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Mistrust Level and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Description: This study explored the relationship between cultural mistrust level and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It was hypothesized that Blacks with high levels of cultural mistrust, when compared to those with low levels, would show less favorable attitudes toward seeking formal help for psychological problems. Black students were administered the Cultural Mistrust Inventory, Help-Seeking Attitude Scale, Reid-Gundlach Social Service Satisfaction Scale, and Opinions About Mental Illness Scale. Using a 2 (gender) X 2 (mistrust level) MANCOVA, a main effect for the factor of mistrust level was found along with a mistrust level by gender interaction. Students with higher levels of cultural mistrust were found to hold less favorable attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help when compared to students with lower levels of cultural mistrust.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Nickerson, Kim J. (Kim Jung)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereotypes and Hiring Preferences Among Business Students as a Function of Psychologist's Attire

Description: To study what stereotypes exist regarding psychologists by the general public and determine whether and how this affects hiring preferences, 114 undergraduate business and non-business students at a large southwestern university were asked to participate. The Gough Adjective Check List was administered to determine what stereotypes are held by persons regarding psychologists. A study of visual perception/stereotype and hiring preference as a function of attire was also conducted. Three dress styles were used as stimuli. It was hypothesized that the groups would differ in their stereotypes of psychologists both cognitively and visually. There were no significant differences between the groups as a function of college major. However, a main effect for dress style was found. Possible explanations of findings are discussed.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Shaffer, Renita Philley
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Parent Questionnaire Examining Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children's Spatial Skills

Description: Investigations of children's spatial ability have typically looked at performance on laboratory tasks, and none have examined differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children. The present study surveyed sixty-seven parents of third and sixth grade children about the types of spatial activities children engage in everyday. Parents of learning disabled and non-learning disabled children were included. Results provided information about the types of spatial activities children engage in and the relationships between participation and performance. Major findings included differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in navigational ability and in the strategies employed in difficult or ambiguous spatial situations. Findings were discussed in terms of the influence learning disabled children's negative self evaluations have on their performance.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Helping Among Children

Description: This study investigated the effect of cost-of-escape on helping among children. Forty-four children between the approximate ages of six and twelve served as subjects. The experiment was performed in a natural setting using an ice cream truck. The driver (experimenter) manipulated the cost-of-escape and then had an "accident." The easy-to-escape group received their ice cream before the driver spilled 300 spoons on the ground. The difficult-to-escape group had paid for their ice cream but had not received it before the "accident" occurred. The number of spoons picked up by each condition and the lapse time before a member of each group began to help was recorded. No differences were found between the groups (all ps > .05). Implications for cost-of-escape were discussed.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Russell, Sue Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perception of Punitive Childhood Experiences, Adult Coping Mechanisms and Psychological Distress

Description: Differences in college student's psychological well-being, extrapunitiveness, and intropunitiveness were related to the presence or absence of maltreatment during childhood years, and its acknowledgement by the student. Subjects were 56 male and 85 female undergraduate students at the University of North Texas. Subjects were given structural scale v.3 of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), the Extrapunitive (E), and Intropunitive (I) indices of the Hostility-Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Physical Punishment scale (PP-scale) of the Assessing Environments Questionnaire (AEIII). Results indicate no significant differences in psychological well-being, extrapunitiveness, or intropunitiveness, which would be explained by the presence of maltreatment or its acknowledgement.
Date: December 1991
Creator: McCune, Linda Wheeler
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Validity of the MMPI in the Selection of Police Officers

Description: This study examined the validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a predictor for police officer selection. The MMPI profiles of 212 police officer applicants selected to enter the training academy were compared to the standardized MMPI norms. Significant differences between the police officers and the normative population were found on all but two scales. When the average profile of officers still on the police force was compared with the average profile of terminated officers, two scales were significantly different. Significant correlations were obtained between four MMPI scales and the academy score criterion and two scales each for the commendation and supervisory rating criteria. A prediction equation was developed for academy score using multiple regression analysis.
Date: May 1988
Creator: West, Sandra Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Interpersonal Skills Training on the Effectiveness of Self-Managed Work Teams

