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Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

Description: There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Thatcher, Tracy L. & Daisey, Joan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

Description: This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M. & Feustel, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of H abstraction from alcohols (CH3OH, C2H5OH and 2-C3H7OH) using velocity map imaging in crossed molecular beams

Description: The crossed beam reactions of ground state Cl ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms with alcohols (CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH and 2-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH) have been studied using the technique of velocity map imaging (VELMI). The corresponding hydroxyalkyl radical was detected via single photon ionization using 157 nm laser light. The double differential cross sections were obtained at collision energies of 8.7 kcal/mol for methanol, 6.0 and 9.7 kcal/mol for ethanol, and 11.9 kcal/mol for 2-propanol. In all cases, the scattering was predominantly in the backward-sideways direction suggesting direct rebound dynamics, with varying amounts of sideways-scattering. In the case of methanol, the angular distributions were predominantly in the sideways-backward direction with respect to the incoming alcohol beam. Scattering was into the backward hemisphere at the lower collision energy for ethanol, with enhancement of sideways scattering with an increase in collision energy. Isoropanol gave scattering predominantly in the backward direction. Coupling between the translational energy and angular distributions was particularly significant for ethanol at the lower collision energy. All of the translational energy distributions peaked at about 6 kcal/mol and on average 30-40% of the available energy was deposited into product translation for all the alcohols studied. These results are contrasted with previous H abstraction studies performed on Cl-hydrocarbon systems. A case is made for the technique of vacuum ultraviolet one-photon ionization in conjunction with VELMI being useful in studying the reaction dynamics for many polyatomic systems.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Ahmed, M.; Peterka, D. S. & Suits, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approaches to rid cathodic arc plasmas of macro- andnanoparticles: A review

Description: A major obstacle for the broad application of cathodic arc plasma deposition is the presence of micro- and nanoparticles in the plasma, also often referred to as 'macroparticles'. This paper reviews the formation of macroparticles at cathode spots, their interaction with the arc plasma and substrate, and macroparticle separation and removal from the plasma by various filtering methods. Nineteen variants of filters are discussed, including Aksenov's classic 90{sup o}-duct filter, filters of open architecture, and the concept of stroboscopic filtering.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Anders, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

Description: Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William & Essiari, Abdelilah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of buoyancy on lean premixed v-flames, Part II. VelocityStatistics in Normal and Microgravity

Description: The field effects of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent premixed v-flames have been studied by the use of laser Doppler velocimetry to measure the velocity statistics in +1g, -1g and {micro}g flames. The experimental conditions covered mean velocity, Uo, of 0.4 to 2 m/s, methane/air equivalence ratio, f, of 0.62 to 0.75. The Reynolds numbers, from 625 to 3130 and the Richardson number from 0.05 to 1.34. The results show that a change from favorable (+1g) to unfavorable (-1g) mean pressure gradient in the plume create stagnating flows in the far field whose influences on the mean and fluctuating velocities persist in the near field even at the highest Re we have investigated. The use of Richardson number < 0.1 as a criterion for momentum dominance is not sufficient to prescribe an upper limit for these buoyancy effects. In {micro}g, the flows within the plumes are non-accelerating and parallel. Therefore, velocity gradients and hence mean strain rates in the plumes of laboratory flames are direct consequences of buoyancy. Furthermore, the rms fluctuations in the plumes of {micro}g flames are lower and more isotropic than in the laboratory flames to show that the unstable plumes in laboratory flames also induce velocity fluctuations. The phenomena influenced by buoyancy i.e. degree of flame wrinkling, flow acceleration, flow distribution, and turbulence production, can be subtle due to their close coupling with other flame flow interaction processes. But they cannot be ignored in fundamental studies or else the conclusions and insights would be ambiguous and not very meaningful.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B. & Yegian, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEP-II RF cavity revisited

Description: This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Folwell, N.; Hodgson, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling and efficiency of PRISM in adaptive simulations of turbulent premixed flames

