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Even harmonic lasing

Description: Operation of a free-electron laser at harmonics of the fundamental frequency is explored with the numerical simulation code HELEX. This code includes coupling to the harmonics caused by misalignment of the electrons with the optical beam and coupling due to transverse gradients. Albeit weak, the transverse gradients produce the dominant coupling of the electrons to the even-harmonic light. Even-harmonic lasing occurs in a TEM{sub 0,2m+1}-like mode where the field on axis is zero. As bunching of the electron beam progresses, radiation at the higher odd harmonics is suppressed owing to the absence of higher-order odd-harmonic Fourier components in the bunch. Growth of the even-harmonic power from small signal requires suppression of competing harmonics (including the fundamental) that have higher gain. Lasing at an even harmonic has yet to be experimentally demonstrated in an open resonator (i.e. optical cavity). Strategies to make such an experiment possible are discussed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Schmitt, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High gain free electron laser at ETA

Description: A single pass, tapered electron wiggler and associated beam transport has been constructed at the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system is designed to transport 1 kA of 4.5 MeV electrons with an emittance of 30 millirad-cm. The planar wiggler is provided by a pulsed electromagnet. The interaction region is an oversized rectangular waveguide. Quadrupole fields stabilize the beam in the plane parallel to the wiggler field. The 3 meter long wiggler has a 9.8 cm period. The Free Electron Laser (FEL) will serve as an amplifier for input frequencies of 35 GHz and 140 GHz. The facility is designed to produce better than 500 Megawatts peak power.
Date: February 9, 1983
Creator: Orzechowski, T.J.; Prosnitz, D.; Halbach, K.; Kuenning, R.; Paul, A.; Hopkins, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free electron laser with small period wiggler and sheet electron beam: A study of the feasibility of operation at 300 GHz with 1 MW CW output power

Description: The use of a small period wiggler (/ell//sub ..omega../ < 1 cm) together with a sheet electron beam has been proposed as a low cost source of power for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion plasmas. Other potential applications include space-based radar systems. We have experimentally demonstrated stable propagation of a sheet beam (18 A. 1 mm /times/ 20 mm) through a ten-period wiggler electromagnet with peak field of 1.2 kG. Calculation of microwave wall heating and pressurized water cooling have also been carried out, and indicate the feasibility of operating a near-millimeter, sheet beam FEL with an output power of 1 MW CW (corresponding to power density into the walls of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/). Based on these encouraging results, a proof-of-principle experiment is being assembled, and is aimed at demonstrating FEL operating at 120 GHz with 300 kW output power in 1 ..mu..s pulses: electron energy would be 410 keV. Preliminary design of a 300 GHz 1 MW FEL with an untapered wiggler is also presented. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Finn, J.; Latham, P.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory free electron laser (FEL)

Description: A description of the FEL experiment underway at the 10 kA, 5 MeV Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) is described. The facility has been designed to investigate the high-gain operation of an FEL.
Date: September 19, 1983
Creator: Orzechowski, T.J.; Moebus, M.C.; Penko, F.A.; Prosnitz, D.; Rogers, D.; Chavis, C.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

Description: This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R. & Nordquist, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The art and science of magnet design: A Festschrift in honor of Klaus Halbach. Volume 1

Description: This is a collection of technical papers and personal remembrances written expressly for the Halbach Symposium and dedicated to Klaus Halbach. The topics presented offer a hint of the diversity of Klaus`s scientific career. Most of the papers deal with magnets for accelerators and accelerator facilities. Other topics covered are free electron lasers, Halbach array motor/generators, radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a dewar multilayer insulation system, and surface structural determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Cross, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Annual report to the Department of Energy, December 1997

Description: New ideas and opportunities fostering the advancement of technology are occurring at an ever increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and develops new fundable R and D projects and programs if BNL is to carry out its primary mission and support the basic Department of Energy activities. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence and a means to address national needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals and presentations at meetings and forums.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Ogeka, G.J. & Searing, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Staged energy cascades for the LUX FEL

Description: Designs and simulation studies for harmonic cascades, consisting of multiple stages of harmonic generation in free electron lasers (FELs), are presented as part of the LUX R&amp;D project to design ultrafast, high photon energy light sources for basic science. Beam energies of 1.1, 2.1, and 3.1 GeV, corresponding to each pass through a recirculating linac, have independent designs for the harmonic cascade. Simulations were performed using the GENESIS FEL code, to obtain predictions for the performance of these cascades over a wide range of photon energies in terms of the peak power and laser profile. The output laser beam consists of photon energies of up to 1 keV, with durations of the order of 200 fs or shorter. The contribution of shot noise to the laser output is minimal, however fluctuations in the laser and electron beam properties can lead to variations in the FEL output. The sensitivity of the cascade to electron beam properties and misalignments is studied, taking advantage of the fact that GENESIS is a fully 3-dimensional code.
Date: July 27, 2004
Creator: Penn, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotron radiation from electron beams in plasma focusing channels