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teams that received interpersonal training would function more effectively as a team than the teams that did not receive training. Individuals from a large division of a major defense contractor in the southern part of the United States served as subjects. Data were collected using the Team Effectiveness Profile designed to measure team effectiveness. This survey measures the overall score as well as five sub-scores. It was hypothesized that the teams that received training would function more effectively than the teams that did not receive training. The hypotheses were not supported. Results were explained, among other things, by the internal and external changes that hampered the transition towards self-managed work teams.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Flax, Stacey L. (Stacey Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perspective Taking and Self Disclosure

Description: The effects of taking a third person role on self disclosure, self sympatheticness and several nonverbal parameters of task involvement were examined in a psychotherapy analogue study. Subjects were classified as high or low in ego strength using previously established norms for college students. In the third person role subjects were instructed to describe themselves from the perspective of an "intimate and sympathetic best friend." An encouragement to talk format was used to facilitate self description from the first person. Support was not found for the hypotheses that altering the perspective used in self description would increase self disclosure and that high ego strength subjects would be better able to use a perspective taking intervention. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research are made.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Anger and Hostility Measures: Effects of Social Desirability

Description: Individuals responding in a socially desirable (SD) fashion, rather than in a manner that reflects their true behavior, has been a problem for self-report questionnaires since their inception. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the probability an item is endorsed on a self-report measure of anger is directly proportional to the rated SD of that item. Eighty-two subjects completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the Profile of Moods State (POMS), and the State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). A probability of endorsement was computed for each of the measures' items. Twenty additional subjects rated the measures' items for SD. Each item's SD rating was paired with the probability the item was endorsed to produce a correlation coefficient for each measure. Results strongly support the stated hypothesis. Directions for future research are discussed.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Coffey, Scott F. (Scott Franklin)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Skills Training with Verbal Autistic Adolescents: A Case Study Approach

Description: Autistic adolescents need direct, systematic training of social skills since major difficulties in communication, lack of empathy, and various changes during adolescence present major roadblocks to the acquisition of normal peer relationships and increasing independence. A case study approach was utilized to examine treatment effects of a social skills training program implemented with four autistic adolescent boys in a naturalistic setting. Findings based on objective measures and subjective reports indicated that each subject made gains in targeted social skills over the course of treatment. Treatment strategies such as modeling, coaching, roleplaying, one to one instruction, and in vivo procedures were found to be effective teaching techniques. Major benefits and limitations of the study were discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nichols, Jill Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attributional Style of Adult Children of Alcoholics

Description: 115 undergraduate students were surveyed to see if attributional style would be different for individuals with alcoholic parents, depressed parents, or neither factor. Subjects were sorted into the three groups based on their responses to a family history questionnaire. Each subject filled out two attributional style questionnaires, the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-II). The three groups did not differ on attributional style for interpersonal, noninter- personal, or general situations. Within the adult children of alcoholics group, subjects reported that their successes in interpersonal situations were due to their strategy and effort, rather than ability, more so than for noninterpersonal successes.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Coxsey, Stephen Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex Role Types and Psychological Adjustment: Androgyny, Masculinity, or Self-Esteem

Description: Since the advent of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) two models, the Androgyny and Masculinity model, have been advanced to explain the sex role literature. This study attempts to rectify several methodological issues by experimentally controlling for the effects of self-esteem and using a quartile-split procedure for sex role type assignment. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate interpersonal problem solving ability among sex role types and to compare the predictions of the Androgyny model and the Masculinity model. The results of both experiments implicate the crucial role of self-esteem in sex role research. Self-esteem, rather than sex role type, appears to be more predictive of adequate psychological adjustment.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Cobb, Michelle D. (Michelle Denise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonverbal Power Cues

