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A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

Description: A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

Description: A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or μgrid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.
Date: January 22, 2012
Creator: Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas & Lai, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level

Description: This report aims to provide a manual with a menu of the successful policies and measures for local governments in China to create low carbon plan or climate action plans. This manual includes a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices.
Date: October 31, 2011
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie; Zheng, Nina & Min, Hu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development

Description: Hospitals are known to be among the most energy intensive commercial buildings in California. Estimates of energy end-uses (e.g. for heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) in hospitals are uncertain for lack of information about hospital-specific mechanical system operations and process loads. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a benchmarking system designed specifically for hospitals. Version 1.0 featured metrics to assess energy performance for the broad variety of ventilation and thermal systems that are present in California hospitals. It required moderate to extensive sub-metering or supplemental monitoring. In this new project, we developed a companion handbook with detailed equations that can be used toconvert data from energy and other sensors that may be added to or already part of hospital heating, ventilation and cooling systems into metrics described in the benchmarking document.This report additionally includes a case study and guidance on including metering into designs for new hospitals, renovations and retrofits. Despite widespread concern that this end-use is large and growing, there is limited reliable information about energy use by distributed medical equipment and other miscellaneouselectrical loads in hospitals. This report proposes a framework for quantifying aggregate energy use of medical equipment and miscellaneous loads. Novel approaches are suggested and tried in an attempt to obtain data to support this framework.
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Black, Douglas R.; Lai, Judy; Lanzisera, Steven M; Parrish, Kristen D. & Singer, Brett C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

Description: Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.
Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve & Letschert, Virginie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Building Facade Solutions PIER Final Project Report

Description: Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and the US.A collaborative test, monitoring, and reporting protocol was also formulated via the Windows Testbed Facility in collaboration with industry partners, transitioning industry to focus on the importance ...
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Lee, Eleanor & Selkowitz, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE FLOW FIELD OF A TWO DIMENSIONAL PREMIXED TURBULENT FLAME

Description: A turbulent reacting shear layer in a premixed propane/air flow has been studied in a two dimensional combustor, with the flame stabilized behind a rearward facing streamlined step. Spark shadowgraphs show that in the range of velocities (7.5 to 22.5 m/sec corresponding to Reynolds numbers of .5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} to 1. 5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} ) and equivalence ratios (0.4 to 0.7) studied, the mixing layer is dominated by Brown~ Roshko type large coherent structures in both reacting and nonreacting flows. High speed schlieren movies show that these eddies are convected downstream and increase their size and spacing by combustion and coalescence with neighboring eddies. Tracing individual eddies shows, in the reacting shear layer, that, on the average, eddies accelerate as they move downstream with the highest acceleration close to the origin of the shear layer. Combustion is confined to these large structures which develop as a result of vortical action of the shear flow. On the average, the reacting eddies have a lower growth rate than nonreacting eddies. A turbulent boundary layer created by means of a tripping wire upstream of the edge of the step virtually eliminates the large coherent structures in the shear layer, while for the case in which the wire could not trigger the transition to turbulence, the large coherent structures dominated the reacting and nonreacting flows.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Ganji, A.R. & Sawyer, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

Description: The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.
Date: June 10, 2010
Creator: Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A. & Wiser, Ryan H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

Description: Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.
Date: May 23, 2011
Creator: Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel & Pritoni, Marco
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

Description: We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Fischer, M. L.; Bentley, A. J.; Dunkin, K. A.; Hodgson, A. T.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Sextro, R. G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

Description: Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et ...
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L. & Apte, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Innovation Among the Community Wind Sector in the United States

Description: In the relatively brief history of utility-scale wind generation, the 'community wind' sector - defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that are at least partly owned by one or more members of the local community - has played a vitally important role as a 'test bed' or 'proving ground' for wind turbine manufacturers. In the 1980s and 1990s, for example, Vestas and other now-established European wind turbine manufacturers relied heavily on community wind projects in Scandinavia and Germany to install - and essentially field-test - new turbine designs. The fact that orders from community wind projects seldom exceeded more than a few turbines at a time enabled the manufacturers to correct any design flaws or manufacturing defects fairly rapidly, and without the risk of extensive (and expensive) serial defects that can accompany larger orders. Community wind has been slower to take root in the United States - the first such projects were installed in the state of Minnesota around the year 2000. Just as in Europe, however, the community wind sector in the U.S. has similarly served as a proving ground - but in this case for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the broader U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010),1 Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Just as it has provided a proving ground for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector in the United States served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market ...
Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

