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Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

Description: This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.

Description: We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Description: The relatively long lifetime of droplets in atmospheric haze and fog in comparison to similar droplets of pure water is attributed to the presence of a monolayer of surfactant film and to the accumulation of soluble salts from chemical reactions. The lifetime of these droplets is a significant factor in the evaluation of the role of heterogeneous aqueous chemical reactions occurring in the troposphere. A new formulation is given which includes both these processes. As an example, the catalytic oxidation of SO{sub 2} in the presence of liquid water droplets is investigated.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Toossi, R. & Novakov, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

Description: This study describes the impact of lighting management systems that dynamically control lights in accordance with the needs of occupants. Various control strategies are described: scheduling, tuning, lumen depreciation, and daylighting. From initial experimental results, the energy savings provided by each of the above strategies are estimated to be 26, 12, 14, and 15%, respectively. Based upon a cost of $0.05-0.10 per kWh for electric energy and a 2-, 3-, or 4-yr payback, target costs for a simple and a sophisticated lighting management system are found to be $0.24 and 1.89 per ft{sup 2}, respectively, for a cost-effective investment. A growth model, based upon an extrapolation of the increase in building stock since 1975, indicates that the commercial and industrial (C and I) building stock will grow from 40 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} in 1980 to about 67 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} by the year 2000. Even with the use of more efficient lighting components, the energy required for this additional C and I stock will be 307 x 10{sup 9} kWh, an increase of only 13 x 10{sup 9} kWh above current use. The specified information is used to analyze the economic impacts that using these systems will have on the lighting industry, end users, utility companies, and the nation's economy. A $1 - 4 x 10{sup 9} annual lighting control industry can be generated, creating many jobs. The estimated return on investment (ROI) for controls for end users would be between 19 and 38%. Utilities will be able to make smaller additions to capacity and invest less capital at 7-10% ROI. Finally, the annual energy savings, up to $3.4 x 10{sup 9} for end users and about $5 x 10{sup 9} for utilities, representing unneeded generating capacity, will be available to capitalize other areas of the ...
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Verderber, R.R. & Rubinstein, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components

Description: Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.
Date: September 23, 2011
Creator: Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony & Weber, Adam Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

Description: This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.
Date: September 10, 2011
Creator: Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan & Eto, Joseph H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENERGY IN THE PACIFIC COASTAL ZONE DOES D.O.E. HAVE A ROLE?

Description: This paper addresses the energy-related acti ties in the Pacific Coastal Zone within the context of the absence of a coastal-specific energy policy. First, the present and projected coastal energy activities are described in order to establish a perspective of the importance of the coastal zone to energy development. transport, and use. Next, the state and federal decision-making processes relevant to coastal energy activities are summarized for the purpose of defining the institutional framework that has been constructed to respond to coastal energy issues. Finally, the functional areas not currently being adequately addressed are identified; and an associate role, which ensures both comprehensive evaluation and sound development of regional coastal energy resources, is defined for the DOE Office of Environment.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Ritschard, Ronald L.; Haven, Kendall F. & Cherniss, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Influence of a Subslab Gravel Layer and Open Area on Soil-Gas and Radon Entry into Two Experimental Basements

Description: Measurements of steady-state soil-gas and {sup 222}Rn entry rates into two room-sized, experimental basement structures were made for a range of structure depressurizations (0-40 Pa) and open areas (0-165 x 10{sup -4} m{sup 2}). The structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high permeability gravel layer. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the soil-gas and radon entry rate into the structure. The radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is four times greater than the entry rate into the structure without the gravel layer with an open area of 165 x 10{sup -4} m{sup 2}; the ratio increases to 30 for an open area of 5.0 x 10{sup -4} m{sup 2}. Although open area is a poor indicator of radon and soil-gas entry into the experimental structure, the extension of the soil-gas pressure field created by structure depressurization is a good measure of the radon entry rate into the experimental structures. The measured normalized radon entry rate into both structures has the same linear relationship with the average subslab pressure coupling regardless of open area. The average subslab pressure coupling is a measure of the extension of the soil-gas pressure field. A three-dimensional finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer, and different open area configurations on radon and soil-gas entry rate; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rates into both structures by a factor of 1.5.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Robinson, Arthur L. & Sextro, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLER

Description: The LBL formaldehyde sampler consists of two parts: 1) a pump box and 2) a small refrigerator housing sampling bubblers. The pump box contains two pumps, a timer, a flow controller, an electrical cord, and a ten-foot piece of tubing to connect the refrigerator to the pump box. The small refrigerator contains four columns of bubbler sampling trains attached to a metal plate. Two sampling trains each are plumbed in parallel to two sampling ports on the back of the refrigerator. The two sampling lines supplied are to be attached to these ports to allow two locations to be sampled at once (usually one indoor and one outdoor). The refrigerator also contains a rack for holding bubbler tubes. In the sampling process, air is drawn through a sampling line attached to the fitting at the back of the refrigerator and into a prlmary bubbler containing a trapping solution. This trapping solution can be distilled water or an aqueous solution of some compound that reacts with formaldehyde. From this bubbler the air goes through a second bubbler containing the same trapping solution as the first bubbler. (To maintain sample integrity, all parts that the air sample contacts are made of Teflon, polypropylene, and stainless steel.) The air then goes into the third bubbler, which contains no liquid. This bubbler contains a hypodermic needle that serves as a flow-control orifice. The hypodermic needle, in conjunction with the flow controller in the pump box, ensures a constant a flow rate. The refrigerator contains four columns of these sets of three bubblers. After samples have been collected, the bubbler bottoms are detached and the contents of the first and second bubblers in each column are poured together, capped, and labeled. The use of a refrigerated primary and secondary bubbler whose contents are combined at ...
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Fanning, L.Z.; Allen, J.R. & Miksch, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

