Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) in the spring of 2004. The contents of Sludge Batch 3 will be a mixture of the heel remaining from Sludge Batch 1B, sludge from Tank 7F (containing coal, sand, and sodium oxalate), and sludge materials from Tank 18F. The sludge materials in Tank 18F contain part of a mound of zeolitic material transferred there from Tank 19F. This mound was physically broken up and transfers were made from Tank 19F to Tank 18F for vitrification into SB3. In addition, excess Pu and Am/Cm materials were transferred to Tank 51H to be processed through the DWPF as part of SB3. Additional Pu material and a Np stream from the Canyons are also planned to be added to SB3 before processing of this batch commences at DWPF. The primary objective of this task was to assess the impacts of the excess zeolite mound material in Tank 19F on the predicted glass and processing properties of interest when the zeolite becomes part of SB3. The two potential impacts of the Tank 19F zeolite mound on DWPF processing relates to (1) the samples taken for determination of the acceptability of a macrobatch of DWPF feed and (2) the achievable waste loading. The potential effects of the large size of the zeolite particles found in the Tank 19F solids, as reported in this study, are considered minimal for processing of SB3 in DWPF. Other findings about the zeolite conversion mechanism via a process of Ostwald ripening are discussed in the text and in the conclusions.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Jantzen, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Web document clustering using hyperlink structures

Description: With the exponential growth of information on the World Wide Web there is great demand for developing efficient and effective methods for organizing and retrieving the information available. Document clustering plays an important role in information retrieval and taxonomy management for the World Wide Web and remains an interesting and challenging problem in the field of web computing. In this paper we consider document clustering methods exploring textual information hyperlink structure and co-citation relations. In particular we apply the normalized cut clustering method developed in computer vision to the task of hyperdocument clustering. We also explore some theoretical connections of the normalized-cut method to K-means method. We then experiment with normalized-cut method in the context of clustering query result sets for web search engines.
Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: He, Xiaofeng; Zha, Hongyuan; Ding, Chris H.Q & Simon, Horst D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for Grant DE-FG02-84ER45131

Description: This Final Report surveys the work done on understanding the properties and behavior of driven interfaces. It is presented under two topics: (1) interfaces driven in pure and perturbed Hele-Shaw cells; (2) gels, colloids, and polymer solutions as complex media for interface growth and motion. This work has contributed to the international effort to learn about nonlinear and pattern forming systems. The data have been influential as theoretical and computational groups have attempted to understand the dynamics and nonlinear processing steps and the structure-property relations of complex materials. The Hele-Shaw cell was especially productive during this period of intense interest in ''simple'' nonlinear pattern formation, providing the simplest and best understood pattern forming system which could then be complicated with changes of boundary condition or changes of fluid property to test in a controlled way the effect on pattern formation of added physical/mathematical complexity.
Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Maher, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Basis Document Review for Waste Feed Delivery from Single Shell Tanks (SST)

Description: This report provides the results of a review conducted on existing operating specifications and safety requirements and provides a summary of applicable design constraints on the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The SST System is required to transition from the current waste storage mission to support the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) waste retrieval mission described in the Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). The SST System is also required to support the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) portions of the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. In Phase 1 the SST System will be required to retrieve waste from selected SSTs (tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-104) for transfer to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (tanks 241-AZ-101,241-AY-102). The SST System will include all the systems, structures and components required to safely store, retrieve, and transfer waste in support of the TWRS mission. Operational Specification Documents (OSDs) govern operation of the existing SST System components. However, the system will be highly modified to support the TWRS mission. Therefore OSD requirements may not apply to the new system's design. This document describes the review of existing SST OSDs and provides the rationale for selecting or rejecting requirements as constraints on the SST System design. The selected requirements (or design constraints) will be included in System Specification for the Single-Shell Tank System, HNF-3912(Conrads 1999).
Date: October 7, 1999
Creator: SMITH, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time Evolution of Beam in the Recycler Ring

Description: We study the time evolution of the beam current in the Fermilab Recycler Ring due to abrupt physical processes (single coulomb scattering, nuclear scattering) that cause sudden loss of beam, and diffusive processes (multiple coulomb scattering, lattice dependence, etc.) which cause emittance growth. This emittance growth combined with finite aperture of the beam pipe will lead to eventual loss of most beam. We develop a fitting technique to the time evolution of beam current to estimate emittance growth. Finally we compare the directly measured growth with the fitted value.
Date: May 7, 2003
Creator: Krish Gounder, John Marriner and Shekhar Mishra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department