Description: Spontaneous radiation emitted from relativistic electrons undergoing betatron motion in a plasma focusing channel is analyzed and application to plasma wakefield accelerator experiments and to the ion channel laser (ICL) are discussed. Important similarities and differences between a free electron laser (FEL) and an ICL are delineated. It is shown that the frequency of spontaneous radiation is a strong function of the betatron strength parameter alpha-beta, which plays a similar role to that of the wiggler strength parameter in a conventional FEL. For alpha-beta > 1, radiation is emitted in numerous harmonics. Furthermore, alpha-beta is proportional to the amplitude of the betatron orbit, which varies for every electron in the beam. The radiation spectrum emitted from an electron beam is calculated by averaging the single electron spectrum over the electron distribution. This leads to a frequency broadening of the radiation spectrum, which places serious limits on the possibility of realizing an ICL.
Date: December 6, 2001
Creator: Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Catravas, P. & Leemans, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration of electrons using an inverse free electron laser auto- accelerator

Description: We present data from our study of a device known as the inverse free electron laser. First, numerical simulations were performed to optimize the design parameters for an experiment that accelerates electrons in the presence of an undulator by stimulated absorption of radiation. The Columbia free electron laser (FEL) was configured as an auto-accelerator (IFELA) system; high power (MW's) FEL radiation at {approximately}1.65 mm is developed along the first section of an undulator inside a quasi-optical resonator. The electron beam then traverses a second section of undulator where a fraction of the electrons is accelerated by stimulated absorption of the 1.65 mm wavelength power developed in the first undulator section. The second undulator section has very low gain and does not generate power on its own. We have found that as much as 60% of the power generated in the first section can be absorbed in the second section, providing that the initial electron energy is chosen correctly with respect to the parameters chosen for the first and second undulators. An electron momentum spectrometer is used to monitor the distribution of electron energies as the electrons exit the IFELA. We have found; using our experimental parameters, that roughly 10% of the electrons are accelerated to energies as high as 1100 keV, in accordance with predictions from the numerical model. The appearance of high energy electrons is correlated with the abrupt absorption of millimeter power. The autoaccelerator configuration is used because there is no intense source of coherent power at the 1.65 mm design wavelength other than the FEL.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Wernick, I.K. & Marshall, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and theoretical investigation of high gradient acceleration

Description: This report contains a technical progress summary of the research conducted under the auspices of DOE Grant No. DE-FG0291ER-40648. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of High Gradient Acceleration.'' This grant supports three research tasks: Task A consists of the design and fabrication of a 17GHz of photocathode gun, Task B supports the testing of high gradient acceleration using a 33GHz structure, and Task C comprises theoretical investigations, both in support of the experimental tasks and on critical physics issues for the development of high energy linear colliders. This report is organized as follows. The development of an rf gun design and research progress on the picosecond laser system is summarized in Sec. 2, the status of the studies of the LBL/Haimson high gradient structure, using a 50 MW free-electron laser is summarized in Sec. 3, and theoretical research progress is described in Sec. 4. Supporting material is contained in Appendices A-G.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Bekefi, G.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.; Danly, B.; Temkin, R.J. & Wurtele, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial electron distributions for free-electron lasers generated by injector and accelerator simulations

Description: Early free-electron laser (FEL) development was guided by simple performance criteria based on the number of undulator periods, electron beam quality, and current. The beam quality (emittance and energy spread) was used to characterize the initial distribution of axial electron velocities along the undulator axis. While the emittance and energy spread determine the overall width of the distribution, its detailed shape is also important. As new accelerators are designed specifically for FEL applications, it becomes important to obtain distribution shape information from simulations that include the electron gun, accelerator, and beam transport in addition to the usual electron/optical interaction in the undulator. The distribution at the entrance to the undulator can be calculated from numerical simulations of the cathode emission, acceleration, and transport of an electron beam. We have modeled the beam generation, from cathode emission up to the energy of the accelerator injector, using an axisymmetric, cylindrical geometry particle simulation (DPC). This code solves the relativistic force equation with fields obtained from Maxwell's equations in the Darwin model. The DPC calculation is run repeatedly varying parameters such as accelerating stress, electrode configuration, and axial magnetic field profile until a good match is obtained for the accelerator. The beam exiting from the injector can be accelerated and transported using the transfer matrix technique with a simple model for accelerating gaps and magnets. Alternatively, acceleration and transport can be simulated with a particle code that solves for the axisymmetric evolution of a slice of an electron beam including possible emittance growth. The phase space obtained from the accelerator can be evaluated for performance using either the simple FEL integral equation method or the more complete FRED simulation code. 9 refs., 5 figs.
Date: September 16, 1987
Creator: Boyd, J.K.; Colson, W.B. & Scharlemann, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

Description: This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Davidson, R.C. & Wurtele, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed uv-FEL user facility at BNL