Description: Studies investigating aspects of social influence or power in counseling settings have examined the relationship between nonverbal cues and social influence or power. This study investigated perceptions of power, responsiveness, attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness by manipulating posture, facial expression and sex of therapist. After viewing photographs of stimulus therapists and listening to audio tapes, 96 male and 98 female undergraduates completed the Counselor Rating Form and a questionnaire measuring therapists' power and responsiveness. Results indicated that facial expression was more salient than posture. Smiling decreased ratings of power and increased ratings of attractiveness, responsiveness, and trustworthiness. Open posture was seen as more attractive and more powerful than closed posture. Surprisingly, females were viewed as more powerful than males. Other gender differences were found only in interaction with other variables.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Young, Merrie Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mental Status, Intellectual, and Mood States Associated with Environmental Illness Patients

Description: The purpose of the present study was to begin development of a psychological profile for environmentally ill patients. Existing psychiatric labels are unable to encompass these patients. Test scores were drawn from a pool of 89 patients whose environmental exposures were verified by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. A Mental Status Exam, a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised screen, and the Profile of Mood States were administered. Results indicate a primary pattern which is significantly different from test norms consisting of fatigue, reduced mental functioning, and a lack of psychotic or personality disorder indicators. The reported symptoms of environmentally ill patients were objectively verified by current psychological test instruments. The need for a new diagnostic category for people who have been poisoned by environmental toxins is discussed.
Date: April 1991
Creator: Fincher, Cynthia Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of Biographical Predictors of Cashier Turnover at a Convenience Store Chain

Description: Subjects, 432 convenience store cashiers, were divided into long-tenure and short-tenure groups. Chi-square analysis of application blank information for a weighting sample drawn from both groups revealed two items which significantly (p < .05) differentiated between the long tenure and short-tenure groups: number of previous jobs and full-time/part-time preference. Response weights were computed for these two items and used to calculate composite scores for the remaining holdout sample. A significant reduction in turnover would have occurred at the highest composite score level, if used as a hiring cut off. Results were tempered by several considerations, including a high percentage of false negatives and an insignificant linear relationship between composite scores and tenure.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Huffcutt, Allen Ivan
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Selected Personality Factors to Turnover Among Restaurant Managers

Description: This study investigated the relationship between turnover and personality measures through the application of discriminant analysis in a split sample cross validation design. Four personality tests measuring 34 dimensions of personality were administered to 300 Caucasian male job applicants. The tests were the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior, the Vocational Preference Inventory, a shortened version of the DF-Opinion Survey, and the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Ten of the dimensions were initially found to be significantly related to turnover. The shrinkage of the coefficient after cross validation was enough for the loss of statistical significance. It is suggested that personality measures are moderately associated with turnover and that investigations examining methods to reduce turnover should focus on other variables.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Daughtry, Perry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Male and Female Speech Styles on the Perceptions of Clinical Psychologists

Description: Previous research suggests that gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate use of sex-linked linguistic markers alters subjects' perceptions of the speaker. The present study examined the effects of male and female speech styles on clients' perceptions,. Undergraduates (N = 160) listened to audiotapes of clinical psychologists introducing the same client to psychotherapy. Clinician gender and sex-linked linguistic markers were manipulated. The results suggested that sex-stereotypes of males, females, and occupations played an important role in altering clients' perceptions of clinical psychologists. Sex-stereotypes did not, however, determine the desirability of the speaker as a therapist. The use of female speech styles increased the clinician's perceived femininity and desirability as a therapist.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Sager, Beatrice W. (Beatrice Wynne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of an Intervention Program on Caregiver Coping Efficacy

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention program for Alzheimer's patients on coping efficacy of their family caregivers. Using a pre-post repeated measures design, 16 family caregivers were interviewed before and after a medical, nursing, and social service intervention. Self-report measures, adjusted for caregiver satisfaction and caregiver mastery, were used to determine if there was a change in: resources, burden, and coping efficacy with caregiver specific and general life events. Results showed a marginal effect [F = 2.6, df(4,10), p<.10] for the omnibus MANCOVA. Most of this change was due to an increase in resources. Covariates of caregiver satisfaction and mastery were correlated with average burden. Results suggest that interventions such as this will be helpful for family caregivers of Alzheimer's patients.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Driskill, Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social skills training for individuals with schizophrenia: Evaluation of treatment outcome and acquisition of social and cognitive skills.

