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Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

Description: As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.
Date: March 14, 2006
Creator: Cook, E. G.; Akana, G. L.; Gower, E. J.; Hawkins, S. A.; Hickman, B. C.; Brooksby, C. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra-High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments

Description: Ultra-high gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators are a potential option for a linear collider afterburner since they are immune to the ion collapse and electron/positron asymmetry problems implicit in a plasma based afterburner. The first phase of an experiment to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range has been completed. The experiment took advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., {sigma}{sub z} = 20 {micro}m at Q = 3 nC). The FFTB electron beam was successfully focused down and sent through short lengths of fused silica capillary tubing (ID = 200 {micro}m/OD = 325 {micro}m). The pulse length of the electron beam was varied to produce a range of electric fields between 2 and 20 GV/m at the inner surface of the dielectric tubes. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m. In future experiments being developed for the SLAC SABER and BNL ATF we plan to use the coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube as a field strength diagnostic and demonstrate GV/m range particle energy gain.
Date: March 27, 2007
Creator: Thompson, M. C.; Badakov, H.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.; Hogan, M.; Ischebeck, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of a Charmed Baryon Decaying to D0 p at a Mass Near 2.94 GeV/c2

Description: A search for charmed baryons decaying to D{sup 0}p reveals two states: the {Lambda}{sub c}(2880){sup +} baryon and a previously unobserved state at a mass of [2939.8 {+-} 1.3 (stat.) {+-} 1.0 (syst.)] MeV/c{sup 2} and with an intrinsic width of [17.5 {+-} 5.2 (stat.) {+-} 5.9 (syst.)] MeV. Consistent and significant signals are observed for the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decay modes of the D{sup 0} in 287 fb{sup -1} annihilation data recorded by the BABAR detector at a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. There is no evidence in the D{sup +}p spectrum of doubly-charged partners. The mass and intrinsic width of the {Lambda}{sub c}(2880){sup +} baryon and relative yield of the two baryons are also measured.
Date: March 29, 2006
Creator: Aubert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of B0 Meson Decays to a1(1260)+- pi-+

Description: The authors present a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}(1260){pi}{sup {-+}} with a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}(1260) {yields} {pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}. The data sample corresponds to 218 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The authors measure the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}(1260){pi}{sup {-+}}){Beta}(a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}(1260){yields} {pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}})=(16.6 {+-} 1.9 {+-} 1.5) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.
Date: March 27, 2006
Creator: Aubert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of CP Violation in B0 to K+pi- and B0 to pi+pi-

Description: The authors report observations of CP violation in the decays B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} in a sample of 383 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. They find 4372 {+-} 82 B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays and measure the direct Cp-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub K{pi}} = -0.107 {+-} 0.018(stat){sub -0.004}{sup +0.007}(syst), which excludes the CP-conserving hypothesis with a significance of 5.5 standard deviations. In the same sample they find 1139 {+-} 49 B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays and measure the CP-violating asymmetries S{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.60 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) and C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.21 {+-} 0.09(stat) {+-} 0.02(syst). CP conservation in B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (S{sub {pi}{pi}} = C{sub {pi}{pi}} = 0) is excluded at a confidence level 1-C.L. = 8 x 10{sup -8}, corresponding to 5.4 standard deviations.
Date: March 14, 2007
Creator: Aubert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of Polarized Positrons from an Undulator-Based Source

Description: An experiment (E166) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which a multi-GeV electron beam passed through a helical undulator to generate multi-MeV, circularly polarized photons which were then converted in a thin target to produce positrons (and electrons) with longitudinal polarization above 80% at 6 MeV. The results are in agreement with Geant4 simulations that include the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons and photons in matter.
Date: March 6, 2008
Creator: Alexander, G; Barley, J.; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the PEP-II B-Factory Collider at SLAC

Description: PEP-II is an e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B-Factory Collider located at SLAC operating at the Upsilon 4S resonance (3.1 GeV x 9 GeV). It has reached a luminosity of 9.21 x 10{sup 33}/cm{sup 2}/s and has delivered an integrated luminosity of 710 pb{sup -1} in one day. PEP-II has delivered, over the past six years, an integrated luminosity to the BaBar detector of over 262 fb{sup -1}. PEP-II operates in continuous injection mode for both beams boosting the integrated luminosity. The peak positron current has reached 2.45 A in 1588 bunches. Steady progress is being made in reaching higher luminosity. The goal over the next several years is to reach a luminosity of 2.1 x 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s. The accelerator physics issues being addressed in PEP-II to reach this goal include the electron cloud instability, beam-beam effects, parasitic beam-beam effects, high RF beam loading, shorter bunches, lower {beta}*{sub y} interaction region operation, and coupling control. Figure 1 shows the PEP-II tunnel.
Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Seeman, J.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse Length Control in an X-Ray FEL by Using Wakefields