Description: The NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposing the construction of a UV-FEL operating in the wavelength range from visible to 750{Angstrom}. Nano-Coulomb electron pulses will be generated at a laser photo-cathode RF gun at a repetition rate of 10 KHz. The 6 ps pulses will be accelerated to 250 MeV in a superconducting linac. The FEL output will serve four stations with independent wavelength tuning, using two wigglers and two rotating mirror beam switches. Seed radiation for the FEL amplifiers will be provided by conventional tunable lasers, and the final frequency multiplication from the visible or near UV to the VUV will be carried out in the FEL itself. Each FEL will comprise of an initial wiggler resonant to the seed wavelength, a dispersion section, and a second wiggler resonant to the output wavelength. The facility will provide pump probe capability, FEL or FEL, and FEL on synchrotron light from an insersion device on the NSLS X-Ray ring. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Ben-Zvi, I.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Krinsky, S.; White, M.G.; Yu, L.H.; Batchelor, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

Description: Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I. & Gallardo, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feed forward rf control system of the accelerator test facility

Description: We report a scheme to control the amplitude and phase of the rf accelerating field in a klystron driven electron linac. The amplitude and phase distribution within the rf pulse can be controlled to follow specified functions to reduce the energy spread of the electron beam being accelerated. The scheme employs fast beam energy and phase detectors and voltage-controlled electronic attenuator and phase shifter in the amplifier chain. The control voltages of these devices are generated by arbitrary function generators. The function generators' outputs are calculated numerically using an algorithm which takes into consideration the desired target function and the deviation (due to load variations or system parameter drift) from the target function. Results of preliminary tests on producing flat rf power and phase pulses from a high power klystron indicate that amplitude variation of {plus minus}0.2% and phase variation of {plus minus}1{degree} can be readily achieved. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Ben-Zvi, I.; Xie, Jialin & Zhang, Renshan.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

Description: The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M. & Yu, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the visible Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

Description: The 500 nm Free-Electron Laser (ATF) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. We present an overview of the ATF, a high-brightness, 50-MeV, electron accelerator and laser complex which is a users' facility for accelerator and beam physics. A number of laser acceleration and FEL experiments are under construction at the ATF. The visible FEL experiment is based on a novel superferric 8.8 mm period undulator. The electron beam parameters, the undulator, the optical resonator, optical and electron beam diagnostics are discussed. The operational status of the experiment is presented. 22 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fisher, A.S.; Friedman, A.; Gallardo, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

Description: The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high gradient acceleration and state of the art free electron lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 to 100 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps Nd:YAG laser and a 100 mJ, 10 ps CO{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high brightness electron beams. The AFT's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the High power laser will begin operation this year. 28 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wiggler, undulator, and free-electron laser-radiation sources development at the National Synchrotron Light Source

Description: An overview is presented of the special radiation sources development at the NSLS for incorporation in a 2.5 GeV X-ray storage ring and a 700 MeV vuv storage ring. This includes a superconducting high field multipole wiggler, lambda/sub c/ = 0.5A; a permanent magnet wiggler, lambda/sub c/ = 2.0A; a maximum photon energy undulator (5 to 7 keV); an undulator for a soft X-ray line or continuum spectrum and a free electron laser source tunable in the 2500 to 4500A region. Source characteristics and status of development are given. In addition, the incorporation of a backscattered Compton photon source is being studied and relevant parameters are presented.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Hsieh, H.; Krinsky, S.; Luccio, A.; Pellegrini, C. & van Steenbergen, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimates of SASE power in the short wavelength region

Description: Given a sufficiently bright electron beam, the self-amplified-spontaneous emission (SASE) can provide gigawatts of short wavelength coherent radiation. The advantages of SASE approach are that is requires neither optical cavity nor an imput seed laser. In this note, we estimate the peak power performance of SASE for wavelengths shorter than 1000 {Angstrom}. At each wavelength, we calculate the saturated power from a uniform parameter undulator and the enhanced power from a tapered undulator. The method described here is an adaptation of that discussed by L.H. Yu, who discussed the harmonic generation scheme with seeded laser, to the case of SASE.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Kim, Kwang-Je.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEL gain taking into account diffraction and electron beam emittance; generalized Madey's theorem

Description: We derive a formula for the free electron laser gain in the small-signal, low-grain regime which resembles closely the 1-D formula but taking into account the effect of wave diffraction and electron beam divergence and betatron motion. The formula is cast in a form which exhibits clearly the role of the transverse phase space distribution of photons and electrons. 8 refs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Kim, Kwang-Je.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-electron laser generation of VUV and x-ray radiation using a conditioned beam and ion-channel focusing

Description: The use of ion-focusing and a conditioned beam greatly enhances FEL gain in the VUV and Soft X-Ray range. The equations governing FEL amplification are derived and results of a linear analysis are noted. Numerical results, including 3D effects and having an order of magnitude improvement in gain, are presented for a 30 {Angstrom} example. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: August 30, 1991
Creator: Yu, Li-Hua (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Sessler, A. & Whittum, D.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department