Description: Social and cognitive skill acquisition were evaluated in 33 (male=24, female=11) outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A social skills training treatment group (n=19) was compared to a wait-list control (n=14). Participants' mean age was 41 years, mean number of hospitalizations 10.4, and mean number of years with diagnosis 15.8. Assessment measures included WAIS-III Picture Arrangement subtest, Social Cue Recognition Test, COGLAB, WMS-III Word List subtest, and SADS-C. Results did not support the main hypotheses of improved social and cognitive skills in the treatment group. Participants with better memory and attention at pre-testing also did not show an advantage in social skills improvement. Contrary to hypotheses, the control group improved the most on some social and cognitive measures. Several supplemental hypotheses yielded the following results: lack of volunteer participation from paranoid schizophrenia individuals; evidence that schizoaffective disorder participants may be less cognitively impaired and better able to benefit from social skills training; and younger, less chronic participants with better attentional capacities may benefit most from social skills training. Findings are discussed in light of the possibility that improving social skills might not improve social and cognitive functioning, at least with the dosage of social skills training provided in this study. Limitations such as a sampling bias and small study size are also considered as possible explanations for the pattern of findings. Clinical and research implications are discussed to apply and extend the current findings.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Conner, Dianna Holden
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of clinical screens for suicidality and severe mental disorders for jail inmates.

Description: Psychologists and other mental health professionals working in correctional institutions bear the considerable responsibility for identifying, diagnosing, and treating mentally disordered inmates. The importance of these responsibilities has been recognized in recent years because of the burgeoning population of inmates in general and the higher numbers of inmates with mental illness in particular. Research has demonstrated that the screens currently used in correctional settings to identify mentally disordered and suicidal inmates are either unvalidated or generally ineffective. This study investigates the validity of different mental health screens in a jail population. Inmates from the Grayson County Jail were administered three screens: the Referral Decision Scale (RDS), Personality Assessment Screener (PAS), and the Mental Disability/Suicide Intake Screen (MDSIS). Criterion measures were the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for Axis I disorders and the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) for suicidal ideation. Results indicate that each screen most effectively assessed one clinical domain: the RDS for psychosis, the MDSIS for suicidality, and the PAS for depression. Gender differences were observed in screen items most effective for classifying inmates by suicide risk level.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Harrison, Kimberly S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment Outcomes Related to EEG-Biofeedback for Chemical Dependency: Changes in MMPI-2™ (University of Minnesota) Personality Measures and Long Term Abstinence Rates

Description: Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1990) demonstrated the effectiveness of alpha-theta EEG-Biofeedback (EEG-BFB) in treating inpatient alcoholics noting significant improvements in depression, psychopathology, serum β-endorphin levels, and abstinence rates. The present study is an extension of a previously unpublished replication of the Peniston EEG-BFB protocol with 20 chemically dependent outpatients (Bodenhamer-Davis, Callaway, & DeBeus, 2002). Fifteen subjects were "high risk for re-arrest" probationers. Data for the EEG-BFB group was collected from archival records. Subjects completed an average of 39 sessions (SD = 6.096), with 33 of those being EEG-BFB. Pre/post-treatment MMPI-2s™ (University of Minnesota) were collected and follow-up (4-11 years) data obtained (abstinence rates, re-arrests in some cases). Treatment effects were evaluated by comparing assessment data (pre/post) and documenting abstinence rates. Post-treatment MMPI-2 results were within normal limits, with several scales significantly reduced from baseline suggesting less psychopathology. Results were then compared to 20 subjects receiving standard addiction treatment (OT-CD group), but not EEG-BFB. OT-CD subjects completed a 2-week inpatient program followed by 18 outpatient sessions. Pre/post assessment and follow-up data was collected on the OT-CD group. The OT-CD group's post-assessment results showed three elevations (MMPI-2 scales 4/6/8), suggestive of characteriological problems. Post-MMPI-2 results of the two groups were compared via ANCOVAs. Findings indicated no significant differences between groups on targeted scales; however, there was a trend for the EEG-BFB group to have lower scores. Follow-up data was obtained on 13 EEG-BFB subjects. Results indicated 92% (n = 12) were sober, with 8% (n = 1) claiming significantly reduced alcohol intake. Probationer re-arrest and revocation rates were collected on the subset of probationers (n = 14 out of 15). The majority of the probationers (79%, n = 11) had not been re-arrested nor had their probation been revoked. Short-term follow-up information (35-131 days post-assessment), available at the time of writing, for ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Callaway, Tonya Gayle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Survivor reactions to organizational downsizing: The influence of justice perceptions and the psychological contract.

