1,178 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

Description: Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume III. Gas blends leakage tests of selected distribution system components. Final report, June 1, 1976--April 30, 1978

Description: This report describes tests made using various types of joints and materials commonly installed in gas-distribution systems to determine the gas-leakage behavior when blends of hydrogen and natural gas are distributed. Twenty sample test joints, consisting of eleven cast-iron cement and jute joints, five steel joints, and four plastic joints, were tested using straight natural gas, varying blends of hydrogen with natural gas, and varying humidity levels of the gas mixture. In the case of the steel joints, the pressure level was also varied but the gas mixture was not humidified. Test results show: (1) cast-iron joints and steel joints that did not leak with natural gas did not leak with blends of up to 40% hydrogen in natural gas; (2) cast-iron joints and steel joints that had small leaks with natural gas did not leak at a higher rate with blends of up to 40% hydroge in natural gas; (3) cast-iron joints that had large leaks with natural gas showed a detectable increase in leakage as the hydrogen level in the gas blend increased; (4) efforts to determine if the permeability of polyethylene tubing increases with increasing concentrations of hydroge in natural gas, and with aging of the plastic, were inconclusive; and (5) there was no preferential leakage of hydrogen in any of the joints tested using blends with up to 40% hydrogen in natural gas.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

Description: A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

Description: The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.
Date: September 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

Description: The acquisition, completion, and testing of a geopressured-geothermal well are described. The following are covered: geology; petrophysics; re-entry and completion operations - test well; drilling and completion operations - disposal well; test objectives; surface testing facilities; pre-test operations; test sequence; test results and analysis; and return of wells and location to operator. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phosphoric acid fuel cell stack and system development. Technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1978

Description: Primary emphasis during the period was on stack component development - Take I. In the fuel processing sub-system area - Task II - effort was devoted to thermodynamic analysis of the steam-reforming process and preliminary system studies directed toward fuel selection. The bipolar plate development effort has emphasized a non-grooved, multi-element configuration. Properties tests for both the porous element and the impermeable element indicate that viable materials are now on hand. The matrix program has substantially shifted from membrane-type to laminate-type configurations because of lower cell IR-losses and apparent superiority in high-temperature tolerance. Electrodes utilizing 30% Pt on carbon catalysts at a nominal loading of 1.4 mg Pt/cm/sup 2/ have been evaluated. Recently, emphasis has been shifted to 10% Pt on carbon catalysts at a nominal loading of 0.46 mg Pt/cm/sup 2/. Thermodynamic equilibria have been determined for steam-reformer exit conditions over wide ranges of temperature and H/sub 2/O/C ratio. This has been completed for three candidate fuels: natural gas (methane), naphtha, and methanol. (WHK)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act annual report

Description: This annual report was prepared for the Congress by the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the Acting Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as required by Section 806 of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), Public Law 95-620, enacted November 9, 1978. This annual report describes actions taken under the legislation, which was enacted to promote national energy self-sufficiency and encourage the use of the alternate energy resources in electric powerplants and major industrial fuel-burning installations (MFBI's) in the utility, industrial and Federal governmental sectors. Annual FUA implementation activities are discussed and legislative requirements are satisfied that the annual report discuss: actions taken under FUA and under Section 2 of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (ESECA) Public Law 93-319 during the preceding calendar year; and the effectiveness of the provisions of both laws in achieving their purposes.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

Description: The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Pulle, C.V. & Seskus, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy availabilities for state and local development: projected energy patterns for 1980 and 1985

Description: This report presents projections of the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types and four final consuming sectors for BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation for 1980 and 1985. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction, as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The objective of the program is to provide a consistent base of historic and projected energy information within a standard format. Such a framework should aid regional policymakers in their consideration of regional growth issues that may be influenced by the regional energy system. This basic data must be supplemented by region-specific information which only the local policy analyst can bring to bear in his assessment of the energy conditions which characterize each region. The energy data, coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment patterns, can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L. & Pai, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-term potential of wood as a fuel

Description: A summary of near-term conversion technologies, which could be used to expand utilization of wood residues and standing forests, is presented. The forest products industry is identified as a principal candidate for expanded wood-fuel use. Sources of wood-fuel are identified and conversion technologies and costs are discussed. Possible near-term incentives to encourage the use of wood as a fuel are examined. These incentives include a retirement tax credit and an investment tax credit. Suppliers of commercial wood conversion systems are identified.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Salo, D.; Gsellman, L.; Medville, D. & Price, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyzed gasification of biomass

