82 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Gravitational Wave Detection with Atom Interferometry

Description: We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The effect of the gravitational waves on the propagating laser field produces the main effect in this configuration and enables a large enhancement in the gravitational wave signal while significantly suppressing many backgrounds. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations and acceleration noise, and reduces spacecraft control requirements.
Date: January 23, 2008
Creator: Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

Description: We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Grating-Assisted Coupler for Optical All-Dielectric Electron Accelerator

Description: A Bragg waveguide consisting of multiple dielectric layers with alternating index of refraction becomes an excellent option to form electron accelerating structure powered by high power laser sources. It provides confinement of a synchronous speed-of-light mode with extremely low loss. However, laser field can not be coupled into the structure collinearly with the electron beam. There are three requirements in designing input coupler for a Bragg electron accelerator: side-coupling, selective mode excitation, and high coupling efficiency. We present a side coupling scheme using a distributed grating-assisted coupler to inject the laser power into the waveguide. Side coupling is achieved by a grating with a period on the order of an optical wavelength. The phase matching condition results in resonance coupling thus providing selective mode excitation capability. The coupling efficiency is limited by profile matching between the outgoing beam and the incoming beam, which has normally, a Gaussian profile. We demonstrate a non-uniform distributed grating structure generating an outgoing beam with a Gaussian profile, therefore, increasing the coupling efficiency.
Date: September 23, 2005
Creator: Zhang, Z.; Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WinGEONET: What's New? (Presentation material)

Description: The name GEONET means data reduction software for the accelerator alignment community. It was developed in the early 1980's but the only thing left from the original version is the hierarchical directory structure to hold the observations and results. This poster presents the three components of WinGEONET: the Windows interface, the computational engine and the visualization tool. It also presents further developments towards a more versatile toolbox architecture.
Date: August 23, 2005
Creator: Gaydosh, M.; Langer, L.; LeCocq, C. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

Description: A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.
Date: May 23, 2007
Creator: Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; U., /Kyoto; Kumada, M.; /NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise Predictions for W + 3 Jet Production at Hadron Colliders

Description: We report on the first next-to-leading order QCD computation of W + 3-jet production in hadronic collisions including all partonic subprocesses. We compare the results with CDF data from the Tevatron, and find excellent agreement. The renormalization and factorization scale dependence is reduced substantially compared to leading-order calculations. The required one-loop matrix elements are computed using on-shell methods, implemented in a numerical program, BlackHat. We use the SHERPA package to generate the real-emission contributions and to integrate the various contributions over phase space. We use a leading-color (large-N{sub c}) approximation for the virtual part, which we confirm in W + 1,2-jet production to be valid to within three percent. The present calculation demonstrates the utility of on-shell methods for computing next-to-leading-order corrections to processes important to physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise Characteristics of 100nm-scaleGaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As Scanning Hall Probes

Description: The authors have fabricated and characterized GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As two-dimensional electron gas scanning Hall probes for imaging perpendicular magnetic fields at surfaces. The Hall crosses range from 85 x 85 to 1000 x 1000 nm{sup 2}. They study low-frequency noise in these probes, especially random telegraph noise, and show that low-frequency noise can be significantly reduced by optimizing the voltage on a gate over the Hall cross. The authors demonstrate a 100 nm Hall probe with a sensitivity of 0.5 G/{radical}Hz (flux sensitivity of 0.25m {Phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz; spin sensitivity of 1.2 x 10{sup 4} {mu}{sub B}/{radical}Hz) at 3 Hz and 9 K.
Date: March 23, 2007
Creator: Hicks, C.W.; Luan, L.; Moler, K.A.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Zeldov, E. & Inst., /Weizmann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

Description: The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].
Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Chytracek, R.; /CERN; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Pokorski, W.; /CERN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the B to pi l nu Branching Fraction and Determination of |Vub| with Tagged B Mesons

Description: We report a measurement of the B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} branching fraction based on 211 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector. We use samples of B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons tagged by a second B meson reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic decay, and combine the results assuming isospin symmetry to obtain {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.33 {+-} 0.17{sub stat} {+-} 0.11{sub syst}) x 10{sup -4}. We determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V{sub ub}| by combining the partial branching fractions measured in ranges of the momentum transfer squared and theoretical calculations of the form factor. Using a recent lattice QCD calculation, we find |{sub ub}| = (4.5 {+-} 0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} {sub -0.5}{sup +0.7}FF) x 10{sup -3}, where the last error is due to the normalization of the form factor.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Aubert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the Propagation of EM Waves through the Vacuum Chamber of the PEP-II Low Energy Ring for Beam Diagnostics

