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New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

Description: Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.
Date: September 3, 1981
Creator: Arnold, E.C. & Hill, J.M. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act, PL 95-620: legislative history, 1978

Description: Hearings continued on H.R. 6831, the President's proposed National Energy Act. Witnesses aired views on the impacts that industries would experience on converting boilers to coal. The final hearing of the three-week session was held on June 1, 1977. The June 1 session took a step back from the details of the many components of the President's plan and took a broad and longer term view of the plan as a whole. The hearings elicited substantial criticism of the many costs and burdens that would accompany the President's program. This is largely because the costs of conservation and conversion to coal precede the benefits by several years. A summary of the National Energy Plan is presented. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

Description: A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Reister, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US energy conversion and use characteristics

Description: The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A. & Ashton, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

Description: This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Glass, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

Description: The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Yamaguchi, N.D. & Keevill, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization and/or regeneration of spent sorbents from coal gasification

Description: The objective of this investigation is to determine the effects of SO{sub 2} partial pressure and reaction temperature on the conversion of sulfide containing solid wastes from coal gasifiers to stable and environmentally acceptable calcium-sulfate, while preventing the release of sulfur dioxide through undesirable side reactions during the stabilization step. An additional objective of this program is to investigate the use of the Spent Sorbent Regeneration Process (SSRP) to regenerate spent limestone, from a fluidized-bed gasifier with in-bed sulfur capture, for recycling to the gasifier. To achieve these objectives, selected samples of partially sulfided sorbents will be reacted with oxygen at a variety of operating conditions under sufficient SO{sub 2} partial pressure to prevent release of sulfur from the solids during stabilization that reduces the overall sorbent utilization. Partially sulfided limestone will also be regenerated with water to produce calcium hydroxide and release sulfur as H{sub 2}S. The regenerated sorbent will be dewatered, dried and pelletized. The reactivity of the regenerated sorbent toward H{sub 2}S will also be determined. During this quarter sulfidation tests were conducted in a quartz fluidized-bed reactor in which the selected calcium-based sorbents were first calcined and then were reacted with hydrogen sulfide at ambient pressure and 1650{degree}F. These tests were conducted with each sorbent in two particle sizes. Chemical analyses of the partially sulfided sorbents indicate that the extent of sulfidation was in the range of 40--50%. The partially sulfided material will be reacted with oxygen to determine the effects of temperature and SO{sub 2} partial pressure on the stabilization of the calcium sulfide in solid waste materials. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Abbasian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

Description: Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F. & Nagy, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy availabilities for state and local development: 1974 data volume

Description: This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1973. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L. & Pai, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy availabilities for state and local development: 1973 data volume

Description: This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1974. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L. & Pai, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forecast of transportation energy demand through the year 2010

Description: Since 1979, the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has produced baseline projections of US transportation activity and energy demand. These projections and the methodologies used to compute them are documented in a series of reports and research papers. As the lastest in this series of projections, this report documents the assumptions, methodologies, and results of the most recent projection -- termed ANL-90N -- and compares those results with other forecasts from the current literature, as well as with the selection of earlier Argonne forecasts. This current forecast may be used as a baseline against which to analyze trends and evaluate existing and proposed energy conservation programs and as an illustration of how the Transportation Energy and Emission Modeling System (TEEMS) works. (TEEMS links disaggregate models to produce an aggregate forecast of transportation activity, energy use, and emissions). This report and the projections it contains were developed for the US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The projections are not completely comprehensive. Time and modeling effort have been focused on the major energy consumers -- automobiles, trucks, commercial aircraft, rail and waterborne freight carriers, and pipelines. Because buses, rail passengers services, and general aviation consume relatively little energy, they are projected in the aggregate, as other'' modes, and used primarily as scaling factors. These projections are also limited to direct energy consumption. Projections of indirect energy consumption, such as energy consumed in vehicle and equipment manufacturing, infrastructure, fuel refining, etc., were judged outside the scope of this effort. The document is organized into two complementary sections -- one discussing passenger transportation modes, and the other discussing freight transportation modes. 99 refs., 10 figs., 43 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Mintz, M.M. & Vyas, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

Description: Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

Description: The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel cells for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications

Description: The fuel cell is a nineteenth century invention and a twentieth century technology development. Due to the high power and energy density, high efficiency, reliability, and production of pure water, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems have no competition as auxiliary power sources for space vehicles. The alkaline fuel cell system is a well developed and proven technology for this application. The solid polymer electrolyte system may be its future competitor. The energy crisis of 1973 stimulated research, development and demonstration of the phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems using natural gas, petroleum or coal derived hydrogen (and carbon monoxide for the high temperature systems) for terrestrial applications. The direct methanol-air fuel cell is still an electrochemist's dream. Though considerable technological advances have been made, the present price of crude oil, and the high capital costs and limited lifetime of fuel cell systems impede their terrestrial applications in the developed countries. Conversely, the potential for lower capital costs of labor intensive manufacturing processes and the relatively higher fossil fuel prices make these systems more attractive for such applications in the developing countries. 11 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Srinivasan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Retorting of Colorado Oil Shale: Topical Report.