Description: Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is directed at controlling the gasification reaction through the use of specific catalytic agents to produce desired products including synthetic natural gas, ammonia synthesis gas (H/sub 2//N/sub 2/), hydrogen, or syn gas (H/sub 2//CO). Such gaseous products are currently produced in tonnage quantities from non-renewable carbonaceous resources, e.g., natural gas and petroleum. The production of high yields of these specified gases from biomass is accomplished through optimization of gasification conditions and proper choice of catalytic agents. For instance, high yields of synthetic natural gas can be attained through gasification with steam in the presence of gasification catalyst such as trona (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ . NaHCO/sub 3/ . 2H/sub 2/O) and a nickel methanation catalyst. The gasification catalyst enhances the steam-biomass reaction while the methanation catalyst converts gaseous intermediates from this reaction to methane, the most thermodynamically stable hydrocarbon product. This direct conversion to synthetic natural gas represents a significant advancement in the classical approach of producing synthetic natural gas from carbonaceous substrates through several unit operations. A status report, which includes experimental data and results of the program is presented.
Date: June 16, 1978
Creator: Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Mitchell, D. H. & Cox, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the results of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

Description: The research program analyzed the Federal incentives used to stimulate nuclear, hydro, coal, gas, oil, and electricity production in order to supply what was learned to the selection of an incentives strategy to induce new energy production from renewable resources. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 examines the problem of estimating effects from a theoretical perspective. Methods of quantifying and identifying the many interactive effects of government actions are discussed. Chapter 3 presents a generic analysis of the result of Federal incentives. Chapters 4 through 9 deal with incentives to energy forms - nuclear, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and electricity. Chapter 10 summarizes the estimated results of the incentives, which are presented in terms of their quantity and price impacts. The incentive costs per million Btu of induced energy production is also discussed. Chapter 11 discusses the parity issue, that is an equivalence between Federal incentives to renewable resources and to traditional energy resources. Any analysis of incentives for solar needs will profit from an analysis of the costs of solar incentives per million Btu compared with those for traditional energy forms. Chapter 12 concludes the analysis, discussing the history of traditional energy incentives as a guide to solar-energy incentives. 216 references, 38 figures, 91 tables.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C. & Fassbender, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-powered irrigation systems study: technical summary report. Volume II. Agricultural energy and fuel price projections for Arizona, California, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas

Description: This study is part of a larger research effort to project U.S. energy demand and energy prices by state from 1985 to 2015; these projections will be used to assess the potential penetration into the U.S. energy economy by specific solar systems. The detailed agricultural energy price forecasts for the 1985-2015 period used by The Aerospace Corporation to assess the market potential of solar-powered irrigation system is presented. Energy price forecasts in constant 1977 dollars are presented by aggregated county regions in the six states for four major sources of energy used in pumping of irrigation water: liquid petroleum gas (LPG), diesel fuel, natural gas, and electricity. (WHK)
Date: May 31, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

Description: The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N. & Fassel, V.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems]

Description: This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Komar, C.A. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in the tail gases from coal gasification facilities

Description: A study was made of the economics of various alternative methods of controlling emissions of CO and nonmethane hydrocarbons in the tail gases from a Lurgi substitute natural gas plant. Control of sulfur emissions was excluded from the scope of the study. Processes examined for decontaminating the tail gases included recovery and recycle methods as well as those that convert the contaminants to harmless products. The most recently proposed EPA emission standards for CO and non-methane hydrocarbons were used as upper limits for the residual contaminants in the treated effluent. Limited assessments of the technical and economic feasibility of ten processes were made. Of the processes studied, the two most promising were found to be incineration in a coal-fired boiler and catalytic incineration. Neither of these methods has been employed commercially under the projected operating conditions, although both are employed in other industries to carry out the basic reactions involved. Total capital and operating costs on a 20-year discounted cash-flow basis with 100 percent equity financing and 12 percent annual after-tax return on investment were estimated to be 4 cents per 10/sup 6/ Btu of SNG for the coal-fired boiler and 5 cents per 10/sup 6/ Btu for the catalytic case. However, the uncertainties in the costs were greater than the indicated cost differentials. The cost of incineration in a gas-fired boiler using sulfur-free medium-Btu gas was estimated to be 11 cents per 10/sup 6/ Btu of SNG. All other routes examined were several times more expensive than these three methods. As a result of the economic study presented, experimental studies on catalyst-aided incineration of typical tail gases will be initiated. Moreover, an industrial assessment of the impact and consequences of high tail-gas flow on the operating characteristics and design of a commercial boiler will be pursued.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Fisher, J.F. & Peterson, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemical evaluation of the eastern gas shales. Part I