Description: The present study examined the relationships of organizational justice and the psychological contract with four outcome variables in a downsizing context. Multinational data were gathered from survivors representing a variety of organizations and industries. The main focus of the current study examined the relationships between survivors' perceptions of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and organizational commitment, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and trust in management. Correlational data indicated that procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice all demonstrated significant correlations with the outcome variables with interpersonal justice demonstrating higher correlations with the outcome variables than procedural justice. Additionally, the results of two structural models indicated that, although both models fit the data equally well, interpersonal justice was the dominant predictor of the outcome variables. Finally, moderated multiple regression analyses indicated that the psychological contract did not act as a moderator on the relationships between the justice and the outcome variables. However, supplemental confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the justice variables might act as a mediator of the psychological contract - outcome variable relationships. Possible explanations of the results as well as implications for practice and future research are provided.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Calderone, Wilma K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design and Empirical Analysis of a Model of Empowering Leadership.

Description: Mid-level leaders are often expected to implement employee empowerment initiatives, yet many do not have a clear understanding of how to empower employees. To address this issue, a model of empowering leadership was developed. The model presents specific, actionable behaviors that a leader should perform in order to empower employees. The model comprises 13 factors built around the areas of ability, accountability, and authority. First, leaders must ensure employees have the ability to be empowered. To do so, they must (a) build employee organizational knowledge, (b) provide access to pertinent information, (c) assure employees have the necessary skill set, and (d) identify and provide needed resources. Second, leaders must create systems of accountability for employee outcomes by (e) setting a standard of continuous improvement, (f) recognizing and rewarding good work, (g) regularly evaluating employee efforts, and (h) providing continuous feedback on employee efforts. Third, leaders should provide employees with the authority to be empowered by (i) serving as advocates of employee efforts, (j) providing an environment that is conducive to empowerment, (k) setting a clear and consistent direction to guide employee efforts, and (l) building systems and structures to support employee empowerment. The thirteenth factor of the model is a constant focus on the work, because without the work there is no real reason for empowerment. A review of the existing literature suggests a need for empirical research on empowerment concepts. This dissertation empirically investigated empowering leadership with two studies. The first focused on development of measures, while the second focused on model development. The measurement study supported the three general areas of ability, accountability, and authority, although the accountability area was weak. Results of the model examination study indicated that the model largely behaved as expected, but did require some modification. Based on the model exploration, four of the ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Bodner, Sarah L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Religiosity and spirituality in African American children.

Description: An exploratory study was conducted to augment the current literature on religiosity and spirituality by identifying and systematically measuring the salient variables and underlying constructs regarding spirituality and religion in African American families and their children between the ages of 7 to 12. The study examined psychosocial correlates, such as self-esteem and ethnic identity, and their impact on religiosity and spirituality. This study sought to validate the Age-Universal I/E Scale for use with African American children occurred with this study and pilot the African American Children's Ethnic Identity Scale (ACHEIDS). Through qualitative and quantitative research this study found multiple correlations associated with religion, spirituality, age, gender, aspects of self-esteem, and ethnic identity. Regression analyses were also conducted to identify predictive variables associated with the I/E.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Miesse, Colette A.
Partner: UNT Libraries