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2000 Census: Complete Costs of Coverage Evaluation Programs Are Not Available

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "To assess the quality of the population data collected in the 2000 Census, the U.S. Census Bureau conducted the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) program, which focused on a survey of housing units designed to estimate the number of people missed, counted more than once, or otherwise improperly counted in the census. GAO reviewed the life cycle costs of the A.C.E. program and its predecessor, the Integrated Coverage Measurement (ICM) program. GAO found that the original estimated cycle costs of conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs were $400 million. The first evidence for the original $400 million estimate is in the original budget justifications for fiscal year 2000. The bureau based its estimates of ICM/A.C.E. costs on assumptions about the needs for personnel and benefits, contractual services, travel, office space, equipment, and other costs necessary to conduct and support operations of the programs. The budgeted amounts that GAO identified from bureau records for conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs are $277 million through fiscal year 2003. The obligated costs that GAO identified from bureau records for conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs are $207 million through fiscal year 2001. $58 million of budgeted funds for the ICM/A.C.E. programs that GAO identified from bureau records were not obligated through fiscal year 2001. The ICM/A.C.E. program-related costs that GAO identified from bureau records for the 1998 dress rehearsal were $11 million budgeted and $9 million obligated."
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2000 Census: Lessons Learned for Planning a More Cost-Effective 2010 Census

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the funding of 2000 Census planning and development efforts and the impact it had on census operations. Total funding for the 2000 Census, referred to as the life cycle cost, covers a 13-year period from fiscal year 1991 through fiscal year 2003 and is expected to total $6.5 billion adjusted to 2000 year dollars. This amount was almost double the reported life cycle cost of the 1990 Census of $3.3 billion adjusted to 2000 year dollars. Considering these escalating costs, the experience of the U.S. Census Bureau in preparing for the 2000 Census offers valuable insights for the planning and development efforts now occurring for the 2010 Census. Thorough and comprehensive planning and development efforts are crucial to the ultimate efficiency and success of any large, long-term project, particularly one with the scope, magnitude, and the deadlines of the U.S. decennial census. For fiscal years 1991 through 1997, $269 million was requested in the President's Budgets for 2000 Census planning and development and the program received funding of $224 million by Congress, or 83 percent of the amount requested. According to U.S. Census Bureau records, the bulk of the $86 million in funding received through the end of fiscal year 1995 was obligated for program development and evaluation methodologies, testing and dress rehearsals, and planning for the acquisition of automated data processing and telecommunications support. The U.S. Census Bureau was responsible for carrying out its mission within the budget provided and bureau management determined the specific areas in which available resources were invested. GAO could not determine what effect, if any, that higher funding levels might have had on bureau operations as this is dependent upon actual implementation and the results of management decisions …
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adaptive Tracking of Atmospheric Releases

Description: When dangerous chemical or biological releases occur in the atmosphere, emergency responders and decision makers must assess exposure rates to the affected population, establish evacuation routes, and allocate medical resources We have been working to improve the scientific basis for making such decisions. We believe that future rapid response teams, from LLNI, and other centers of expertise, will use a variety of atmospheric sensors and atmospheric computer models to predict and characterize the movement of chemical or biological releases in urban environments, and that LLNL is likely to contribute expertise in this area. A key advance will be to merge the information and capabilities of computer models with real-time atmospheric data from sensors. The resulting product will dynamically interpolate and extrapolate the raw sensor data into a coordinated ''picture'' or interpretation of the developing flow scenario. The scientific focus of the project was the exploration and development of algorithms to fuse lidar data (which measure wind speed much as a police radar measures vehicle speed) and a dispersion model into a single system. Our goal was to provide the scientific foundation for a combined lidar/model approach capable of accurately tracking the evolution of atmospheric releases on distance scales of about 20 km. The fundamental idea is to create feedbacks, so that lidar data can be used for wind field inputs into a dispersion model, which would, in turn, guide lidar data acquisition by directing more intensive scanning to regions where more data are key to improving the modeling. We created a database of synthetic lidar data that can be used to test algorithms relating to a combined lidar/dispersion model. We obtained the data, which represent nocturnal atmospheric drainage flows in the Salt Lake City Basin, from calculations on the LLNL ASCI White supercomputer with a computational fluid dynamics model running …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Larson, D & Calhoun, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery From the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California, Quarterly Report: October - December 2001