Description: The dominant computational cost in modeling turbulent combustion phenomena numerically with high fidelity chemical mechanisms is the time required to solve the ordinary differential equations associated with chemical kinetics. One approach to reducing that computational cost is to develop an inexpensive surrogate model that accurately represents evolution of chemical kinetics. One such approach, PRISM, develops a polynomial representation of the chemistry evolution in a local region of chemical composition space. This representation is then stored for later use. As the computation proceeds, the chemistry evolution for other points within the same region are computed by evaluating these polynomials instead of calling an ordinary differential equation solver. If initial data for advancing the chemistry is encountered that is not in any region for which a polynomial is defined, the methodology dynamically samples that region and constructs a new representation for that region. The utility of this approach is determined by the size of the regions over which the representation provides a good approximation to the kinetics and the number of these regions that are necessary to model the subset of composition space that is active during a simulation. In this paper, we assess the PRISM methodology in the context of a turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. We consider a range of turbulent intensities ranging from weak turbulence that has little effect on the flame to strong turbulence that tears pockets of burning fluid from the main flame. For each case, we explore a range of sizes for the local regions and determine the scaling behavior as a function of region size and turbulent intensity.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Tonse, Shaheen R.; Bell, J.B.; Brown, N.J.; Day, M.S.; Frenklach, M.; Grcar, J.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Quality Optimization in a Common Coil Magnet Design

Description: This paper presents the results of initial field quality optimization of body and end harmonics in a 'common coil magnet design'. It is shown that a good field quality, as required in accelerator magnets, can be obtained by distributing conductor blocks in such a way that they simulate an elliptical coil geometry. This strategy assures that the amount of conductor used in this block design is similar to that is used in a conventional cosine theta design. An optimized yoke that keeps all harmonics small over the entire range of operation using a single power supply is also presented. The field harmonics are primarily optimized with the computer program ROXIE.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Gupta, R. & Ramberger, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vector Potential and Stored Energy of a Quadrupole Magnet Array

Description: The vector potential, magnetic field and stored energy of a quadrupole magnet array are derived. Each magnet within the array is a current sheet with a current density proportional to the azimuthal angle 2{theta} and the longitudinal periodicity (2m-1){pi}/L. Individual quadrupoles within the array are oriented in a way that maximizes the field gradient The array does not have to be of equal spacing and can be of a finite size, however when the array is equally spaced and is of infinite size the solution can be simplified. We note that whereas, in a single quadrupole magnet with a current density proportional to cos2{theta} the gradient is pure, such purity is not preserved in a quadrupole array.
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: Caspi, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Characteristics, parameters, and history of a 13T Nb3Sn dipole

Description: The early design and test results have been previously reported. During the subsequent operation of 'D20' the accelerator prototype dipole has provided both additional and more detailed data as to its characteristics and performance. D20's use as a test facility for high field critical current measurements has provided operational experience and history pertammg to accelerator required characteristics. There has been recently obtained data related to field quality, operational reproducibility and reliability, which will be presented. This prototype 'D20' has attained the highest magnetic field of any accelerator prototype dipole constructed and tested to date. The magnet has continued to operate routinely.
Date: March 18, 1999
Creator: Benjegerdes, R.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.; Hannaford, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RHIC IR Quadrupoles and Field Quality State of the Art in Super Conducting Accelerator Magnets

Description: The interaction region (IR) quadrupoles [1] for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[2]are the best field quality superconducting magnets ever built for any major accelerator. This field quality is primarily achieved with the help of eight tuning shims [3] that remove the residual errors from a magnet after it is built and tested. These shims overcome the limitations from the typical tolerances in parts and manufacturing. This paper describes the tuning shims and discusses the evolution of a flexible approach that allowed changes in the design parameters and facilitated using parts with significant dimensional variations while controlling cost and maintaining schedule and field quality. The RHIC magnet program also discovered that quench and thermal cycles cause small changes [4]in magnet geometry. The ultimate field quality performance is now understood to be determined by these changes rather than the manufacturing tolerances or the measurement errors.
Date: March 8, 1999
Creator: Gupta, R.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Common Coil Magnet System for VLHC

