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Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

Description: A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 F water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P.B. & Culver, G.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of Radon Transport in Geothermal Reservoirs

Description: Numerical simulation of radon transport is a useful adjunct in the study of radon as an in situ tracer of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic numerical model has been developed to assist in the interpretation of field experiments. The model simulates transient response of radon concentration in wellhead geofluid as a function of prevailing reservoir conditions. The radon simulation model has been used to simulate radon concentration response during production drawdown and two flowrate transient tests in vapor-dominated systems. Comparison of model simulation with experimental data from field tests provides insight in the analysis of reservoir phenomena such as propagation of boiling fronts, and estimates of reservoir properties of porosity and permeability thickness.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Semprini, Lewis & Kruger, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slug Test Data Analysis in Reservoirs with Double Porosity Behaviour

Description: Pressure analysis for a slug test which corresponds to the flow period of a Drill Stem test is extended to wells in reservoirs with double-porosity behaviour. Solutions are obtained for either pseudo-steady state or transient interporosity flow. The distinctive specific features of both solutions are identified. Results presented are applicable to both naturally-fractured and layered reservoirs with the more permeable layer connecting to the wellbore. Type curves based on the pseudo-steady or transient interporosity flow are presented. These type curves are similar to the existing homogenous single layer type curve with addition of interporosity flow lines indicating double-porosity behaviour.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Mateen, Khalid & Ramey, Henry J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Matrix Diffusion and its Effect on the Modeling of Tracer Returns from the Fractured Geothermal Reservoir at Wairakei, New Zealand

Description: Tracer tests performed at the geothermal reservoir at Wairakei, New Zealand have been analyzed, using a mathematical and physical model in which tracer flows through individual fractures with diffusion into the surrounding porous matrix. Model calculations matched well with the observed tracer return profiles. From the model, first tracer arrival times and the number of individual fractures (the principal conduits of fluid flow in the reservoir) joining the injector-producer wells can be determined. if the porosity, adsorption distribution coefficient, bulk density and effective diffusion coefficient are nown, fracture widths may be estimated. Hydrodynamic dispersion down the length of the fracture is a physical component not taken into account in this model. Future studies may be warranted in order to determine the necessity of including this factor. In addition to the tracer profile matching by the matrix diffusion model, comparisons with a simpler fracture flow model by Fossum and Horne (1982) were made. The inclusion of the matrix diffusion effects was seen to significantly improve the fit to the observed data.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Jensen, Clair L. & Horne, Roland N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysing Spinner Measurements from Well Tests Using Computerized Interpretation Techniques

Description: The development of reliable spinner tools may help avoid much of the ambiquity which often accompanies well tests in geothermal wells, due to interlayer flows through the well bore. However, the use of both pressure and flow rate changes requires new methods of well test interpretation. The Stanford Geothermal Program has been developing microcomputer-based techniques for the simultaneous analysis of pressure and flow rate measurements. There are two key steps in the procedure. Firstly, the non-linear regression is achieved by calculating the gradients of the response (with respect to the unknown reservoir parameters) in Laplace space, and inverting numerically. Secondly, the variable flow rate is represented in terms of a superposition of many step changes - this was found to work better than a spline fit to the data. One problem was encountered when attempting to analyze data in which the spinner "stalled", causing a jump to zero flow rate. The method shows great promise in that the degrees of freedom on the interpretation are greatly reduced, the well bore storage effect disappears, and inter-feed flows do not affect the results.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Horne, Roland N.; Guillot, Alain & Rosa, Adalberta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

Description: The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman (Reservoir ...
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E. & Gudmundsson, J.S. (Stanford Geothermal Program)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Session 4: Geothermal Reservoir Definition

Description: The study of geothermal reservoir behavior is presently in a state of change brought about by the discovery that reservoir heterogeneity--fractures in particular--is responsible for large scale effects during production. On the other hand, some parts of a reservoir, or some portions of its behavior. may be unaffected by fractures and behave, instead, as if the reservoir were a homogeneous porous medium. Drilling has for many years been guided by geologists prospecting for fractures (which have been recognized as the source of production), but until recently reservoir engineers have not studied the behavior of fractured systems under production. In the last three years research efforts, funded by the Department of Energy and others, have made significant progress in the study of fractures. The investigations into simulation of fracture flow, tracer analysis of fractured systems, and well test analysis of double porosity reservoirs are all advancing. However, presently we are at something of a conceptual impasse in defining a reservoir as fractured or porous. It seems likely that future directions will not continue to attempt to distinguish two separate reservoir types, but will focus instead on defining behavior types. That is, certain aspects of reservoir behavior may be considered to be generally of the porous medium type (for example, field wide decline), while others may be more frequently fracture type (for example, breakthrough of reinjected water). In short, our overall view of geothermal reservoir definition is becoming a little more complex, thereby better accommodating the complexities of the reservoirs themselves. Recent research results already enable us to understand some previously contradictory results, and recognition of the difficulties is encouraging for future progress in the correct direction.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Horne, Roland N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department