Description: For the users of the high-brightness radiation sources of free-electron lasers it is desirable to reduce the FEL pulse length to 10 fs and below for time-resolved pump and probe experiments. Although it can be achieved by conventional compression methods for the electron beam or the chirped FEL pulse, the technical realization is demanding. In this presentation we study the impact of longitudinal wakefields in the undulator and how their properties can be used to reduced the amplifying part of the bunch to the desired length. Methods of actively controlling the wakefields are presented.
Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: Reiche, S.; Pellegrini, Claudio; Emma, P. & /SLAC, /UCLA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection Related Background due to the Transverse Feedback

Description: The background in the BaBar detector is especially high during injection, when most components are actually having reduced voltages. The situation is worse for the beam in High Energy Ring (HER) when the LER beam is present. It was found that the transverse feedback system plays an important role when stacking more charge on top of existing bunches. Lowering the feedback gain helped and it was realized later that the best scenario would be to gate off the feedback for only the one bunch, which got additional charge injected into it. The explanation is that the blown-up, but centered, original HER bunch plus the small injected off-axis bunch (each with half the charge) would stay in the ring if not touched, but the feedback system sees half the offset and wants to correct it, therefore disturbing and scraping the blown-up part.
Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: Decker, F.J.; Akre, R.; Fisher, A.; Iverson, R.; Weaver, M. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Infrared Study of the Large-Scale Jet in Quasar PKS 1136-135

Description: We present Spitzer IRAC imaging of the large-scale jet in the quasar PKS 1136-135 at wavelengths of 3.6 and 5.8 {micro}m, combined with previous VLA, HST, and Chandra observations. We clearly detect infrared emission from the jet, resulting in the most detailed multifrequency data among the jets in lobe-dominated quasars. The spectral energy distributions of the jet knots have significant variations along the jet, like the archetypal jet in 3C 273. The infrared measurements with IRAC are consistent with the previous idea that the jet has two spectral components, namely (1) the low-energy synchrotron spectrum extending from radio to infrared, and (2) the high-energy component responsible for the X-ray flux. The optical fluxes may be a mixture of the two components. We consider three radiation models for the high-energy component: inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons by radio-emitting electrons in a highly relativistic jet, synchrotron radiation by a second distinct electron population, and synchrotron radiation by ultra high energy protons. Each hypothesis leads to important insights into and constraints on particle acceleration in the jet, as well as the basic physical properties of the jet such as bulk velocity, transporting power, and particle contents.
Date: March 16, 2007
Creator: Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Urry, C.Megan; Coppi, Paolo; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, Rita M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Energy Laser Ponderomotive Acceleration

Description: A new concept of TeV-range laser ponderomotive acceleration in a plasma is proposed. Particles are accelerated in the point-like scattering by the leading front of the laser pulse, propagating at the group velocity less than the vacuum speed of light. In this scheme, the gain in particle energy is determined by the group velocity and does not depend on laser intensity, which determines the quantum probability of acceleration. The quantum and classical analysis of the scheme proposed is presented. Estimates show that the concept proposed is a promising technique for compact laser acceleration of TeV energy range.
Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Smetanin, I.V.; Inst., /Lebedev; Barnes, C.; /SLAC; Nakajima, K. & /KEK, Tsukuba
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Deposition in Positron Sources for ILC

Description: In the International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source, multi-GeV electrons or multi-MeV photons impinge on a metal target to produce the needed positrons in the resulting electromagnetic showers. The incoming beam power is hundreds of kilowatts. Various computer programs -- such as FLUKA or MARS -- can calculate how the incoming beam showers in the target and can track the particle showers through the positron source system. Most of the incoming energy ends up as heat in the various positron source elements. This paper presents results from such calculations and their impact on the design of a positron source for the ILC.
Date: March 15, 2006
Creator: Bharadwaj, V.; Pitthan, R.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H. & Wang, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities for Beam Monitoring

Description: Dipole modes have been shown to be successful diagnostics for the beam position in superconducting accelerating cavities at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) facility at DESY. By help of downmixing electronics the signals from the two higher order mode (HOM) couplers mounted on each cavity are monitored. The calibration, based on singular value decomposition, is more complicated than in standard position monitors. Position like signals based on this calibration are currently being in the process of being included in the control system. A second setup based on digitizing the spectrum from the HOM couplers has been used for monitoring monopole modes. The beam phase with respect to the RF has been thus monitored. The position calibration measurements and phase monitoring made at the FLASH are presented.
Date: March 7, 2008
Creator: Molloy, S.; Baboi, N.; Eddy, N.; Frisch, J.; Hendrickson, L.; Hensler, O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diagnostics for the LCLS Photoinjector Beamline