Description: We present the results of our measurements of the electron cloud density in the PEP-II low energy ring (LER) by propagating a TE wave into the beam pipe. By connecting a signal generator to a beam position monitor button we can excite a signal above the vacuum chamber cut-off frequency and measure its propagation through the beam pipe with a spectrum analyzer connected to another button about 50 meters away. The measurement can be performed with different beam conditions and also at different settings of the solenoids used to reduce the build up of electrons. The presence of a modulation in the TE wave transmission, synchronous with the beam revolution frequency, which appear to increase in depth when the solenoids are switched off, seem to be directly correlated to the electron cloud density in the region between the two BPM's. In this paper we present and discuss the measurements taken in the Interaction Region 12 straight of the LER during 2006 and the first part of 2007.
Date: January 23, 2008
Creator: Byrd, John Michael; De Santis, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Pivi, MTF & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the CKM Angle Beta/Phi(1) at the B Factories

Description: We report measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries related to the CKM angle {beta}/{phi}{sub 1}, using decays of neutral B mesons to charmonium, open charm and in b {yields} s loop-dominated processes. A preliminary measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}(770)K{sub S}{sup 0} decays from the BABAR experiment is given here.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Ocariz, J. & /Paris U., VI-VII
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closed Orbit Distortion and the Beam-Beam Interaction

Description: We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.
Date: February 23, 2007
Creator: Furman, M.; Chin, Y.; Eden, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kozanecki, W.; /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

Description: This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.
Date: March 23, 2007
Creator: Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual Feed RF Gun Design for the LCLS

Description: In order to remove the dipole field introduced by the coupler in existing S-band BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell RF gun, a dual feed design for the LCLS RF gun is proposed together with several significant changes. The improvements include adopting z-coupling instead of {theta}-coupling, modifying the iris dimensions and profile to increase 0- and {pi}-mode separation from 3.4 to 15MHz and reduce the surface field on the iris, incorporating racetrack cavity shape to minimize the quadrupole field, increasing cooling for operation at 120Hz and other small changes to improve performance and diagnostic capabilities. The 3D gun structure had been modeled with the parallel finite element complex eigensolver Omega3p to provide the desired RF parameters and to generate the gun cavity dimensions needed for fabrication. In this paper the RF gun design will be presented.
Date: May 23, 2005
Creator: Xiao, L.; Boyce, R.F.; Dowell, D.H.; Li, Z.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Schmerge, J.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subcycle Dynamics in the Laser Ionization of Molecules

Description: The time and momentum distributions of electron emission from a molecule during a single laser cycle are calculated by solving a two-dimensional time-dependent Schr{umlt o}dinger equation. The momentum distributions strongly depend on the orbital symmetry and orientation of the molecular axis. Field-induced internal dynamics of the molecule can shift electron emission and recollision times through a large part of the laser cycle, which leads to corresponding variations of high-harmonic emission times and to the appearance of even harmonics.
Date: October 23, 2007
Creator: Xie, X.H.; Wickenhauser, M.; /Vienna, Tech. U.; Boutu, W.; /Saclay; Merdji, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized Photocathode R&D for Future Linear Collliders

Description: It is a challenge to generate full charge electrons from the electron sources without compromising polarization for the proposed ILC and CLIC. It is essential to advance polarized photocathodes to meet the requirements. SLAC has worldwide unique dedicated test facilities, Cathode Test System and dc-Gun Test Laboratory, to fully characterize polarized photocathodes. Recent systematic measurements on a strained-well InAlGaAs/AlGaAs cathode at the facilities show that 87% polarization and 0.3% QE are achieved. The QE can be increased to {approx}1.0% with atomic hydrogen cleaning. The surface charge limit at a very low current intensity and the clear dependence of the polarization on the surface charge limit are observed for the first time. On-going programs to develop photocathodes for the ILC and CLIC are briefly introduced.
Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Zhou, F; Brachmann, A.; Maruyama, T.; Sheppard, J.C. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for B to rho/omega gamma decays at BaBar