Description: This paper introduces the common coil magnet system for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC). In this system, the high energy booster (HEB), the injector to VLHC, is integrated as the iron dominated low field aperture within the coldmass of the common coil magnet design introduced earlier. This 4-in-1 magnet concept for a 2-in-1 machine should provide a major cost reduction in building and operating VLHC. Moreover, the proposed design reduces the field quality problems associated with the large persistent currents in Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. The paper also shows that the geometric field harmonics can be made small. In this preliminary magnetic design. the current dependence in harmonics is significant but not umnanageable.
Date: February 12, 1999
Creator: Gupta, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High field solenoids for muon cooling

Description: The proposed cooling system for the muon collider will consist of a 200 meter long line of alternating field straight solenoids interspersed with bent solenoids. The muons are cooled in all directions using a 400 mm long section liquid hydrogen at high field. The muons are accelerated in the forward direction by about 900 mm long, 805 MHz RF cavities in a gradient field that goes from 6 T to -6 T in about 300 mm. The high field section in the channel starts out at an induction of about 2 T in the hydrogen. As the muons proceed down the cooling channel, the induction in the liquid hydrogen section increases to inductions as high as 30 T. The diameter of the liquid hydrogen section starts at 750 mm when the induction is 2 T. As the induction in the cooling section goes up, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section decreases. When the high field induction is 30 T, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section is about 80 mm. When the high field solenoid induction is below 8.5 T or 9T, niobium titanium coils are proposed for generating .the magnetic field. Above 8.5 T or 9 T to about 20 T, graded niobium tin and niobium titanium coils would be used at temperatures down to 1.8 K. Above 20 T, a graded bybrid magnet system is proposed, where the high field magnet section (above 20 T) is either a conventional water cooled coil section or a water cooled Bitter type coil. Two types of superconducting coils have been studied. They include; epoxy impregnated intrinsically stable coils, and cable in conduit conductor (CICC) coils with helium in the conduit.
Date: September 8, 1999
Creator: Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R. & Prestemon, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Four Cell Lattice for the UCLA Compact Light Source Synchrotron

Description: The 1.5 GeV compact light source UCS proposed for UCLA must fit into a shielded vault that is 9.144 meters (30 feet) wide. In order for the machine to fit into the allowable space, the ring circumference must be reduced 36 meters, the circumference of the six cell lattice, to something like 26 or 27 meters. The four cell lattice described in this report has a ring circumference of 27.0 meters.
Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Garren, A.A. & Green, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of a GM Cryocooler and high Tc leads for use on the ALS superbend magnets

Description: A 1.5 W (at the second stage) Gifford McMahon (GM) cryocooler was selected for cooling the superconducting SuperBend dipoles for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley. A GM cryocooler is a reasonable choice if conduction cooled leads are used to provide current to the superconducting magnet. The expected parasitic heat leaks are expected to range from 0.1 to 0.5 W at 4.2 K depending on the temperature of the shield and the cold mass support intercepts. Heat flow to 4 K down the SuperBend 350 A high Tc superconducting leads is expected to vary from 0.11 to 0.35 W depending on the intercept temperature and the current in the leads. The high Tc leads are designed to carry 350 A without significant resistive heating when the upper end of the lead is at 80 K. The 1.5 W cryocooler is expected to provide 45 to 50 W of refrigeration at the first stage at 50 K. The parasitic beat load into the first stage of the cryocooler will be about 8 W. The heat flow from 300 K down the upper copper leads is expected to be around 30 W. The cryocooler and high Tc lead test will measure the penormance of the cryocooler and the high Tc leads. The heat leak down the cryocooler, when it is not operating, is also of interest.
Date: July 9, 1999
Creator: Zbasnik, J.; Green, M.A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Taylor, C.E.; Chen, J.Y. & Wang, S.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department