Description: Two spectrometers have been added to the LCLS photoinjector beamline. The first one will be located close to the exit of the Photoinjector RF gun. With this diagnostic, we will measure beam energy, energy spread (correlated and uncorrelated), possibly deleterious structure in the longitudinal phase space induced by longitudinal space charge force, and slice thermal emittance ... This extensive characterization of the 5MeV electron bunch will be made possible by combining this spectrometer with other diagnostics (YAG screens and Cerenkov Radiator). A second spectrometer located at the end of the beamline has been designed to characterize the 6 dimensional phase space of the 135MeV beam to be injected in the main accelerator. At that second spectrometer station, we will measure energy, energy spread (correlated and uncorrelated), longitudinal phase space, slice emittances ... Those last two measurements require using this spectrometer in combination with the transverse RF deflecting cavity and with the quadrupole scan emittance station. The designs of these two spectrometers have been supported by simulations from MAD and PARMELA.
Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Limborg-Deprey, C.; Dowell, D.; Schmerge, J.F. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

Description: Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 {micro}m and 8.0 {micro}m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B {approx} 170 {micro}G in spot A, and B {approx} 270 {micro}G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to {approx} 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of {approx} 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies {approx}> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics ...
Date: March 6, 2007
Creator: Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E. & Ostrowski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for D(0)-Dbar(0) Mixing

Description: We present evidence for D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays from 384 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} colliding-beam data recorded near {radical}s = 10.6GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. We find the mixing parameters x{prime}{sup 2} = [-0.22 {+-} 0.30 (stat.) {+-} 0.21 (syst.)] x 10{sup -3} and y{prime} = [9.7 {+-} 4.4(stat.) {+-} 3.1(syst.)] x 10{sup -3}, and a correlation between them of -0.94. This result is inconsistent with the no-mixing hypothesis with a significance of 3.9 standard deviations. We measure R{sub D}, the ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates, to be [0.303 {+-} 0.016 (stat.) {+-} 0.010 (syst.)]%. We find no evidence for CP violation.
Date: March 13, 2007
Creator: Aubert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct CP, Lepton Flavor and Isospin Asymmetries in the Decays B->K(*)l+l-

Description: We measure rate asymmetries for the rare decays B {yields} K{sup (*)}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, where {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} is either e{sup +}e{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, using a sample of 384 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find no evidence for direct CP or lepton-flavor asymmetries. For dilepton masses below the J/{psi} resonance, we find evidence for unexpectedly large isospin asymmetries in both B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} which differ respectively by 3.2{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, including systematic uncertainties, from the Standard Model expectations.
Date: March 3, 2009
Creator: Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance Limitation of a Conditioned Beam in a Strong Focusing FEL Undulator

Description: Various methods have been proposed to condition an electron beam in order to reduce its emittance effect and to improve the short-wavelength free electron laser (FEL) performance. In this paper, we show that beam conditioning does not result in a complete elimination of the emittance effect in an alternating-gradient focusing FEL undulator. Using a one-dimensional model and a three-dimensional simulation code, we derive a criteria for the emittance limitation of a perfectly conditioned beam that depends on the focusing structure.
Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Huang, Z.; Stupakov, G. & Reiche, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compact Superconducting Final Focus Magnet Options for the ILC

Description: The QD0 quadrupole, the final focus magnet closest to the Interaction Point (IP) for the ILC 20 mr crossing angle layout, must provide strong focusing yet be adjustable to accommodate collision energy changes for energy scans and low energy calibration running. It must also be compact to allow disrupted beam and Beamstrahlung coming from the IP to pass outside into an independent instrumented beam line that leads to a high-power beam absorber. In designing QD0 we take advantage of recent BNL experience making direct wind superconducting magnets. Here we review important considerations for the present design, report on progress producing a prototype, describe our compact quadrupole concept in greater detail, and relate this work to other ILC design challenges.
Date: March 15, 2006
Creator: Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Harrison, M.; He, P.; Jain, A.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Characterizations at Femtosecond Electron Beam Facility

Description: The SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) has been established and is being commissioning to generate femtosecond (fs) electron bunches. Theses short bunches are produced by a system consisting of an S-band thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha magnet (a-magnet) serving as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a SLAC-type linear accelerator (linac). The characteristics of its major components and the beam characterizations as well as the preliminary experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.
Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Rimjaem, S.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, M.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Coupling to Optical Scale Accelerating Structures

Description: Current research efforts into structure based laser acceleration of electrons utilize beams from standard RF linacs. These beams must be coupled into very small structures with transverse dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength. To obtain decent transmission, a permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) triplet with a focusing gradient of 560 T/m is used to focus into the structure. Also of interest is the induced wakefield from the structure, useful for diagnosing potential accelerator structures or as novel radiation sources.
Date: March 27, 2007
Creator: Sears, C.M.; Byer, R.L.; Colby, E.R.; Cowan, B.M.; Ischebeck, R.; Lincoln, M.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

Description: In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for ...
Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Lillie, Benjamin Huntington & /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

B0 to K0K0bar and Other Hadronic b to d Decays

Description: The b {yields} d penguin-dominated modes B {yields} K{bar K} have been observed at the B factories. in addition, the BABAR collaboration has reported the first time-dependent CP-violation measurement in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}.
Date: March 14, 2007
Creator: Biesiada, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Two-Loop Six-Point MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

Description: We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal symmetry fixes their form at six points and beyond.
Date: March 12, 2008
Creator: Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.; Roiban, R.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department