Description: As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla & Brown, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

Description: This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas & Mendell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHOTOTHERMAL DEFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY AND DETECTION

Description: The theory for a sensitive spectroscopy based on the photothermal deflection of a laser beam is developed. We consider cw and pulsed cases of both transverse and collinear photothermal deflection spectroscopy for solids, liquids, gases, and thin films. The predictions of the theory are experimentally verified, its implications for imaging and microscopy are given, and the sources of noise are analyzed. The sensitivity and versatility of photothermal deflection spectroscopy are compared with thermal lensing and photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Jackson, W.; Amer, Nabil M.; Boccara, A. C. & Fournier, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

Description: We assess developable on-shore wind potential in India at three different hub-heights and under two sensitivity scenarios – one with no farmland included, the other with all farmland included. Under the “no farmland included” case, the total wind potential in India ranges from 748 GW at 80m hub-height to 976 GW at 120m hub-height. Under the “all farmland included” case, the potential with a minimum capacity factor of 20 percent ranges from 984 GW to 1,549 GW. High quality wind energy sites, at 80m hub-height with a minimum capacity factor of 25 percent, have a potential between 253 GW (no farmland included) and 306 GW (all farmland included). Our estimates are more than 15 times the current official estimate of wind energy potential in India (estimated at 50m hub height) and are about one tenth of the official estimate of the wind energy potential in the US.
Date: September 15, 2011
Creator: Phadke, Amol; Bharvirkar, Ranjit & Khangura, Jagmeet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

Description: There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Thatcher, Tracy L. & Daisey, Joan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

Description: In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W. & Alvarez, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

Description: We report on the acceleration of annual daylighting simulations for fenestration systems in the Radiance ray-tracing program. The algorithm was optimized to reduce both the redundant data input/output operations and the floating-point operations. To further accelerate the simulation speed, the calculation for matrix multiplications was implemented using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit. We used OpenCL, which is a cross-platform parallel programming language. Numerical experiments show that the combination of the above measures can speed up the annual daylighting simulations 101.7 times or 28.6 times when the sky vector has 146 or 2306 elements, respectively.
Date: September 6, 2011
Creator: Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael & Lee, Eleanor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAMAGE TO MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND ENERGY COUPLING BY VISIBLE LIGHT

Description: Plutonium is one of the principal materials of both commercial and military nuclear power. It is produced primarily in fission reactors that contain uranium fuel, and its importance arises from the fact that a large portion of the plutonium produced is fissile: like uranium 235, the mass 239 and 241 isotopes of plutonium can be caused to fission by neutrons, including those with low energy. Because such fission events also release neutrons, substantial amounts of energy can be extracted from plutonium in a controlled or an explosive nuclear chain reaction. Now that commercial nuclear reactors provide a noticeable fraction of United States (and world) electrical energy, these reactors account for most plutonium production. For the most part, this material now remains in the irradiated fuel after removal from reactors, but should this fuel be reprocessed, the plutonium could be recycled to provide part and even most of the fissile content of fresh fuel. For the current generation of water-cooled reactors, the amount of plutonium to be recycled is substantial. In fast breeder reactors, designed to produce more fissile material than they destroy, considerably larger quantities of plutonium would be recycled. In other types of advanced reactors, particularly those which depend heavily on thorium as the material from which fissile material (primarily uranium 233) is produced, the amount of plutonium to be handled would be considerably reduced. Because plutonium is a highly toxic substance, great care is taken to contain it at the sites and facilities where it is stored or handled. In addition, it is necessary that devices be available to monitor any releases from these facilities into environmental media and to measure concentrations of plutonium in these media. The radiation protection standards are so strict for plutonium that only small releases and low concentrations can be tolerated. Such considerations, ...
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Aggarwal, B.B.; Quintanilha, A.T.; Cammack, R. & Packer, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

Description: Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn & Ke, Jing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

Description: Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. ...
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J. & Galitsky, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

Description: Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered ...
Date: September 2, 2011
Creator: Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod & DCruz, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USING DOE-2.1 AT LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY

Description: The purpose of this manual is to assist the DOE-2 user to run DOE-2 and its utility programs at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). It is organized to reflect the facts that every DOE-2 job run at LBL requires certain steps, and that there are options related to DOE-2 job runs available to any DOE-2 user. The standard steps for running a DOE-2 job are as follows: 1. Prepare a job deck 2. Process a job deck 3. Obtain standard output reports.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Group., Building Energy Analysis & Authors, Various
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

Description: Labels, certifications, and rating systems for energy efficiency performance and “green” attributes of buildings have been available in the U.S. for over 10 years, and used extensively in the European Union and Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency more visible, and could help spur demand for energy efficiency if these designations are shown to have a positive impact on sales or rental prices. This policy brief discusses the findings and methodologies from recent studies on this topic, and suggests recommendations for future research. Although there have been just a handful of studies within the last 10 years that have investigated these effects, a few key findings emerge: To maximize sales price impact, label or rating information must be disclosed early and visibly in the sales process; The approach to evaluating energy efficiency labels (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and general “green” certifications (e.g., LEED or GreenPoint Rated) may need to be different, depending on the type, vintage and market penetration of the label; Collaborative efforts to promote label adoption and build a large dataset of labeled buildings will be required to produce reliable study results.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Stuart, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why We Ventilate

Description: It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N. & Singer, Brett C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department