Description: Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Horner, Steve & Ershaghi, Iraj
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery From Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, Nm

Description: The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.
Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Murphy, Mark B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

Description: Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF system at the Foster Wheeler pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC), pilot-scale, test facility in Karhula, Finland. This report presents a summary of these efforts, defining the stability of the various porous ceramic filter materials, as well as component …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Alvin, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agitator Mixing Analysis in a HB-Line Flat Tank

Description: In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 45 degrees pitched three-blade agitator submerged in a flat rectangular tank. The work is intended to determine agitator speeds that provide acceptable mixing performance for various tank liquid levels based on flow rates past solids deposited on the bottom surface of the flat tank. The modeling results will help ensure the acceptable suspension of solid particles as a function of agitator speed and tank liquid level during precipitation operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with three 45 degrees pitched blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 2x104). A standard two-equation turbulence model (k-e), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [7], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, a surface vortex can reach the agitator blades and allow air to be drawn into the solid-fluid mixing zone. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The analysis results show that the lowest liquid level among the four considered, 4.5 inches, is higher than the critical liquid height for air entrainment for agitator speeds up to 600 rpm. All the analysis results demonstrate that about 600 rpm provides adequate solids mixing capability for various tank levels (12, 8.5, 7, and 4.5 inches) containing 20-micron solids with a specific gravity of 2.5.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Lee, Si Young
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2002, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agriculture Support Mechanisms in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States

Description: The European Union (EU), comprised of 15 member states (countries), is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and also a major competitor in world markets. Both heavily support their agricultural sectors, with a large share of such support concentrated on wheat, feed grains, cotton, oilseeds, sugar, dairy, and tobacco. However, the EU provides more extensive support to a broader range of farm and food products. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the EU and United States in 2001 together accounted for nearly two-thirds of all government support to agriculture among the major developed economies. However, EU agricultural spending generally is much higher than in the United States. Information comparing how the U.S. and EU governments support their producers is expected to be of interest to policymakers while negotiations are underway among world trading partners to further reform agricultural trade.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Traffic Control: Impact of Revised Personnel Relocation Policies Is Uncertain

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In fiscal year 2001, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) spent more than $15 million to move air traffic controllers and their managers to new permanent duty locations. FAA classifies the funds that it spends for these moves as permanent change of station (PCS) benefits. In 1998, as part of a broader effort to reform its personnel policies, FAA changed its policies on PCS benefits. Instead of fully reimbursing the costs of all PCS moves and prohibiting unfunded PCS moves, as it once did, FAA now determines the amount of PCS benefits to be offered on a position-by-position basis and allows employees and managers to move at their own expense. Under its new polices, FAA can fully reimburse the costs of a move if it determines that he move is in the interest of the government, or it can offer partial fixed relocation benefits if it determines that the agency will derive some benefit from the move. FAA's policies on eligibility for PCS benefits are the same for air traffic controllers and their managers, but the amounts of the benefits vary. According to these policies, eligibility depends on a determining official's decision about how critical a position is and/or whether FAA will benefit from the move. Air traffic controllers have been less likely than air traffic managers to be offered PCS benefits when they move between facilities. Between fiscal year 1999 and 2001, Air Traffic Services funded 16 percent of moves involving a promotion and 6 percent of lateral moves between field facilities for controllers, compared with 38 percent of promotional moves and 34 percent of lateral moves for managers. According to FAA officials, PCS costs have decreased and FAA's ability to quickly fill vacant controller positions …
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

Description: The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Allendorf, Sarah; Ottesen, David & Hardesty, Donald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial Free Steel