Description: Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E. & Jewett, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES

Description: Velocity and temperature fields in the sintered material surrounding an embedded cooling coil in a Kaskan type flat flame burner are predicted. An approximate two-dimensional velocity field is obtained in closed form using a potential flow analogy. The velocity profile above the burner surface will be flat if the distance from the burner surface to the plane of the coil is sufficiently large that the coil wake is ameliorated. Quantitative results for this minimum distance are presented. Several approximations to the temperature field are discussed. Detailed temperature profiles are given for the simplest - one-dimensional with uniform velocity - and the most complex - two-dimensional with potential flow velocity field. The influence of the burner and cooling geometries, fuel type and stoichiometry, flow rate, ambient and cooling water temperatures and sintered material properties, are all described by a small set of dimensionless parameters. Optimization of burner performance in terms of these parameters is discussed. It is hoped that the results will be useful in the design of burners for flame structure studies.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Pagni, P.J.; Ortega, A. & Toossi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

Description: The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L & Apte, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

Description: When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.
Date: May 24, 2011
Creator: Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara & Lekov, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

Description: A Microgrid is recognized as an innovative technology to help integrate renewables into distribution systems and to provide additional benefits to a variety of stakeholders, such as offsetting infrastructure investments and improving the reliability of the local system. However, these systems require additional investments for control infrastructure, and as such, additional costs and the anticipated benefits need to be quantified in order to determine whether the investment is economically feasible. This paper proposes a methodology for systematizing and representing benefits and their interrelationships based on the UML Use Case paradigm, which allows complex systems to be represented in a concise, elegant format. This methodology is demonstrated by determining the economic feasibility of a Microgrid and Distributed Generation installed on a typical Canadian rural distribution system model as a case study. The study attempts to minimize the cost of energy served to the community, considering the fixed costs associated with Microgrids and Distributed Generation, and suggests benefits to a variety of stakeholders.
Date: July 15, 2011
Creator: Morris, Greg Young; Abbey, Chad; Joos, Geza & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A GERMANIUM FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR MADE FROM A HIGH-PURITY SUBSTRATE

Description: Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature (< 350 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g{sub m}) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10{sup -12} A. Our present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Hansen, William L.; Goulding, Frederick S. & Haller, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

Description: This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES

Description: This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Banks, Robert S. & Rainer, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

Description: Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.
Date: August 26, 2011
Creator: Corporation, IBM; Group, Energy Efficient HPC Working; Corporation, Hewlett Packard; SGI; Inc., Cray; Corporation, Intel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How People Actually Use Thermostats

Description: Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.
Date: August 15, 2010
Creator: Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HUD PowerSaver Pilot Loan Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) recently announced the creation of a pilot loan program for home energy improvements. The PowerSaver loan program is a new, energy-focused variant of the Title I Property Improvement Loan Insurance Program (Title I Program) and is planned for introduction in early 2011. The PowerSaver pilot will provide lender insurance for secured and unsecured loans up to $25,000 to single family homeowners. These loans will specifically target residential energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements. HUD estimates the two-year pilot will fund approximately 24,000 loans worth up to $300 million; the program is not capped. The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), HUD's mortgage insurance unit, will provide up to $25 million in grants as incentives to participating lenders. FHA is seeking lenders in communities with existing programs for promoting residential energy upgrades.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Zimring, Mark & Hoffman, Ian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE HUNDRED BILLION DOLLAR BONUS: Global Energy Efficiency Lessons from India

Description: At a time when India and other nations are grappling with myriad energy-related challenges, including unstable, costly power sources and growing greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency offers an alternative at a fraction of the cost of other new sources of energy. A consortium of leading Indian regulators, nongovernmental organizations, and international experts has recognized this opportunity and is working to develop effective policies that will bring significant domestic benefits to India while accelerating the global transition to energy efficiency.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Paul, Seema & Sathaye, Jayant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department