Description: Work devoted to assessment of Eastern gas shales is reported. It is noted that although the Late Devonian-age dark shales of the Eastern Interior Basins are thought to be uniformly gassy, organic geochemical studies in the Appalachian and Illinois Basins show that the gas is not uniformly distributed and that most of the gas is probably sourced and largely retained in thin, organic-rich zones that were deposited in restricted marine environments. As the Devonian-age basins filled, the environments of deposition of the Appalachian Basin and Illinois Basin became nonmarine more and more northerly and northwestwardly, respectively. Heavy hydrocarbon-to-organic carbon ratios show that the organic matter associated with the restricted marine environments is different in the two basins. During virtually the entire period in question, the Appalachian Basin had a direct connection; the Illinois Basin was somewhat isolated by the already developing Cincinnati Arch on the east and the Kankakee or Wabash Arch on the north. However, the differences in organic matter noted in this study suggest a northwest connection of the Illinois Basin to a different ocean mass than that which supplied marine waters to the Appalachian Basin. As a fossil fuel resource, certain facies within the dark Devonian-age shale are much richer gas sources than others. The most prolific potential reservoirs (naturally occurring or induced) should be sought or located in the geologic section containing orcontiguous to the richest organic source intervals; i.e., rocks deposited in restricted marine environments. The amount of gas in rocks of each interval depends directly on the amount of detrital organic matter. Virtually all the gas as well as virtually all the liquid hydrocarbons are retained in the rock where they were generated.
Date: September 29, 1978
Creator: Mclver, R.D. & Zielinski, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies

Description: The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Keast, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended research on LNG safety

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Carpenter, H.J. & Gilmore, F.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

Description: The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Kuester, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential barriers to increased production of natural gas from unconventional sources. [Environmental, economic, legal/institutional, technological]

Description: For Western Sands, Eastern Shales and Coalbed Methane, application of environmental controls currently in use in gas field production should result in environmental effects being localized and temporary. Environmental concerns do not appear to represent significant barriers to commercial production of gas from these resources. The principal barrier to commercial production of gas from Western Gas Sands remains one of gas price. The barrier appears to be disappearing. Lack of adequate geological information for use in selecting potential drill sites appears to be the principal barrier to production of gas from Eastern Shales. The legal question of gas ownership and the conflicting interests of coal and gas producers seems to be the principal hurdle that must be overcome before significant quantities of Methane from Coalbeds will be utilized commercially. For Geopressured Aquifers, the environmental barriers of subsidence and disposal of produced brine water appear to be major constraints. These are expected to preclude significant production of gas from this resource in the near future. The resource with the largest near-term capability for commercialization appears to be Western Gas Sands. This resource is estimated to yield 1 to 2 Tcf/year by 1982. It is more difficult to estimate the probable contribution from the next two most likely resources; Methane from Coal and Eastern Gas Shales. These resources might be capable of yielding from .01 to 1 Tcf/year by the mid-1980's. Current engineering evidence seems to indicate that no significant quantities of gas will be produced from geopressured aquifers in the foreseeable future. Information from current tests now underway in Texas and Louisiana should permit better evaluation of the long-term viability of this resource.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Riedel, E.F.; Rotariu, G.A. & Goldberg, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projects to expand energy sources in the western states: an update of Information Circular 8719. [24 states west of the Mississippi River]

Description: This report is an expansion and update of BM-IC-8719 and comprises maps and tables listing the name, location, and other pertinent data concerning certain fuel-related projects. The maps show the locations of the planned or proposed facilities. The tables include information on projects involving the proposed or planned development of fuel resources, as well as the development of storage, transportation, and conversion facilities. The report covers the 24 states west of the Mississippi River including Alaska and Hawaii. Of the 808 projects for which information is provided, 219 concern coal mines, 246 concern electric generating plants, and 115 concern uranium mines; Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act coal conversion notices are also included. Because of the dynamic nature of the energy industry, many uncertainties exist and some of the listed projects may never become realities. Also, no attempt has been made to determine the degree of certainty or viability of each project.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Rich, C.H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality analysis of Phase I of the proposed oil backout legislation. [Lead abstract]

Description: This report presents an air quality analysis of Phase I of the President's proposed legislation to reduce the use of oil and natural gas in electric utility power plants by approximately 1 x 10/sup 6/ barrels of oil per day. The report analyzes changes in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions that would accompany the conversions. Local and regional impacts on ambient sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations are examined. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of certain control options and the effectiveness of converting the specified plants in reducing oil consumption without excessive environmental or cost impacts are discussed. Separate abstracts are prepared for the 6 chapters.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Streets, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Stinton, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department