Description: This work addresses the issues of measurement of secondary cold work embrittlement (SCWE) of an IF steel in deep-drawn parts using laboratory tests, and its correlation with real part fracture. It aimed at evaluating the influence of the steel chemistry and processing condition, microstructure, and test conditions, on SCWE as well as the effect of SCWE on fatigue properties. Size 6-in. cups produced with various draw ratios or trimmed at different heights were tested to determine the ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT) as a function of strain. The 2-in. cup/expansion test, bend test and fracture of notched specimens were also used to generate information complementary to that provided by the 6-inch cup/expansion test. The relationship between laboratory tests and fracture in real parts was established by testing large-scale parts. The fatigue behavior was investigated in the as-rolled and deep drawn (high stain) conditions, using prestrained specimens taken from the wall of a formed part.
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: Bowker, John T & Martin, Pierre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: TRP 9732Steel Processing Properties and Their Effect on Impact Deformation of Lightweight Structures

Description: The objective of the research was to perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the effects of material and process modeling approaches on performance of Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) vehicle models. The research addressed numerous material related effects, impact conditions as well as analyzed the performance of the ULSAB vehicles in crashes against designs representing the current US vehicle fleet. Crash modeling simulations show a clear effect of strain-rate sensitivity on high strength steel (HSS) intensive vehicle. The influence of a strain-rate model can be an incremental sensitivity due to the increased flow stress when similar structure collapse modes are predicted. However, significant differences in crash energy management capacity can be predicted if the change in loading on members alters the predicted collapse mode of the structure. From the material substitution study it can be concluded that HSS material substitution cannot be performed on the basis of the material yield point only and that, especially for advanced HSS vehicle designs, the entire region of material plastic response has to be considered. However, the problem of modeling of the overall dynamic crush process still remains open and requires further experimental and theoretical investigation. Crash modeling simulations show a moderate effect of forming on overall crash performance. The design is the determining factor on the vehicle performance and, therefore, the results of this research cannot provide measures that can be used in a general case. However, it has been shown that for materials that have modest strain hardening, the forming effect is observable and that when more complex forming operations are used, especially in combination with rapid strain hardening materials, forming effects should be taken in the consideration in the computational crash models. crash compatibility study between ULSAB and cars of similar geometric characteristics have shown that the U LSAB design …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Simunovic, Srdan & Aramayo, Gustavo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas Technical Progress Report: Number 30

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: March 31, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

Description: This interim report summarizes detailed findings and conclusions drawn from evaluations of data obtained from the operation of ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the Upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. A summary of the sampling activities, sample analyses and the correlation and interpretation of data acquired from February 1999 through March of 2001 are reported. Mass and speciated data from urban and rural sources are compared and seasonal variations in PM{sub 2.5} distribution are also examined. Correlations between meteorological parameters and total PM{sub 2.5} mass are also presented.
Date: October 31, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Radionuclide Migration Through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-Year Infiltration Event

Description: The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on radionuclide migration in the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake just over one kilometer away. Water discharged into the ditch infiltrated into the ground during flow along the ditch. This created an unexpected and remarkable second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the 220 meters of unsaturated media, or ''vadose zone'', back to the water table, could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Surprisingly, no {sup 14}C was observed at the water table, suggesting its preferential retention, possibly due to …
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Tompson, A. F. B.; Smith, D. K. & Hudson, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

Description: OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

Description: Argentina’s current crisis resulted from a confluence of events, some external to Argentina’s policy process, others directly related to its political and economic choices. The following is a summary of these events from before Argentina’s adoption of the currency board in 1991 to developments in early 2002.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

Description: This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

Description: The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements …
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bioterrorism: Legislation to Improve Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity

Description: This report shows that while lawmakers work towards final passage of new authorizing legislation, Congress has appropriated more than $3 billion to the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) to increase bioterrorism preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels. HHS anti-bioterrorism funding was included in the FY2002 Labor-HHSEducation appropriations bill and in the $20 billion emergency spending package that was attached to the FY2002 Defense appropriations bill. Until the new authorizing legislation is enacted, HHS is dispersing the funds according to existing authorities and the broad parameters set out in the appropriations bills.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen; Vogt, Donna U. & Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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