Description: In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.
Date: June 1987
Creator: Albulescu, P. & Mazzella, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation. Final report, May 19, 1981-July 19, 1983

Description: Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated under this contract: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were sreened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980/sup 0/F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Using Shortite we were able to achieve the program goal of less than 1 ppmV chlorides at 800 K. Shortite is an abundant mineral with no competing commercial demand, so it should provide an economical chloride cleanup sorbent. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon freee region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO/sub 2/ addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward. Addition of steam or CO/sub 2/ must be minimized to attain the highest possible MCFC efficiency. 28 references, 31 figures, 22 tables.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G. & Simons, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

Description: This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.
Date: March 31, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

Description: This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.
Date: December 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral revenues: the 1983 report on receipts from Federal and Indian leases with summary data from 1920 to 1983

Description: Tables and figures abound for: mineral revenue management in 1983; offshore federal mineral revenues; onshore federal mineral revenues; Indian mineral revenues; distribution of federal and Indian mineral revenues; plus appended lease management data. (PSB)
Date: January 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

Description: The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US energy flow, 1981

Description: Flow diagrams to describe the US energy situation have been prepared since 1972 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1981 the energy consumption was 73 quads (or 73 x 10/sup 15/ Btu) - down from 75 quads in 1980. Oil continues to dominate the picture as it comprises 45% of the total energy used. Net oil use (exclusive of oil purchased for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and exports) fell 8%; oil imports declined 14%. In contrast to oil, use of natural gas and coal remained at 1980 levels. Decreased use of residual oils, principally for electric power generation, account for much of the drop in oil use. Increased use of coal and nuclear energy for power generation almost compensated for the decrease in use of oil in that end-use. Transmitted power remained at 1980 levels. The remainder of the drop in energy usage is attributed to price-driven conservation, increased efficiencies in end-use and the recession that prevailed during most of the year. The share of the energy drop attributable to the recession is estimated by various analysts to be on the order of 40 to 50%. The fact that for a given dollar of US GNP, oil consumption has declined faster than overall energy consumption attests to the role factors other than the economic slow-down have had on decreased energy consumption. Gasoline consumption remained at 1980 levels and the total transportation end-use sector increased its energy consumption by a modest 3%.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Briggs, C.K. & Borg, I.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future demand for electricity in the Nassau--Suffolk region

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory established a new technology for load forecasting for the Long Island Lighting Company and prepared an independent forecast of the demand for electricity in the LILCO area. The method includes: demand for electricity placed in a total energy perspective so that substitutions between electricity and other fuels can be examined; assessment of the impact of conservation, new technology, gas curtailment, and other factors upon demand for electricity; and construction of the probability distribution of the demand for electricity. A detailed analysis of changing levels of demand for electricity, and other fuels, associated with these new developments is founded upon a disaggregated end-use characterization of energy utilization, including space heat, lighting, process energy, etc., coupled to basic driving forces for future demand, namely: population, housing mix, and economic growth in the region. The range of future events covers conservation, heat pumps, solar systems, storage resistance heaters, electric vehicles, extension of electrified rail, total energy systems, and gas curtailment. Based upon cost and other elements of the competition between technologies, BNL assessed the likelihood of these future developments. An optimistic view toward conservation leads to ''low'' demand for electricity, whereas rapid development of new technologies suggests ''high'' demand. (MCW)
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Carroll, T.W.; Palmedo, P.F. & Stern, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

Description: The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include ...
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K. & Dittmer, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2 of 5 Vols. Annex 1

Description: Detailed summaries are presented of Egypt's indigenous energy resources from the U.S. Geological Survey assessments; preliminary information collected early in 1977 from files, reports, and publications existing in the U.S.; and data gathered during one-month assessment program in March--April 1978. Detailed reports are given on oil and gas, coal and oil shale, uranium and thorium, geothermal energy, water resources, and energy-related minerals/commodities. An assessment of cement-making materials, iron ore, manganese, aluminium, barite, bentonite, copper, chromium, nickel, titanium, and miscellaneous metals used in steel making is presented.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department