Description: The authors present the results of the search for the decays B{sup 0/{+-}} {yields} {rho}{sup 0/{+-}}{gamma} (previously observed) and B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma} (for which currently only an upper limit exists). Together with B {yields} K*{gamma} decays, B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma} allow us to measure the ratio of CKM-matrix elements |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}|. The analysis is based on the full BABAR dataset of 424.35 fb{sup -1} corresponding to 465 million B{bar B} pairs, and makes heavy use of multivariate classification techniques based on decision trees. They find {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {rho}{sup {+-}}{gamma}) = (1.20{sub -0.38}{sup +0.42} {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (0.95{sub -0.21}{sup +0.23} {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) = (0.51{sub -0.24}{sup +0.27} {+-} 0.10) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. They do not observe a statistically significant signal in the latter channel and set an upper limit at {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) < 0.9 x 10{sup -6} (90% C.L.). They also measure the isospin and SU(3){sub F} violating quantities {Lambda}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma})/2{Lambda}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma})-1 = -0.43{sub -0.22}{sup +0.25} {+-} 0.10 and {Lambda}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma})/{Lambda}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma})-1 = -0.49{sub -0.27}{sup +0.30} {+-} 0.10.
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Piatenko, Timofei & /SLAC, /Caltech
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Results From a Si/CdTe Semiconductor Compton Telescope

Description: We are developing a Compton telescope based on high resolution Si and CdTe detectors for astrophysical observations in sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray region. Recently, we constructed a prototype Compton telescope which consists of six layers of double-sided Si strip detectors and CdTe pixel detectors to demonstrate the basic performance of this new technology. By irradiating the detector with gamma-rays from radio isotope sources, we have succeeded in Compton reconstruction of images and spectra. The obtained angular resolution is 3.9{sup o} (FWHM) at 511 keV, and the energy resolution is 14 keV (FWHM) at the same energy. In addition to the conventional Compton reconstruction, i.e., drawing cones in the sky, we also demonstrated a full reconstruction by tracking Compton recoil electrons using the signals detected in successive Si layers. By irradiating {sup 137}Cs source, we successfully obtained an image and a spectrum of 662 keV line emission with this method. As a next step, development of larger double-sided Si strip detectors with a size of 4 cm x 4 cm is underway to improve the effective area of the Compton telescope. We are also developing a new low-noise analog ASIC to handle the increasing number of channels. Initial results from these two new technologies are presented in this paper as well.
Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.; Oonuki, K.; Mitani, T.; Nakazawa, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semileptonic B decays at BaBar

Description: This paper summarizes the content of a talk given by the author at the Lake Louise Winter Institute, on February 21st 2007. It presents recent measurements of the rates for semileptonic B decays using data collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Date: May 23, 2007
Creator: Cote, D. & U., /Montreal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of a Si/Cdte Compton Telescope

Description: We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton Telescope, we have developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton equation from 122 keV to 662 keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3 keV at 511 keV and 3.1 keV at 122 keV, respectively. The angular resolution obtained at 511 keV is measured to be 12.2{sup o}(FWHM).
Date: September 23, 2005
Creator: Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Takefumi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Semileptonic Decays B->D tau nu and B->D* tau nu

Description: The authors present measurements of the semileptonic decays B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0} {tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, B{sup -} {yields} D*{sup 0} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +} {tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, which are sensitive to non-Standard Model amplitudes in certain scenarios. The data sample consists of 232 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. They select events with a D or D* meson and a light lepton ({ell} = e or {mu}) recoiling against a fully reconstructed B meson. They perform a fit to the joint distribution of lepton momentum and missing mass squared to distinguish signal B {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} ({tau}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}{nu}{sub {tau}}) events from the backgrounds, predominantly B {yields} D{sup (*)} {ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}. They measure the branching-fraction ratios R(D) {triple_bond} {Beta}(B {yields} D{tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}(B {yields} D{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) and R(D*) {triple_bond} {Beta}(B {yields} D*{tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}(B {yields} D* {ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) and, from a combined fit to B{sup -} and {bar B}{sup 0} channels, obtain the results R(D) = (41.6 {+-} 11.7 {+-} 5.2)% and R(D*) = (29.7 {+-} 5.6 {+-} 1.8)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. Normalizing to measured B{sup -} {yields} D{sup (*)0} {ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} branching fractions, they obtain {Beta}(B {yields} D{tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}) = (0.86 {+-} 0.24 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.06)% and {Beta}(B {yields} D*{tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}) = (1.62 {+-} 0.31 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.05)%, where the additional third uncertainty is from the normalization mode. They also present, for the first time, distributions of ...
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Aubert, : B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for the Absence of Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon

Description: The Sivers mechanism for the single-spin asymmetry in unpolarized lepton scattering from a transversely polarized nucleon is driven by the orbital angular momentum carried by its quark and gluon constituents, combined with QCD final-state interactions. Both quark and gluon mechanisms can generate such a single-spin asymmetry, though only the quark mechanism can explain the small single-spin asymmetry measured by the COMPASS collaboration on the deuteron, suggesting the gluon mechanism is small relative to the quark mechanism. We detail empirical studies through which the gluon and quark orbital angular momentum contributions, quark-flavor by quark-flavor, can be elucidated.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Brodsky, S. J. & Gardner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department