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Small Business Owner-Managers and Corporate Managers: a Comparative Study of Achievement Motivation, Risk Taking Propensity and Preference for Innovation

Description: Despite the economic significance of entrepreneurship, relatively little is known about the entrepreneur, particularly how the entrepreneur differs from the corporate manager. This problem is both cause and symptom of the discord regarding definitions of the entrepreneur, rendering sampling, research replication and generalizations about entrepreneurs problematic. As a result, inquiry has failed to adequately establish how entrepreneurs differ from managers, a problem partially stemming from a dearth of methodologically rigorous comparisons of entrepreneurs with managers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of psychological constructs to predict a proclivity for entrepreneurship. Moreover, differences in types of small business owner-managers were also investigated. Included in the research model were three common themes in the entrepreneurship literature: achievement motivation, risk taking propensity and preference for innovation. Also incorporated were the interactions of the psychological constructs, as well as individual and firm demographic variables.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Stewart, Wayne H. (Wayne Howard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Evaluation of Backpropagation Neural Network Modeling as an Alternative Methodology for Criterion Validation of Employee Selection Testing

Description: Employee selection research identifies and makes use of associations between individual differences, such as those measured by psychological testing, and individual differences in job performance. Artificial neural networks are computer simulations of biological nerve systems that can be used to model unspecified relationships between sets of numbers. Thirty-five neural networks were trained to estimate normalized annual revenue produced by telephone sales agents based on personality and biographic predictors using concurrent validation data (N=1085). Accuracy of the neural estimates was compared to OLS regression and a proprietary nonlinear model used by the participating company to select agents.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Scarborough, David J. (David James)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Occupationally Injured Employee: Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes from Psychosocial Stressors

Description: This research explores whether a firm's psychosocial stressors contribute to strains or outcomes important to the organization. The psychosocial stressors chosen for study include: role conflict and ambiguity, workload (qualitative and quantitative), participative decision making, autonomy, and security. Independent variables were the emotional strains of job satisfaction and job commitment. The independent variables for behavioral strains included injury, lost days, workers' compensation claims, and absenteeism. Three moderators: age, gender, and social support were evaluated for interaction effects. The study sampled 77 occupationally injured and 81 non-injured employees from one medium sized Army community hospital. This study uses multivariate hierarchical multiple set regression as its principal analytical method. The hierarchial procedure orders the sets into an a priori hierarchy and enters each set sequentially from the hierarchy, evaluating the increase in $\rm R\sp2.$ The results suggest that psychosocial stressors are significant variables to consider when investigating workers' emotional and behavioral strains. For example, age, participation, and satisfaction were found statistically significant in differentiating between the occupationally injured and the non-injured samples. The study also found that ambiguity, participation, and autonomy influenced emotional strains. Additionally, age and social support appear to moderate the relationship between some psychosocial factors and emotional and behavioral strains. Age moderated the relationship with only emotional strains, while social support moderated both emotional and behavioral strains. Further, social support was found to have a main effect on the emotional strains of satisfaction and commitment, but not on any behavioral ones. Age was found to have a direct effect on the behavioral strains of workers' compensation claims. Finally, although not statistically significant when entered as a set and evaluated using the statistical analysis techniques in this study, a relationship between age and workers' compensation claims and qualitative workload and absenteeism were suggested. The economic and human costs associated with ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Mosesman, Leonard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic Reorientation in the Computer Software and Furniture Industries: a Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Description: Insufficient literature exists in the area of incremental and revolutionary change to explain and predict the convergence and reorientation phenomena happening in organizations. The process of strategic reorientation involves the internal organizational complexities of fast-paced (within two years) changes in competitive strategy as a necessary condition coupled with changes in at least two of organization structure, power distribution, and control systems. Antecedent forces believed to influence the discontinuous change process include industry sales turbulence, structural inertia/firm size, firm past financial performance, CEO turnover, top management team turnover, management team heterogeneity, management environmental awareness, and external attributions for negative financial performance. Punctuated equilibrium was the foundational theory for this study in which a strategic reorientation model published in Strategic Management Journal was reconstructed. The research question was: What seem to be the significant time-based antecedent forces or conditions that lead to strategic reorientation? The study used two hierarchical logit regression models to analyze data gathered from COMPUSTAT PC Industrial Data Base and Compact Disclosure (CD-ROM) over the years 1987-1993 from the turbulent computer software and stable furniture industries. Qualitative data were found in 10-K reports and President's Letters in Annual Reports filed with the SEC and available on Laserdisclosure. The sample, exclusive of 3 multivariate outliers, included 74 software firms and 43 furniture firms for a pooled total of 117 firms. When separate industries were analyzed using the first of the Systat logit hierarchical regressions, results showed no statistically significant effects. By contrast, when data were pooled, the second hierarchical logit regression model, which included industry turbulence and firm size, showed these one-tailed statistically significant results: strategic reorientation is positively affected by prior industry turbulence and CEO turnover, but is negatively affected by prior top management team turnover and the interaction between industry turbulence and external attributions for negative financial performance.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Gordon, Shelley S. (Shelley Sampson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Toward the Development of Information Technology Variables to Help Predict Organizational Structure

Description: There is a growing awareness that information technology plays a critical role in helping determine organizational structure. Unfortunately, that role has not been adequately defined. This study provides a foundation for an increase in our understanding of the relationship between information technology and organizational structure by defining a new set of information technology variables and identifying differences in organizational structure based on these new variables.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Sweo, Robert (Robert Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Intergroup Competition and Noncompetition on the Decision Quality of Culturally Diverse and Culturally Non-Diverse Groups

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the challenges and benefits associated with cultural diversity within groups. The research hypotheses were proposed to test the effects of cultural diversity on group performance and group processes by comparing culturally diverse and culturally homogeneous groups under conditions of intergroup competition and noncompetition. This experiment was conducted using 500 upper-level undergraduates enrolled in the principles of management course for the fall semester.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Faden, Sandra K. (Sandra Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Empirical Investigation of the Interaction Effects of Leader-Member Locus of Control on Participation in Strategic Decision Making

Description: The purpose of this study was to test for a relationship between locus of control and participation in strategic decision making. The research model included the variables of gender, locus of control, job-work involvement and preference for participative environment as possible influences on team member participation in strategic decision making. Another feature of the model was the proposed three-way interaction effect on member participation. This interaction included member job-work involvement, member preference for participation and leader locus of control.
Date: May 1995
Creator: May, Ruth C. (Ruth Carolyn)
Partner: UNT Libraries